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Cornell University Library 
ND 35.P32 1906 
The world's painters since Leonardo; bein 

3 1924 008 623 690 

Cornell University 

The original of tiiis book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 

The World's Painters 

Van Dyck — Charles I. 


World's Painters 
Since Leonardo 





James William Pattison 


Duffield &' Company 


This Edition Published September, jgo6 



Introduction I 


I. The Dawn of Modern Art ..... i 

Leonardo — The Van Eycks — Durer — Michael Angelo. 
— Bellini — Messina — Giorgione — Titian — Sodoma — 
Vecchio — Lotto. 

n. The Authority of Italy -23 

Raphael — Correggio — Holbein — Cousin — Tintoretto^ 

III. The School of Raphael and its Competitors . . 42 

Guido — Masaccio — The Caracci Academy — Caravaggio 
— Reni — Domenichino — Rubens — Hals — Ribera. 

IV. Beyond the Alps . ..... 57 

Claude — Poussin — Velasquez — Van Dyck — Rembrandt 
— Teniers — Hobbema — Douw. 

V. The Lesser Great Men 75 

Rosa — Dolci — Murillo — Lebrun — Potter — Steen— Wat- 
teau — Nattier. 

VI. The Conflict Between Classicism and Realism . . 87 
Hogarth — Vernet — Reynolds — Gainsborough — Copley 
— Kauffman — David — Goya — Stuart— Lawrence. 

VII. The Revolt in England .... . . 109 

Turner — Constable — Allston — Ingres — Sully. 



VIII. The Ascendency of the Barbizon School. . . .123 
The Hudson River School — Durand — Gericault— Hard- 
ing— Corot — Delacroix— Cole — Landseer — Diaz — 
Troyon— Millet — Cazin. 

IX. The Quiet Middle of the iqth Century . . . 143 
Meissonier — Menzel — Leutze — Courbet — Daubigny — 
Kensett — Watts — The Harts — Bonheur. 

X. New Developments in France and America . . . 180 
Gifford — Cabanel — Gerome — Boulanger — Puvis de Cha- 
vannes — Hunt — Israels — Bouguereau — Inness. 

X'l. The Preraphaelites and THE Beginnings of Impressionism 176 
Church — Piloty — Boecklin — Bierstadt — McEntee — 
Rossetti — Millais — Leighton — Dore — Burne-Jones 
— The Impressionists — Manet. 

XII. The Growth of the Personal in Art .... 199 
Degas — Whistler — Morris — Orchardson — DeNeuville 
Alma-Tadema — Homer — Carolus-Duran — Holman 
Hunt — Fortuny— Hermans — Max. 

XIII. Impressionism,— its Followers and its Opponents . . 219 

Monet— Raffaelli—Vibert— Walker— Madrazo—Verest- 
chagin — Boldini — Benjamin-Constant — Vierge — 
Detaille — Bastien-Lepage — Besnard — Thayer. 

XIV. The Americans and Some Others 240 

Chase — Dagnan-Bouveret — Abbey — Sargent — Zorn 
— Stuck. 

XV. The Present Situation 258 

Menard — Aman-Jean — Carriere — Shaw — Beaux — 
Melchers — Pyle — MacEwen. 

XVI. Final Review 268 

XVII. Schools of Art 271 

List of Illustrations 

Alexander, John W., 

Portrait of a Woman ... . 256 

Alma-Tadema, Laurens, 

Pleading - - - 210 

Aman-Jean, Edmond, 

Portrait of a Young Woman 260 

Bastien-Lepage, Jules, 

The Haymakers ... . 230 

Beaux, Cecilia, 

Mother and Son • ... . 262 

Beckwith, Carroll, 

"1776" .... 264 

Paul du Chaillu ... . 266 

Besnard, Paul Albert, 

Decoration .... .... 234 

Bonheur, Rosa, 

The Horse Fair ........ j^g 

Bonnat, Leon Joseph Florentine, 

Martyrdom of St. Denis - - • . . ig2 

Botticelli, Sandro, 

Madonna ........ g 

Bouguereau, William Adolphe, 

Songs of Spring ........ 172 

Breton, Jules, 

The Communicants .... - 176 

Brush, George De Forest, 

Mother and Child . . ...... 250 

Burne-Jones, Sir Edward, 

The Mirror of Venus - .... ... ig^ 

The Golden Stair 196 

Carriere, Eugene, 

Maternity ■ - - 258 

Cazin, Jean Charles, 

The Windmill ■ ■ " '4° 

Chase, William M., 

Alice - - 240 

Corot, Jean Baptiste Camilla, 

Dance of the Nymphs .... 1 28 

Landscape with Figures . - 126 

Dagnan-Bouveret, Pascal Adolphe Jean, 

Bretons at the Pardon - - - 244 

Consecrated Bread - 246 

Madonna - ... 242 

Daubigny, Charles Francois, 

Pond at Corbigny ' - ■ 15° 

David, Jacques Louis, 

Portrait of Mme. Recamier 9^ 

del Sarto, Andrea, 

Madonna and Child - - 26 

John the Baptist 28 

The Madonna 24 

de Neuville, Alphonse Marie, 

The Departure - - 208 

Diaz, Narcisse Virgilio de la Pena, 

Landscape ■ ■ 134 

Dupre, Jules, 

Cows Going Home - ■ ■ '42 

Morning - ... 144 

Gainsborough, Thomas, 

Mrs. Kinlock - ... 96 

Harrison, Alexander, 

Twilight - - - ■ - 248 

Holbein, Hans, 

LadyVaux ... . . 30 

Homer, Winslow, 

The Breakers - - 212 


Israels, Josef, 

The Little Seamstress - - 170 

Knaus, Ludwig, 

The Holy Family 188 

Landseer, Sir Edwin, 

Bringing Home the Deer - - 132 

LeBrun, Marie Louise Elizabeth Vigee, 

Mme. LeBrun and Daughter - - 104 

MacEwen, Walter, 

The Judgment of Paris - - - 270 

Mauve, Anton, 

Sheep - - - 214 

Melchers, Gari, 

The Sermon - 268 

Menzel, Adolph, 

The Broken Pitcher 152 

Mesdag, Hendrik Willem, 

The Beach at Scheveningen igS 

Meissonier, Jean Louis Ernest, 

The Brawl 146 

Michael Angelo, 

The Fates 10 

The Delphic Sibyl 12 

The Creation of Eve 14 

Mignard, Pierre, 

Child of Mignard 72 

Millais, John Everett, 

Efifie Deans - - igo 

Millet, Jean Francois, 

The Gleaners - - - - 130 

The Sower - 124 

The Angelus ■ - - - - 122 

Murillo, Bartolome Estaban, 

The Beggar Boy - - 74 

Madonna - 76 

The Immaculate Conception - - "- yg 

Palma, Jacopo, 

Santa Barbara - ' ^° 

Potter, Paul, 

The Bull - ■ 80 


Madonna della Sedia - - - - 22 

The Transfiguration 3^ 

Madonna del Granduca ■ 34- 

Madonna della Tenda 3^ 

Portrait o£ Himself - 3^ 


The Night Watch 5^ 

The Burgomasters 68 

Portrait of Himself 7° 

Reni, Guido, 

Beatrice Cenci - 48 

Reynolds, Sir Joshua, 

The Strawberry Girl 90 

Miss Bowles Q2 

Penelope Boothby 88 

Richter, Gustav, 

Portrait of Queen Louise - • - 148 

Rossetti, Dante Gabriel, 

The Blessed Damosel 182 

Beata Beatrix - - 184 

Dante's Dream - - 186 

Rousseau, Theodore, 

Landscape - 138 

Romney, George, 

Mrs. M. Robinson ■ .... g^ 

Rubens, Peter Paul, 

Holy Family - 50 

Madonna and Child .... - 52 

Infant Christ, St. John, and the Angels - - . . 54 

Portrait of His Wife ...... 56 

Sargent, John Singer, 

Head of Hosea - - 254 

Portrait of Homer St. Gaudens 252 

Thayer, Abbott H., 

Brother and Sister - 236 


Sacred and Profane Love ... 16 

Troyon, Constant, 

The Shepherd's Dog 1 36 

Tryon, Dwight William, 

Early Spring in New England 238 

Van Dyck, Antony, 

Charles I. - Frontispiece 

Children of Charles I. 64 

Portrait of Himself 66 

Velasquez, Diego Rodriguez de Silva y, 

Philip IV. 62 

The Infanta Margarita - 216 

Don Balthazar Carlos 60 

Vinci, Leonardo da. 

The Last Supper - - 2 

Watts, George Frederick, 

Sir Galahad - 156 

Whistler, James Abbott McNeill, 

Portrait of the Artist's Mother 202 

Traumerei - - - 204 



Europe did not awaken from twelve hundred years of Dark Ages 
in the twinkling of an eye. The dawn stole upon it without any 
demonstration. Those who have watched the dawning, when weary 
with watching, know the strange surprise of it — things reveal them- 
selves a little, though still mysterious. When it is half light, the birds 
suddenly burst into song, and still there is no sunshine. The sunrise 
is a spectacular performance, wonderfully affecting men and things. 

Historians have been in the habit of commencing the story of the 
Renaissance with the Italian painter, Cimabue, in the thirteenth cen- 
tury. Possibly he is the dawn. He did observe nature closely, 
escaping from Byzantine formalities somewhat. If this be a correct 
division, then it was the Italian Masaccio (1402) who made the birds 
wake up. Leonardo da Vinci was the first streak of real sunshine 
flung athwart the earth. The full glory of the fresh morning came 
with the advent of Michael Angelo, Raphael, Titian and their con- 

Twelve years older than Masaccio was Jan van Eyck, in Flanders. 
He traveled somewhat, going as far as Spain but never to Italy. He 
and his brother did wonderful things, but still in the Gothic manner. 
Formalism cannot altogether kill great talent. 

The source of the Italian Renaissance is easy to find. Apollo 
posed for the angels and Venus put on her clothes to aid the artist in 
painting a madonna. The breast-plate of Augustus rearranged itself 
to make the armor of the French king, Henry II. (sixteenth century). 
The Graeco-Roman group, the "Laocoon," inspired Michael Angelo 
to execute the picture of "Bathing Soldiers." 

All through the Dark Ages churches were decorated in a stiff, 
formal fashion, priest-ridden styles showing almost no study of nature, 


and owl-eyed monks coilld see in the dark to execute many quaint 
and some beautiful missals, holy ivories and shrines. This was the 
art of the Van Eycks, of Quentin Matsys, of Masaccio, of his pupil, 
Filippo Lippi, and his pupil in turn, Botticelli. Botticelli was the 
last of the Goths — almost at the sunrise. 

There were two places which we may call "art schools." No mas- 
ters managed them, except as each talented man was the master of his 
less-informed fellow student. One of these was the monastery in 
Florence where the dead Masaccio's living paintings gave forth their 
influence. Every one of the celebrated men of the Florentine group 
studied there. The other was the palace and gardens of the great 
Medici family, where numberless art objects, dug up all over Italy 
and in the Greek colonies, had been collected. The habit of collect- 
ing artistic objects had long prevailed, though for many generations 
no one thought much of studying them. 

Masaccio gave a lesson in sincerity; these relics gave a lesson in 
well-regulated grace and elegance of form. It is to the study of these 
"antiques" that the Italians owe their sunrise; a light which shone all 
over Europe. 

The Renaissance marks the change from Gothic formalisms to those 
of Greek and Graeco- Roman origin: the one stiff but, latterly, sincere, 
the other studiedly elegant — often less sincere — and we call it "classi- 
cal." This classicism often followed the ancient forms so closely 
that many an expert has come to grief in attempting to differentiate 
the two styles. 

There is another use of the word "classical," meaning simply any 
architecture, sculpture or picture arranged in a formal manner some- 
what based on the principles of formalism learned from this study of 
the antique. 

The landscapes of Claude Lorraine and Corot are classical in this 
sense, also innumerable pictures of domestic scenes, that is, most of 
the genre art. Certain artists in all modern periods have insisted 
upon following nature exactly and admitted no artificial arrange- 
ments—these are not classicists. ^- 


The history of the word "genre" is very obscure. This we know: 
After the establishment of academies of art (following the Renaissance) 
those who failed to follow the laws of classical composition in figure 
pictures (preferring to paint nature as they saw it) were little encour- 
aged, and the term "genre" was applied, in contempt, to their pic- 
tures. Naturalistic figures were not considered worthy the name of 
"art." Art had to be artificial. Naturalism was vulgar. Domestic 
subjects were vulgar and only suited to the taste of the common 
people. This was true in Japan, just as it was in Europe. The battle 
goes on all the time, and will never cease, between classicism and the 
presentation of nature as nature is; the presentation of a subject in an 
entertaining and easily understood manner, or in stilted and elegant 
formality. It is the war between the taste of the majority fairly culti- 
vated and that of the aristocrats who worship their Greek — of romance 
in the clothes of everyday life or romance in draperies (or no clothes 
at all) as the ancients knew how to make them beautiful. So the war 
between classicism and genre is the contest between extreme renais- 
sance (Greek or Graeco-Roman) elegance and the art of the people, 
whether it be formal or naturalistic. 

The World's Painters 



If "all roads lead to Rome,'' it follows that all roads radiate from 
the Italian center. It is not strictly true that "Italy is the mother of 
art," but the fact remains that she was its nurse; that cisalpine civili- 
zation favored its development and cisalpine love of the beautiful was 
a potent factor in shaping its character for many centuries. The 
contest, during centuries, between the rugged directness of the trans- 
alpines and the tendency to over-sweetness and finished technique of 
the cisalpines will never be lost sight of in this writing. Civilization 
emanated from Italy, in the earlier periods considered here, following 
the roads which led from Rome to the uttermost ends of Christendom. 
The manner in which the various transalpine nations made use of the 
influence furnishes material for much art history. 

The Alps walled the races apart, but art traveled — somewhat. 
Though race characteristics shape so much the art of every nation, 
each people influenced the other whenever the art went a-journeying. 
As, in the earlier periods, artists grow up together, though many 
miles separated, it interests us to note the character of each one as he 
thus produced his own sort while another was producing his at the 
same moment in other conditions and amid other influences. They 
influenced each other although so far apart. 


Leonardo da Vinci 


Leonardo is the first cisalpine painter whom we consider, because 
his place, at the beginning of modern art, is disputed by no one. 

Sailors and policemen are not startled by the pyrotechnics of a 
sunrise, because they are accustomed to the phenomenon. But to 
most people it is an exciting event. If we saw it but once in a life- 
time, the glory of it would be worth living for. Leonardo da Vinci 
did to the world what the sunrise does. We do not understand the 
phenomenon of his advent as well as we do a physical phenomenon, 
therefore it startles us more. 

Leonardo was the child of love: his father being a gentleman of 
refinement and wealth, his mother a lady of no mean rank. But the 
encumbrances of social life could not interfere with his industry, or 
the luxury of wealth dull the edge cf his ambition. Had he been less 
wealthy, it is possible that we should have seen more pictures from 
his able hands. He had the privilege of cioing anything which fancy 
dictated. He loved study; experiments in science absorbed many of 
his hours; music was his servant; as a silversmith he has left wonder- 
ful things; of course he wrote poetry. Almost everyone of the great 
men of this great period also did these things, but Leonardo stands 
alone at the top, as the one who has left writings on engineering, road 
building, fortification, clever inventions and contrivances. Astronomy, 
chehiistry and philosophy were advanced by him. It is even claimed 
that he invented the humble wheelbarrow. If this last is true, man- 
kind should acclaim him. The simple canal-lock, as now used all 
over the world, is the invention of this great scientist. He even 
painted, and such painting it was! 

The man who could paint the "Mona Lisa" (Louvre) in the condi- 
tions in which he lived proved himself a genius, had he done nothing 
else. This portrait of a lady of noble bearing, only the head and bust 
placed against a simple background of gray, suggesting mountains, is 
so lovable, so dignified, so tenderly executed, so atmospheric, so 
strong, so beautifully constructed, and, above all, so modern, that 




almost nothing better has been done by any painter since. It stands 
to-day the model for all portrait painters, and we wonder the more 
when we think that nothing but the rigidity of the Gothic influence 
came before him. In these days painters have masters, men of expe- 
rience in their own line; Leonardo had only the somewhat improved 
Gothic to study, and from it he developed the art which to-day is our art. 

I am not saying that Masaccio, his pupil Filippo Lippi, and Bot- 
ticelli could not paint a superbly constructed head, because they were 
wonderful draughtsmen. But the sentiment of Leonardo's heads is 
utterly different and entirely original, like nothing before, and entirely 
in accord with the artistic sentiment from that day until this. Bot- 
ticelli was still artificial in line, still following the types of the fifteenth 
century. He was the last of that line, and a good while before his 
death the better-developed art of Leonardo and the other painters of 
the Renaissance turned the tide against that really great artist so that 
he was left in neglect and obscurity. 

No doubt the "Last Supper" of Leonardo (at Milan) was a noble 
picture, and also an epoch maker. But we have little knowledge of 
what it was actually like, since decay and repeated restoration have 
ruined the work. Judging by the engravings by contemporary artists, 
it must have been entirely in accord with the Renaissance movement. 

Leonardo abandoned the hard outlines of the Gothic painters, 
studied light and shade in a way they never thought of and painted 
the tender texture of blood-nourished flesh instead of the parchment 
textures of his predecessor. 

Leonardo was born near Florence in 1452, spending his youth and 
early manhood in that city. He went to Milan, where the design for 
a colossal equestrian statue occupied the time not given to the con- 
struction of a long aqueduct for bringing fresh water to the city. To 
this magnificent genius art was a pastime, his real business being 
experiments in hydrostatics. But for his amusement he outdid most 
men's serious undertakings. 

Returning to Florence, the great prince Caesar Borgia sent him over 
the land to superintend his engineering schemes and the fortifications. 


In the Palazzo Vecchio he and Michael Angelo met in friendly 
competition while decorating the council chamber. Raphael owes 
much more to his example than to the instructions of his reputed 
master, Perugino. 

In his old age, the French king, Fran9ois I., used him as a court 
ornament which, as the pay was good, seems very appropriate. 
There in F"rance his bones were committed to mother earth in 1519. 

Important Works: Adoration of Magi, unfinished (Uffizi, Florence); Cartoon 
for a Madonna with St. Ann (Diploma Gallery, Burlington House, London) ; Last 
Supper, fresco (S. Maria della Grazie, Milan); Annunciation (E. Paris); Madonna, 
Child and St. Anna, in part (Paris); "La Vierge aux Rochers" (Louvre, Paris); "La 
Gioconda" (Paris); St. Jerome, unfinished (Vatican, Rome); Profile of Girl (Donna 
Laura Minghetti, Rome); Portrait of Mona Lisa (in Louvre), 1504; "La Belle 
Ferronniere" (Nat. Gal., London); "St. John the Baptist" (Louvre, Paris); "St. 
Anne" (Louvre, Paris); Portrait of Himself (in R. Lib., Turin). 

As it is the purpose, in this history, to present painters in strictly 
chronological order, without regard to nationality, schools or charac- 
ter of work, we cross the Alps and consider Diirer in his transalpine 
home. The reader will have constantly before him the painters who 
lived side by side, as it were, and he will be able to take note of the 
art movements which crept from land to land, and the progress that 
they made at any given moment. In order to understand Diirer, we 
are obliged to say a word about the brothers Van Eyck, though, 
chronologically, they do not come within the scope of the book. 

Hubert van Eyck Jan van Eyck 

{Died 1426) {Died 1440) 

With no other art influence than that of the missal decorations, 
which were in a measure art, and the church decorations, hardly 
admissible as art, these men painted pictures which— dare it be said? — 
have never innheir own line been surpassed. No artist looks upon 
these works with I'ess than intense admiration. More modern men 
had greater knowledge, command of better materials, but perhaps the 
Goddess of Art holds knowledge and utensils in contempt. 


There is a legend that they invented oil painting. It is worth 
what it may please you to attach to it. Many pictures of these early 
periods were so peculiarly painted that experts quarrel as to which 
are in distemper and which in oils. Dry pigment had been made 
into a paste or unctuous mass fit to lay as a paint by the use of white 
of egg, gums, or something similar. Occasionally some painter added 
oil. The difficulty was to find an oil that would not rot before it 
dried, if it dried at all. Pigments were worked up with varnish also, 
which served the purpose better. There is no doubt that the Van 
Eycks found out a better way than anyone had before, and also that 
the amount of oil in the mixture was less than the varnish. Also, no 
one can tell certainly which of their pictures was done in distemper 
and which in "oils," so-called. However, it is also true that the use of 
oil in preparing pigments was carried from Flanders to Italy, where- 
upon the Italians materially improved upon the hint given them. 

Principal Works of Hubert van Eyck: Part of "Adoration of the Lamb" 
(Ghent Cathedral), and perhaps "St. Jerome and the Lion" (Naples). 

Principal Works of Jan van Eyck: With Hubert van Eyck, "Adoration of the 
Lamb" (Ghent Cathedral); "Fount of Salvation" or "Triumph of Christianity" 
(Madrid); "Turbaned Portrait" and "Jean Arnoljini and Wife, with Joined Hands" 
(National Gallery, London); "Coronation of the Virgin" or "The Virgin and 
Donor" (Louvre, Paris); "Madonna and Child" (Dresden); "Annunciation" (The 
Hermitage, St. Petersburg); "Head of Christ" (Berlin); Six Doubtful Triptychs 

What is commonly called "the Gothic" stiffness of line clings to 
these pictures as far as draperies are concerned, but the color is 
excellent, the flesh tones superexcellent, the correctness of face and 
hand-drawing wonderful, the perspective leaves little to desire, and 
there is a nobleness of sentiment and expression which makes lesser 
men despair. 

It is probable that Albrecht Diirer had an opportunity to study 
some of these pictures when a young man and making his "appren- 
tice's circuit." However, though he commenced b)^ somewhat imi- 
tating their manner, his final style was entirely original. 


Albrecht Diirer 


Diirer was a comet. Where it was dark he gleamed out, and then 
it was dark again. Michael Angelo, Titian and Raphael circled in 
their orbits like normal planets. Even planets have their lifetime and 
die, but the systems to which they belong go on circling. There was 
no Diirer system to go on. Holbein owed something to Diirer, but 
does not group with him. The art previous to Diirer was Gothic; all 
around him rude Gothic (except with a few Flemings) or, it is more 
correct to say, Byzantine. It was an art almost entirely controlled by 
the ecclesiastics, forced into specific shapes (as were the doctrines), 
given no liberty, admitted to no uses except to teach dogmas fettered 
like itself. The Romanesque was only a northern form of Byzantine, 
and Gothic, as far as painted or sculptured figures were concerned, 
was the continuation of the same. There was no study of nature. In 
the midst of this darkness, the "dark ages," the dawn somewhat 
revealed the truths of nature to certain men, — to Jan van Eyck (1390), 
who did very wonderful things, up in the chilly north (Flanders), and 
to Memling (1425), and to Quentin Matsys (1460), both in the same 
Flemish neighborhood. 

The Reformation had nothing to do with this awakening of art, as 
Luther had not yet come. There was movement amid the dry bones 
of religion, as the world had set itself a-thinking, and art felt the new 
life in a few places. Why should Diirer have been so altogether 
exceptional? Quite possibly the Hungarian blood in his veins had to 
do with it. When the Reformation finally changed the conditions, 
they were bad for art, because the church-decorating business was 
ruined, and Diirer suffered accordingly in his finances. 

No Popes nor Medicis made summer for artists in frosty Germany. 
No swarms of cardinals and priests clamored for magnificent ecclesias- 
tical art. The German rulers sometimes attached artists to their court, " 
just for respectability's sake, but parsimony lived with the duke as 
well as with the shopkeeper. Diirer was pretty poor all his life. 
But he loved his art and his country: the latter so much that he would 

Botticelli — Madonna. 


not stay in Italy, where his art might have found sunshine, though 
often urged to do so and flattered by offers of financial rewards quite 
sufficient to have made him rich. 

Charles V. made him promises, but Charles loved Titian better, 
and paid him better. Probably the great emperor was right, because 
Titian really was a greater painter. It is all very well for us to 
admire the quaintness and sincerity, the intense Germanism, the 
individuality, of Diirer. But it is a question whether we should not 
also have bought the magnificent Titians in preference, when it came 
to living with the art every day. Just now we have a revival of the 
love of quaintness, we admire Diirer and Botticelli (and it is well so), 
but this is not the case all the time. People like superb color as a 
rule. It was not in the German's studio, but in the Italian's that 
Charles said, as he picked up the dropped brush, "Titian is fit to be 
served by Caesar," a sly compliment to himself by the way. A 
learned professor once brought to me a volume of the engravings by 
Diirer of "The Little Passion," saying, "Will these awful things be of 
any use to you? I am tired of seeing them about." Only the art- 
educated admire Diirer, because there is nothing suave or pretty about 
his work. All Germans love the grotesque, the severe, sometimes the 
shocking. Many of Diirer' s works are all these. I do not say this of 
the major part, because he could be severe with great dignity and even 
grandeur. The beauty of Diirer is the impressiveness of powerful 
pose and mighty sweep of line. Holbein was astonishingly clever; 
Diirer was majestic, designing complicated compositions, the result 
of profound thought. He was deeper than his neighbor in Basle, but 
never approached him in skill in painting. 

As Diirer's father was a goldsmith, he taught his boy all he knew 
about drawing and designing, to make a metal-worker of him, if pos- 
sible. Fortunately it was not possible. Every artist learned some- 
thing about the manipulation of precious metals and practiced 
designing, but Diirer had better stuff in him. The several little men 
who taught him all they knew, including the best at hand, Wolgemuth 
(a Goth who made lean fingers and awful expressions which he mis- 


took for sublimity), may be called his teachers. Masters he never 
had, except the mastery of his own abilities and original genius. In 
common with all workmen, he took his "wander year" and visited 
Flanders, where there was something really worth studying. 

His early work resembles that of the Flemings which he saw in his 
travels, but soon, being alone, the resemblance grew less and the 
power increased. Strange to say, his first exhibited work, at twenty- 
three years of age, was classical in subject, and little account have we 
of religious pictures until his visit to Italy, where he met Giovanni 
Bellini, the master of Titian, and came in direct contact with all the 
then living masters of the Venetian school. 

Now a strange thing happened. This son of the unsympathetic 
north found out how good an artist he was. The Italians, accustomed 
to magnificent colorists, who neglected detail for color's sake, were 
excited to enthusiasm by this opposite genius who could unite gran- 
deur and infinite minuteness, correct drawing and appreciation of 
character. He had a good time in Italy, but always looking forward 
sadly to his return to the forbidding indifference of his "own country. 
Holbein, on the contrary, took advantage of his opportunities, and 
accepted the offers of English gold. Diirer turned his back upon 
Italian skies and Italian flattery, substantiated by offers of gold. 
He returned to his unappreciative fellow countrymen and, unfortu- 
nately, to his scolding wife, never to leave the one or shake off the 
other. Holbein left his wife when he went to England. 

It is strange, as we look at it from this period of excellent art 
instruction, to think that Diirer had never rightfully considered the 
relative proportions of the male and the female figures, and to read 
about his delight when Bellini, at the time of the German's visit 
to Italy, first opened his eyes to these simple truths. With all 
his faithfulness in observing nature, he had never discovered so 
simple a thing. How this reveals the darkness of the Gothic sur- 
roundings in which he grew up! However, he made of himself, 
though all alone, a painter who excelled Raphael in the rendering 
of tender color and "fatness" of tone. There is something about 


the painting of this half-Goth which commands the most unqualified 

As it was easy to sell engravings, while paintings went begging, 
our artist took advantage of the skill with the burin which he had 
acquired in his wander-year, so that it is as an engraver that the world 
best knows him. In cleanness of line few have equalled him at any 
period. The stiffness of the early work gave place to a certain sense 
of greatness of line. It is hard to find anyone who understood better 
just how many strokes should be used to render a given form, and this 
is one of the great elements of success in engraving. Copper-plate or 
wood-block were equally under his command. He invented many 
new methods and on his visit to Italy taught the engravers there, in the 
home of art, many new things, inciting them to do better work. Having 
once learned that there was something interesting about human 
anatomy, he became the author of works on the subject, also on per- 
spective and many other matters which every student now learns while 
a youth but then were either subjects of speculation or utterly 

Fame did not entirely neglect this truly great man, as the emperor 
finally granted him a pension and some honors. His was a prophet's 
honor, however, greater away from home. 

Diirer worked in oil painting, tempera, and drawings on various 
papers, with ink and pen, brush in lines or wash, sometimes set off 
with touches of white, and perhaps tinted with water colors. 

In 1490 he journeyed to several cities of Germany and Flanders; 
1505, for a considerable period in Venice; 1512, he did some work for 
Emperor Maximillian; 1520, he attended the coronation of Charles 
v., at Aix la Chapelle, and received some recognition; he then 
returned to Nuremberg. 

Important Works: Made 200 wood-cuts: Apocalypse (16 subjects), Greater 
Passion (12 subjects), Lesser Passion (57 subjects). Copper plates, number 100: 
"Melancholia," "Death and the Devil," etc. Painted "Adoration of the Trinity" 
(at Vienna); "Adam and Eve" (at Florence); "Four Apostles" (at Nuremberg), 


Michael Angelo Buonarotti 

(Born, Caprisa, Tuscany, March 6, 1474. Died in Rome, 1564.) 

Our chronology demands that we recross the mountains to con- 
sider another cisalpine painter. 

Michael Angelo was of noble birth, his father being governor of 
two Tuscan cities, his mother also coming from an aristocratic family. 
Like most of the others, he was painter, sculptor, architect and 
engineer. As one whose conceptions were magnificently majestic he 
has no equal in the history of art. Grandeur, thy name is Michael 

As has been said, there were no art schools, except that best of all 
schools, the association of artists together for study of good models, 
as all these men did in the Medici gardens and in the Florentine church 
decorated by Masaccio. Angelo' s extraordinary precocity attracted 
the attention of Lorenzo the Magnificent, who made him an intimate 
friend in his palace. 

The contrast between this artist, bred to the classics (Graeco- 
Roman), and Albrecht Diirer, living at the same moment in Gothic 
Germany, is well set forth by the authenticated incident of the statue, 
which Angelo made, so like the ancient work that it was sold to a con- 
noisseur as a genuine antique. 

All of Angelo's paintings and statues resemble the antique so closely 
that only the stamp of his vigorous personality and freshness of con- 
ception differentiates them. Of course his architecture is also renais- 
sance; that is, a revival of the architecture of the best Roman period. 
The Pantheon of the Romans, now standing where built, is a hemi- 
spherical dome, its drum resting on the earth. Michael Angelo 
declared that he would "hang the Pantheon in air," which he did; 
that is, he mounted it on the edifice of the church of St. Peter's. He 
did more, making his monster dome the largest that the world has 
•known — an example of the stupendousness of his conceptions. His 
giant thoughts created a Jehovah in the act of reaching out his finger 
to discharge the spark of life into the body of the parent of mankind: 

Michael Angelo — The Fates. 


grander in idea and in composition than any other picture the world 
had then seen, or has ever been able to imitate. The ceiling of the 
Sistine Chapel, at Rome, where this work (ordered by Pope Julius II.) 
forms one of many mural panels filled with dignified sibyls and 
prophets, has been for centuries the wonder of all nations, because of 
originality in thought and vigor in drawing. The paintings are in 
fresco, that is, colors struck upon the plaster swiftly when it is first 
laid and still wet, requiring boldness and knowledge, occupying the 
artist only the remarkably short period of twenty months. Raphael 
worked in this chapel at the same time, a generous rival. The 
immense painting, "The Last Judgment" (fifty-four by eighty-three 
feet), filling the entire end of the same chapel, occupied him eight 
years, being completed in 1541. Its individual figures are fine exam- 
ples of drawing, but as a composition and as subject-matter it is tire- 
some and unimpressive. The Almighty appears as if trying very hard 
to look godlike and barely escaping ordinary bad temper. Made, not 
from his heart, but for his patron's sake, this proves that genius is not 
docile but imperious, admitting of no trifling. It was Pope Paul III. 
who ordered it, and the colossal Moses was executed about the same 
time. In 1546 Angelo was made architect of St. Peter's, by the same 
Pope; the great church having been commenced some years earlier 
by Julius II. Angelo at once changed the plan of the center. 

Angelo's principal patrons were Lorenzo the Magnificent, Piero 
Medici the Bad, Popes Julius II., Leo X., who accomplished little, 
Clement VII., for whom the artist erected fortifications, and Paul 
III. Angelo erected many celebrated buildings, besides St. Peter's, 
for Paul III. 

In 1488 he became the pupil of Domenico Ghirlandajo, who was an 
advanced painter of the earlier period, and could teach many things 
to a youth. "The Battle of Hercules with the Centaurs," abas-relief, 
was an early work. The "Pieta" was made in 1497, a marble group 
of the Virgin holding the dead Christ on her knees. It is in St. 
Peter's, at Rome. In 1504 came the colossal statue of David, now at 
the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, for which he received 400 ducats 


(eighteen months' work). In 1504 his only oil painting, "The Holy 
Family," was made. Work on the paintings of the interior of the Sistine 
Chapel was commenced in 1506. The flat center of the ceiling he 
divided into nine panels, representing the Creation of the Sun, the 
Moon, the Creation of Adam, the Fall, and the Deluge; also, smaller, 
the Gathering of the Waters, the Almighty Separating Light from 
Darkness, the Creation of Eve, the Sacrifice of Noah, and the Drunk- 
enness of Noah. As the ceiling was nearly plain, he divided it into 
parts with a painted representation of vigorous architectural forms 
and mouldings. Parts were curved, and here appeared the genealogy 
of Christ and figures of sibyls and prophets, as well as the Deliver- 
ance of Israel. 

His paintings formed by no means the largest part of his life-work. 
Oil painting he despised, considering it lacking in power. In the 
rapid striking of large masses of color into wet plaster (fresco) his 
grandeur of expression found a better medium. Indeed, it is a nobler 
method, though not so capable of variety of statement as oils. 

Loaded with honors, but often tormented by the whims of power- 
ful patrons, this austere, virtuous, wifeless and often unhappy man 
was buried in Rome, in 1564, the pomp of his obsequies coming too 
late to heal many heart sores. His masterpiece in painting was the 
ceiling of the Sistine Chapel at Rome; in sculpture, the "David," at 
Florence. The figures in his paintings are sculpturesque rather than 

Important Works: Holy Family (Uffizi, Florence); Deposition, unfinished 
(London); Frescoes (Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome); Frescoes (Capella Paolina, 

In order to know what painters were living in Angelo's time, and 
to maintain our chronological order, a word about Giovanni Bellini 
(died 1 5 16) is necessary to our understanding of the great Venetian 
painters. He belongs not in our history but with the Gothic period, 
but in his color is to be found the true source from which flowed the 
stream bearing the great colorists of Venice. 

Michael Angelo — The Delphic Sibyl. 


Important Works: Madonna (Lochis, Bergamo) ; Madonna (Morelli, Ber- 
gamo); Pieta, Dead Christ (Berlin); Allegory of Tree of Life (UfBzi, Florence); 
Portrait of Loredano, Madonna, Agony in Garden, Blood of Redeemer (London) ; 
Dead Christ (Mr. Ludwig Mond, London); Pieta, Two Madonnas (Brera, 
Milan); M'adonna (Dr. Gust, Frizzoni, Milan); Madonna with SS. Mark and Augustin 
and Doge Barbarigo (S. Pietro, Murano); Transfiguration (Sala Granda, Naples); 
Madonna (Mr. T. H. Davis, Newport, U. S. A.) ; Crucifixion, God the Father, 
Altar-piece in many parts (S. Francesco, Pesaro) ; Dead Christ (Rimini) ; Madonna 
(Turin) ; Madonna, Madonna, Five Small Allegories, Madonna with St. Catharine and 
Magdalen, Madonna with SS. Paul and George, Madonna, Madonna with Six Saints 
(Academy, Venice); Transfiguration, Dead Christ, Crucifixion (Museo Correr, 
Venice) ; Dead Christ Supported by Three Angels (Venice) ; Pieta (Sala di Tre, 
Palazzo Ducale, Venice); Triptych, Madonna and Saints (Frari, Venice); Madonna 
and Four Saints (S. Francesco Delia Vigna, Venice); SS. Jerome, Augustin, and 
Christopher (S. Giovanni Crisostomo, Venice); Madonna (S. Maria Dell' Orto, 
Venice); Madonna and Four Saints (S. Zaccaria, Venice); Madonna (Verona); 
Baptism (S. Corona, Vicenza). 

The Van Eycks invented a sort of oil painting which had been 
introduced in Italy by traveling Flemings and improved upon by 
Antonello da Messina (died 1493) and by him taught to Bellini. 
There can be no doubt that this was a process of mixing varnish with 
oil (possibly more of the former) and that it resembles our oil paint- 
ing only as an experiment resembles a complete development. How- 
ever, no painter of this day uses his pigments exactly like another, art 
being one grand experiment with materials. The fresco then in use 
was somewhat dry in tone and capable of only a limited variety of 
effects. Oil painting permits of greater richness, glow and yarietyr 
though too much technique and too great attention to "fine paintin' 
has betrayed many an art-trust. 

Important Works of Antonello da Messina: Crucifixion (Antwerp) ; St 
Sebastian (Lochis, Bergamo); Portrait of Young Man, Portrait of Young Man, 
Portrait of Young Man in Red Coat (Berlin) ; St, Sebastian (Dresden) ; The Saviour, 
Portrait of Man, Crucifixion, St. Jerome in His Study (London); Madonna with SS. 
Gregory and Benedict (Messina) ; Portrait of Man Wearing Wreath (Museo Civico, 
Milan); Portrait of Man (Prince Trivulzio, Milan); Portrait of Man (Sala Grande, 
Naples) ; Condottier (Paris) ; Portrait of Man (Villa Borghese, Rome) ; Ecce Homo 
(Academy, Venice); Portrait of Man (Giovanelli, Venice); Christ at Column (Sala 
IV., Vicenza). 


Giorgione and Titian 

Giorgio Barbarelli (1477-1511), called Giorgione, a companion 
of the great Titian, lived just long enough to radiate an influence upon 
the longer-lived fellow pupil whom we know so well. Had his thirty- 
four years been ninety, the story of art might have been changed. 

He it was who caught the color of Bellini and added to its beauty 
an original conception of the capabilities of picture-making which 
Titian did not perceive until these two worked together on the same 
decorations, and never did the more celebrated man reveal certain 
great qualities which mark Giorgione's pictures. 

Passing his decorations, which may or may not express his pecu- 
liar worth, it is in landscape and portraiture that we see his wonderful 
capacity for observing the truths of nature and using them for art's 
sake. Claude Lorraine has the credit for the invention of modern 
landscape, but no man invents an art wholly. Giorgione's landscapes, 
formal as they were, have many qualities of tenderness and atmos- 
phere far in advance of his time 

If portraiture may be considered the greatest expression of art, 
then this man's renderings of the people about him just as they were, 
but artistically treated, are very high art. There is evidence that 
da Vinci's portraits gave him the impulse; if so, he is a strong second. 

Important Works of Giorgione: Portrait of Man (Berlin) ; Portrait of Antonio 
Brocardo (Budapest); Madonna with SS. Francis and Liberate (Duomo, Castel- 
franco); Sleeping Venus (Dresden); Trial of Moses, Knight of Malta, Judgment of 
Solomon (Uffizi, Florence); Shepherd with Pipe (Hampton Court); Madonna with 
SS. Roch and Antony of Padua (Madrid); Fete Champgtre (Paris); Portrait of a 
Lady (Villa Borghese, Rome) ; Storm Calmed by St. Mark, linished in small part by 
Paris Bordone (Academy, Venice); Apollo and Daphne (Seminario, Venice); Gipsy 
and Soldier (Giovanelli, Venice); Christ Bearing Cross (Casa Loschi, Vicenza); 
Evander Showing Aeneas the Site of Rome (Vienna). 

TizianoVecelli (1477-1 576), is famous as Titian. There is no reason 
why readers of art history should be continually told that the Vene- 
tian painters were great colorists and no effort made to state 
the nature of the color or what is to be understood by the term 

(Michael Angelo — The Creation of Eve.) 


"good color." Titian indulged little in gay coloring. He did not 
neglect the use of blue, red and yellow, but probably it would aston- 
ish us could we compare his tones with pure pigments. He declared 
once that any painter could make an excellent picture with no other 
pigments than white, black and red. He made great use of these. 
The little green used is relatively green only. In those days the only 
blues were Prussian, always hard to manage and liable to force itself 
into prominence with the lapse of time, and ultramarine. If a very 
cold black be mixed with white and spread on canvas so as to sur- 
round a spot of light red, the presence of the warm red will cause the 
cold black-and-white to appear blue, as a pale sky is blue. We used 
to amuse ourselves when students with this experiment. 

Purple is absolutely a non-essential on the palette. Cold greens are 
only blues modified and are non-essential. 

Mixing any rich red with black, any yellowish red with black, 
white with black, and white with red, every tone in a very rich picture 
could be secured. Vermilion adds brilliancy, but it must be modified 
if the work is to be harmonious and rich. 

The secret of Titian's magnificent color is to be found in his won- 
derful color sense and not in the abundance of his pigments or their 
use as pure pigments. It is an understanding of the influence of one 
color upon another which makes a fine colorist. Velasquez was 
counted a fine colorist, but he used the most subdued* tints. His 
pictures are gray, but a marvelous tone of gray. Raphael was not 
wonderful in this matter of color. Clear flesh tones he has, but not 
rich grays. Holbein was a finer colorist than Raphael. 

"Bad drawing" is the reiterated accusation laid up against Titian, 
as it is against almost every rich colorist in the history of art. The 
cause is easy to discover. Color once laid must be left untouched or 
it will become tarnished with too much manipulation. Couture, the 
Frenchman, used to say to his pupils, "One touch with the brush 
insures fresh color, two touches upon the same spot are dangerous and 
three touches mean death." All colorists know that color once laid 
on the canvas must be left alone. To attempt to correct a fault acci- 


dentally made in the fever of earnest effort would mean the destruc- 
tion of the clearness of the pigment. Very few colorists are willing 
to risk a correction. Even if Titian had drawn his forms perfectly, 
in outline, it would be very easy for him to lose some of this in swiftly 
laying his rich tones. If this should happen, he could scarcely afford 
to make a correction. 

But there was another, and a curious circumstance. Many of the 
painters of this period prided themselves upon their accuracy in fol- 
lowing the drawing of the antique statues. "Good drawing" meant 
classical drawing. It has already been said that Angelo's figures were 
based on the severe Graeco-Roman statues ; Raphael' s were based on the 
elegant Greek. Angelo said of Titian, that he would have been a 
fine painter had he studied more carefully his antiques. Remember 
that Titian did not study the great collection of antique remains in the 
Medici gardens. Thus early do we find the battle between the paint- 
ers of hard classicism and healthy spontaneity in full activity. 

By descent noble, and called "II Divino," Titian was born at the 
Castle of Cadore, a word which was often attached to his name. 
Rossi, of his native place, and Zucatti, of Trevigi, gave him lessons, 
out it was when he went to Venice and studied with Giovanni Bellini 
that his art career really commenced. His fellow pupil, Giorgione 
(died 1511), with whom he undertook exterior decorations, is gener- 
ally supposed to have been the first to break away from the Gothic 
character of their master's style and communicate these fresh impres- 
sions to Titian. It is certain that Giorgione influenced him more than 
anyone else. If any absolute facts can be extracted from the con- 
fusions of his early history, it may be stated that Titian's first inde- 
pendent works were" Raphael Conducting Tobias" and a "Presentation 
in the Temple," in Giorgione' s manner. Diirer came to visit Venice 
and in competition with his seriously finished work, Titian painted 
the "Tribute Money," he being at the time these three pictures were 
made not far from thirty years old. These little incidents indicate 
that the great artist was imitative in his youth and not remarkably 
original until quite mature. The "Bacchus and Ariadne," painted for 








the Duke of Ferrara, is still a following of Giorgione. The decora- 
tion of the council chamber and the "Peter Martyr" (church of Saints 
Giovanni and Paolo), about 1523, show us the true Titian. The 
Emperor of Germany, Charles V., came to Bologna, and Titian went 
there to paint his portrait. The Duke of Mantua called for a portrait 
and the series of decorations in the palace known as the "Twelve 
Caesars," and about this time he painted the portrait of Pope Paul III. 
and was invited to Rome, but could not go on account of many 
engagements. He did, however, go to Rome some years later and 
again painted the Pope's portrait and the well-known "Danae," the 
latter work being the one which offended Michael Angelo's sense of 
good drawing, as already mentioned. 

The empire of Charles V. extending to Spain, the sub-imperial 
capital being Madrid, Titian was invited (1550) to that country and 
was received with extraordinary honors and compensations (among 
the latter valuable rents in Italian cities) and such social attentions as 
a pleased emperor can bestow upon a favorite. This reminds us of 
the complaint which Diirer made to this same sovereign anent the 
neglect which fell to his share, — which suggests that serious and 
dignified art sometimes pays no profits. Here it was that Charles 
made the famous pretty speech, when the Venetian dropped his brush 
and His Majesty picked it up, saying, "Titian is fit to be served by 
Caesar." At the end of a three-years' stay, he returned to Italy, was 
called to Inspruck to paint the family portrait for King Ferdinand, 
and, returning, resided in Venice until his death, in 1576. It is said 
that Titian painted from nine years of age until ninety-nine. It stag- 
gers us to think how much longer he might have revealed his irrepress- 
ible enthusiasm, had not the cholera taken him off in his ninety-ninth 

It is amusing to read the supercilious criticism of the German 
painter Raphael Mengs (who had learned to draw an antique statue 
with sublime exactness but had no genius) when he declares that 
Titian was not wonderful because he could not draw an antique cor- 


Had Michael Angelo been endowed with the color sense of Titian, 
he would have failed to rival the Venetian colorist so long as he 
insisted upon absolute perfection in drawing, feeling the necessity of 
struggling with his pigment until the drawing should be perfect. 
During centuries, that fetish of classical drawing stood in the way of 
all healthy abandon in painting, so much so that it was a species of 
religion to draw like the antique sculptors. Broken commandments 
could be forgiven, but for breach of formal drawing there was no 

Important Works: Crucifixion (Ancona); Madonna with SS. Francis, Blaise 
and Donor (S. Domenico, Ancona); Alexander VI. Presenting Baffo to St. Peter 
(Antwerp) ; St. Francis Receiving the Stigmata (Ascoli) ; Infant Daughter of Roberto 
Strozzi (Berlin); Portrait of Himself, His Own Daughter Lavinia (Berlin); Rape of 
Europa (Mrs. J. L. Gardner, Boston); Altar-piece (S. Nazaro e Celso, Brescia); 
Portrait of Ariosto (Lord Darnley, Cobham Hall); Madonna with Four Saints, 
Tribute Money, Lavinia as Bride, Lavinia as Matron, Portrait of Man, A Lady with 
a Vase, Madonna with a Family as Donors (in part only). Lady in Red Dress 
(Dresden); "La Belle" Eleanor Gonzaga, Duchess of Urbino (Pitti, Florence); 
Pietro Aretino, Magdalen, Portrait of Young Man, The Concert, Philip II., Ippolito 
de' Medici, Full-length Portrait of Man, Head of Christ, "Tommaso Mosti" 
(Florence) ; Eleanor Gonzaga, Duchess of Urbino (Uffizi, Florence) ; Fr. Maria della 
Rovere, Duke of Urbino (Florence); Flora, Madonna with St. Anthony Abbot, 
Venus, the head of a portrait of Lavinia, Portrait of Beccadelli, Venus, the head a 
portrait of Eleanor Gonzaga (Florence) ; Madonna with SS. Catherine, Domenic and 
a Donor (Genoa) ; Portrait of Man, Portrait of Man (Hampton Court) ; Holy Family 
and Shepherd, Bacchus and Ariadne, "Noli me Tangere," Madonna with SS. John 
and Catherine (London); Holy Family, "The Three Ages," Venus Rising from the 
Sea, Diana and Actseon, Calisto (Bridgewater House, London); Madonna (Mr. 
Mond, London); Madonna with SS. Ulfus and Bridget, Bacchanal, Venus Worship, 
Alfonso of Ferrara, Charles V. and his Dog, Phihp II. in Armor, The Forbid- 
den Fruit, Charles V. on Horseback, Danae, Venus and Youth Playing Organ, 
Salome (Portrait of Lavinia), Trinity, Knight of Malta, Entombment, Sisyphus, 
Prometheus, St. Margaret, Philip II. Offering Infant Don Fernando to Victory, 
Allocution of Alfonso d'Avalos, Religion Succored by Spain, Portrait of Him- 
self, Portrait of Man, The Empress Isabel (Madrid); Portraits of Irene and of 
Emilia di Spilimbergo (Casa Maniago, Maniago) ; Christ Appearing to His Mother 
(Duomo, Medole, near Brescia); St. Jerome, Antonio Porcia (Brera, Milan); 
"Vanitas," Portrait of Man, Portrait of Charles V., Madonna, Christ Crowned with 


Thorns (Munich); Philip II., Paul III., Ottaviano, and Cardinal Farnese (Scuola 
Veneta, Naples) ; Frescoes (Scuola del Santo, Padua) ; Madonna with SS. Stephen, 
Ambrose, and Maurice, "La Vierge au Papin," Madonna with St. Agnes, Christ at 
Emaus, Crowning with Thorns, Entombment, St. Jerome, "Venus del Prado," 
Portrait of Francis I., Allegory, "Alfonso of Ferrara and Laura Dianti," Portrait of 
Man with Hand in Belt, "The Man with the Glove," Portrait of Man with Black 
Beard (Paris); Sacred and Profane Love (Borghese, Rome); St. Dominic, Educa- 
tion of Cupid (Rome); Baptism, with Zuane Ram as Donor (Capitol, Rome); 
Daughter of Herodias (Doria, Rome); Madonna in Glory with Six Saints (Vatican, 
Rome); Portrait of Aretino (Prince Chigi, Rome); Madonna in Glory, with SS. 
Peter and Andrew (Duomo, Serravalle); Annunciation (Duomo, Treviso); The 
Resurrection, Last Supper (Urbino) ; Presentation of Virgin in Temple, St. John in 
the Desert, Assunta, Pieta (Academy, Venice) ; Staircase to Doge's Private Apart- 
ments (fresco), St. Christopher (Palazzo Ducale, Venice) ; Doge Grimani before 
Faith (Sala di Quattro Porte, Venice); Wisdom, on ceiling of ante-room to Libreria 
(Palazzo Reale, Venice); Portrait of Man (Giovanelli, Venice); Pesaro Madonna 
(Frari, Venice) ; Martyrdom of St. Lawrence (Gesuiti, Venice) ; St. John the Alms- 
giver (S. Giovanni Elemosinario, Venice); St. James of Compostella (S. Lio, 
Venice) ; The Child Christ between SS. Catherine and Andrew (S. Marcuolo, Venice) ; 
Tobias and the Angel (S. Marziale, Venice); Annunciation, Dead Christ (Scuola di 
S. Rocco) ; Descent of Holy Spirit, ceiling of choir. Eight Medallions, one a portrait 
of Titian himself, the rest heads of Saints (Salute, Venice); St. Mark between SS. 
Roch, Sebastian, Cosmos and Damian, Ceiling, David and Goliath, Sacrifice of 
Isaac, Cain Slaying Abel (Sacristy, Venice) ; Annunciation, Transfiguration (S. 
Salvatore, Venice); St. Nicholas of Bari, in part (S. Sebastiano, Venice) ; Portrait of 
Ferdinand, King of the Romans (Verona) ; Assumption of Virgin (Duomo, Verona); 
"Gipsy Madonna," Madonna with the Cherries, The Large Ecce Homo, The Little 
Tambourine Player, Isabella d'Este, Das Madchen im pelz (Eleanor Gonzaga), 
Benedetto Varchi, The Physician Parma, John Frederick of Saxony, Jacopo di 
Strada, Shepherd and Nymph (Vienna); Portrait of Doge Gritti (Czernin, Vienna). 

The Following of Leonardo da Vinci 

We may step aside, for a moment, from our strict chronological 
sequence, to mention several lesser men of small importance in the 
development of art. 

Bernardino Luini, a Milanese whose birth and death dates are very 
uncertain, painted so much like his master, da Vinci, that experts 
attribute his works wrongly to that master. He was second to the 


greater man as all imitators are diminutives, but has left excellent fres- 
coes and easel pictures. 

Principal Works: Crucifixion (Franciscan Church, Lugano) ; Fresco at Brera 
Gallery, Milan, and in the church at Saronno; Crowning with Thorns (Ambrosian 
Library, Milan); "Vanity," "Modesty," and "Herodias with the Head of St. John 
the Baptist" (Uffizi, Florence). 

A little group which followed da Vinci, formed in Sienna also, a 
half-dozen names being memorable. The leader was Giovanni Antonio 
Razzi, called il Sodoma, like the other little men, of uncertain datei 
(1479 perhaps). Julius II. called him to Rome as aid in the Vatican 
decorations, which work appears to have been wiped out, with the 
exception of certain good parts, of a grotesque character, to make 
room for Raphael. It was, no doubt, a great honor to have been in 
Raphael's way and be extinguished by so great a painter. At his 
proper place. Sienna, his work ranks high and has attracted the atten- 
tion of writers on art. Doubtless his good fortune in being a pupil of 
da Vinci is his misfortune, in that it stamps him an imitator. 

Principal Works: Christ Bound to a Pillar (Vienna) ; Frescoes on the Life of 
the Virgin (St. Bernard, Vienna) ; Frescoes on the Life of St. Catherine of Vienna] 
(St. Catherine's Chapel, San Domenico) ; Frescoes and Altar-pieces (Academy); 
"Nuptials of Alexander and Roxana" and Alexander in the Tent of Darius (Villa 
Fornesina, Rome); Madonna (Borghese Palace, Rome); St. Sebastian (Ufi5zi,.j 
Florence). '' 

Jacopo Palma (1480- 1528), called il Vecchio belonged to the Vene- 
tian School. There is great dispute regarding the date of birth of 
Palma il Vecchio, and many pictures ascribed to him in England and in 
the continental galleries doubtless were painted by others or are imita- . 
tions. The "Adoration of the Shepherds" (Louvre) shows well his 
excellencies: dignity, reverence, Venetian color and the qualities' 
which might be expected in a follower of the greater Venetians. The>i 
Dresden gallery has his "Reclining Venus," a notable picture. In the| 
church of Santa Maria Formosa (Venice) his "St. Barbara" indicatesj 
the stateliness of style which marks all his attitudes, especially of 
female figures. 

PAiiMA Vbcchio — Santa Bahbara. 


Important Works: Portrait of a Lady (Duke of Northumberland, Alnwick), 
Landscape by Cariani, Madonna and Two Saints (Lochis, Bergamo) ; Head of 
Young Woman, Bust of Woman, Portrait of Man (Berlin) ; Adam and Eve (Bruns- 
wi(j)c); Madonna with St. Francis, finished by Cariani (Buda-Pesth) ; Venus (Fitz 
William Museum, Cambridge); Madonna with John the Baptist and St. Catherine, 
Three Sisters, Venus, Holy Family with St. Catherine, Meeting of Jacob and 
Rebecca (Dresden); Judith (UfBzi, Florence); Madonna with Magdalen and John 
(Brignole-Sale, Genoa); Holy Family, finished by Cariani (Glasgow); Annunciation 
(Consul Weber, Hamburg); Santa Conversazione, Head of Woman (Hampton 
Court); Portrait of Man (London); Santa Conversazione and Donor, finished by 
Cariani (Mr. Benson, London) ; Santa Conversazione, finished by Cariani (Mr. Wick- 
ham Flower, London); Bust of Woman (Mr. Mond, London); SS. Helen, Constan- 
tine, Roch and Sebastian, Adoration of Magi, finished by Cariani (Brera, Milan); 
Madonna and Saints (Marchese Lotario Rangoni, Modena); SS. Roch and Mary 
Magdalen (Munich); Santa Conversazione, with Male and Female Donors (Sala 
Grande, Naples); Adoration of Shepherds and Female Donors (Paris); Polyptych 
(Church, Peghera); Lucrece, Madonna, Francis, Jerome and Donor (Borghese, 
Rome); Christ and Adulteress (Capitol, Rome); Madonna, St. Peter and Donor 
(Colonna, Rome); Polyptych (Church, Serina) ; Christ and Adulteress, St. Peter 
Enthroned and Six Other Saints, Assumption of Virgin (Academy, Venice); Unfin- 
ished Portrait of Young Woman (Sala IV., Quiriui-Stampalia, Venice); Portrait of 
Man (Sala XVIL, Venice); Sposalizio (Giovanelli, Venice); St. Barbara, Altar-piece 
(S. Maria Formosa, Venice) ; Knight and Lady, a fragment (Lady Layard, Venice) ; 
Madonna and Saints (S. Stefano, Vicenza); John the Baptist, The Visitation, fin- 
ished by Cariani, Santa Conversazione, Portrait of Lady, Violante, Busts of Women, 
Portrait of Old Man, Lucretia (Vienna) ; Santa Conversazione, Holy Family and 
Two Female Saints (Lichtenstein, Vienna). 

Lorenzo Lotto (1480- 15 56 probable), was a friend of Palma Vecchio 
and a follower of the same masters, seeming to have that imitative 
ability which enables some men to produce remarkable pictures while 
still making no mark in art history. Again, da Vinci's influence 
produced a portrait painter who could render character as few portrait 
painters can. He was a man of refinement and perceptive faculty. 

Important Works: Assassination of St. Peter Martyr (Duomo, Alzano Maggiore, 
near Bergamo) ; Assumption of Virgin, Madonna with Four Saints (Ancona) ; 
Madonna in Glory with Two Saints ( Asolo) ; Three Predelle belonging to S. Bar- 
tolommeo Altar-piece, Marriage of S. Catherine, with portrait of N. Bonghi, Portrait 
of a Lady (Carrara, Bergamo)-; Sketches for Predelle, containing the story of St. 
Stephen, Holy ti'amily and St. Catherine (Lochis, Bergamo) ; Pieta (S. Alessandro in 


Colonna, Bergamo); Trinity (S. Alessandro in Croce, Bergamo); Altar-piece (S. 
Bartolommeo, Bergamo); Intarsias (S. Maria Maggiore, Bergamo); Frescoes in 
Chapel L. of Choir (S. Michele, Bergamo); Altar-piece (S. Spirito, Bergamo); 
Madonna with SS. Sebastian and Roch (Signor Piccinelli, Bergamo); Portrait of an 
Architect, Portraits of Young Men, Sebastian and Christopher, Christ Taking Leave 
of His Mother (Berlin); Nativity (Tosio, Sala XIII., Brescia); Angel with Globe and 
Scepter, originally top of S. Bartolommeo Altar-piece at Bergamo, (Buda-Pesth) ; 
Assumption of Virgin (Church, Celana, near Bergamo) ; Madonna with Six Saints, 
and (ifteen small scenes from the Lives of Christ and the Virgin (S. Domenico, 
Cingoli) ; Marriage of St. Catherine (Costa di Mezzate) ; Madonna (Dresden) ; Holy 
Family with St. Jerome (Uffizi, Florence); St. Jerome (Consul Weber, Hamburg); 
Portrait of Young Man, Portrait of Andrea Odoni (Hampton Court); St. Jerome 
(Hermannstadt) ; Three Predelle containing Story of St. Lucy (Municipio, Jesi); 
Pieta (Library, Jesi); Annunciation, St. Lucy before the Judge, Madonna and 
Saints, Francis Receiving Stigmata, Visitation, Annunciation, Portraits of Agostino.'J 
and Niccolo della Torre, Family Group, Portrait of ProthOnotary Giuliano (Lon- ' 
don); Madonna and Saints (Bridgewafer House, London); Portrait of a Lady 
(Dorchester House, London); Madonna with SS. Jerome and Antony of Padua (Mrs. 
Martin Colnaghi, London) ; Danae (Sir W. M. Conway, London) ; SS. Christopher, 
Sebastian and Roch, Christ and Adulteress, Nativity, Lucy and Thecla, Two 
Prophets, Michael Driving Lucifer from Heaven, Presentation in Temple, Baptism, 
Adoration of Magi; Sacrifice of Melchisedec (Palazzo Apostolico, Loreto); Bridal 
Couple, St. Jerome (Madrid) ; Pieta, Portrait of Lady, Portrait of Old Man, Portrait 
of Man (Brera, Milan) ; Assumption of Virgin, Portrait of Man (Gal. Oggioni, 
Milan); Holy Family (Poldi-Pezzoli, Pinacotaca, Milan); Portrait of Young Man 
(Museo Civico, Milan); Christ on Cross with Symbols of the Passion (Borromeo, 
Milan) ; St. Catherine (Dr. Frizzoni, Milan); Cruciiixion (Church, Monte S. Giusto); 
Marriage of St. Catherine (Munich); Head of a Man (Nancy); Madonna with St. 
Peter Martyr, Bust of Man in White Cap and Coat (?) (Sala Veneta, Naples); 
Madonna and Angels (Municipio, Osimo); Christ and Adulteress, St. Jerome, 
Nativity (Paris) ; Altar-piece in six panels (Ponternaica, near Bergamo) ; Altar-piece 
in six parts, Transfiguraticsn (Municipio, Recanati) ; Fresco (S. Domenico, Recanati) ; 
Annunciation (S. Maria Sopra Mercanti, Recanati) ; Madonna with S. Onifrio and a 
Bishop, Portrait of Man (Borghese, Rome) ; Portrait of Man (Capitol, Rome) ; St. 
Jerome (Diria, Rome) ; Allegory (Rospigliosi, Rome) ; Portrait of Man (Prince Doria, 
Rome) ; Madonna in Glory and Four Saints (Church, Sedrina, near Bergamo) ; St, 
Catherine (Leuchtenberg Collection, St. Petersburg); Frescoes (Suardi Chapel, 
Trescorre); Portrait of Monk (Sala Sernagiotto, Treviso); Altar-piece, Dead Christ 
(S. Cristina, Treviso); S. Nicholas in Glory (Carmine, Venice); Madonna and Saints 
(S. Giacomo dall' Orio, Venice); S. Antonino Bestowing Alms (S. Giovanni e Paolo, 
Venice); Santa Conversazione, Portrait of Man, Three Views of a Man (Vienna). 

Raphael — Madonna della Sedia. 



With the beginning of the latter half of the fifteenth century the 
Italian influence began to assert itself throughout all Europe. In 
Italy itself two styles of artistic expression opened the contest between 
formality and freedom of expression. All painters of this period were 
mural decorators. Their easel pictures were not numerous and their 
works were scarcely pictures at all, but rather decorations of flat sur- 
faces — perhaps the doors of a shrine, perhaps panels in some great 
scheme of architecture. The Gothic painters, as may be supposed, 
maintained their rigid formality and clung tenaciously to what may be 
called flat designs. The Italians, seeking for greater pictorial quality, 
innocently ignored this flatness and introduced throughout the Euro- 
pean world the fashion for panels with fully-rounded figures and 
atmospheric depths. 

Man for man, Angelo was a stronger character than Raphael and 
the works of the two men reflect their individuality. Angelo 
despised tenderness in art; for the sensuousness of oil painting he 
had great contempt, preferring distemper and fresco. Never allowing 
himself any sweetness in his life, he scorned it in pictures. Unlike 
Raphael, it is almost impossible to trace any influence of another artist 
in his work. His way was his own way and he insisted upon following 
it. His friends were few and he was not above the national fault — 
jealousy — though too great a man to be carried away in a display of it. 
Raphael, on the other hand, the embodiment of all amiable and 
lovable qualities, was liked by his friends as the world has always liked 
his pictures. His own person was the counterpart of his temperament 
and his art. His wonderful character saved him, for, unlike Angelo, 
he was influenced by other great men, whose painting passed before 



his eyes. At first he painted like his early master, Perugino, then like 
Leonardo, and finally Angelo himself caused a change in style. 
Raphael's compositions are more pictorial than Angelo's, but at last 
the younger man's productions became in turn sculpturesque under 
Angelo's influence and thereby gained in power, though they lost in 

Can one man, standing at the apex of glory with another, be said 
to be greater than his fellow? There have been but one Raphael and 
only one Angelo. One is great in lovableness, the other great in force. 

Raphael Sanzio 

l^r 4.83-1320) 

Raphael was born in Urbino, March 28, 1483. His father, Giovanni 
Santi (called Sanzio), was an artist, a man of rare refinement and gen- 
tleness of character, and as a painter quite good enough to command 
the respect of his period. As a boy, taught by his father, he was 
already something more than a beginner when Perugino's studio 
was opened to him, 1495. When Perugino was not restrained by over- 
attention to money getting, he had flights of something akin to inspira- 
tion, and in all cases he was a reasonably good technician. 

The earliest works of Raphael resemble those of this master, like the 
"Marriage of the Virgin" at Milan, which shows much of the Gothic;i 
formalism, not showing the wonderful grace and expressiveness of the 
Madonnas of his next period. 

Going to Florence in 1504, he met Era Bartolommeo, who was a fine 
painter when not over-controlled by his too-tender conscience, which 
seems to have restrained a certain genuine exuberance he was capable 
of displaying. Under this influence the stiffness disappears, and we 
begin to see the Raphael of the Madonna period. Bartolommeo taught 
him how to draw flowing draperies. Many of his fine Madonnas 
(Uffizi Gal.) are of this period. 

At Rome (1508), whither he went at the invitation of Julius II., 
that he might aid in the decoration of the Vatican, he met Michael 
Angelo and fell under his influence, becoming far more majestic in his 

Andrea del Saeto — Madonna. 


conceptions and producing his extended compositions, such as the 
"Disputa del Sacramento, " "School of Athens," "Parnassus," "Attila 
Repelled from Rome," all painted in fresco. The "Madonna del 
Foligno' ' (in oils) is also of this period, and his portrait of Pope Julius 
n. In 1515 he was appointed architect of St. Peter's, but his designs 
were not carried out, the honor falling finally to Michael Angelo. 
Also, in the same year, he commenced the cartoons for the celebrated 
tapestries for the Pope's chapel (seven of these cartoons now at Sout^ 
Kensington Museum, London). 

The tapestries from these cartoons were made in Brussels, during 
the good period of that art in Flanders. Raphael received one-twen- 
tieth the price of the costly gold-threaded fabrics as compensation. 
This is about what an architect receives in these days for designing a 
building. Later oil paintings: "St. Cecelia" (at Bologna), "Madonna 
del Pesce" (at Escurial), "San Sisto" (Dresden), "Transfigu'ration" 
(Vatican), possibly his masterpiece, though rivalled by the San Sisto. 

The Pandolfini palace, at Florence, is an example of pure renais- 
sance architecture from his designs. 

As Raphael's style developed we see more and more the influence 
of the antique statues upon him, though never slavish imitation, as it 
appeared in the works of the "school," so called, which grew up with 
his name attached, and the name was its principal glory. 

Raphael died in Rome, April 6, 1520. 

Principal Works: Bust of St. Sebastian (Lochis, Bergamo); Madonna, 
Madonna and Saints, "Terranuova Madonna," "Colonna Madonna" (Berlin); St. 
Cecelia and Other Saints (Bologna); Salvator Mundi (Gal. Tosio, Sala XIII., 
Brescia); "Esterhazy Madonna," Portrait of Young Man ( Buda-Pesth) ; Three 
Graces, Madonna d' Orleans (MuseeConde, Chantilly); Sistine Madonna (Dresden); 
Leo X. with Cardinals Giulio dei Medici and L. dei Rossi, Maddalena Doni, Angelo 
Doni, Portrait of Pope Julius II., "Madonna della Sedia, " "Madonna del Baldac- 
chino," Vision of Ezechiel, execution by Giulio Romano, "Granduca Madonna," 
"La Donna Gravida," "La Donna Velata" (Pitti, Florence); Portrait of Himself, 
Madonna del Cardellino (Uffizi, Florence); St. Catherine, The Knight's Vision, 
"Madonna Ansidei" (London); Cartoons for Tapestries, execution not Raphael's, but 
chiefly by G. F. Penni (South Kensington, London) ; Cruciiixion (Mr. L. Mond, 
London); Madonna dell' Agnello, Madonna del Pesce, execution chiefly by Giulio 


Romano, Portrait of Young Cardinal (Madrid); Sposalizio (Brera, Milan); Madonna 
Cangiani, Madonni Tempi (Munich); Madonna, Madonna (Lord Cowper, Pans- 
hanger); La Belle Jardiniere, St. Michael, St. George, Portrait of Baldassare 
Castiglione, Sainte Pamille de Franjois I., execution by Giulio Romano, St. Michael 
Crushing Satan, execution by Giulio Romano (Paris). Fresco: Christ and Saints (S. 
Severo, Perugia); Entombment, Portrait of Perugino (Borghese, Rome); Portraits . 
of Navagero and Beazzano (Doria, Rome). Fresco; Pluto with Garland (Academy 
of St. Luca, Rome) ; Coronation and Predelle, Adoration of Magi, Presentation, The 
Nine Virtues, Madonna di Foligno, with Sigismondo Conti as Donor, Transfiguration 
(Vatican Gallery, Rome). Frescoes: Ceiling — Allegorical figures of Theology, 
Philosophy, Poetry and Jurisprudence — Pall of Man, Judgment of Solomon, Apollo 
and Marsyas, An Angel Surveying the Earth. Walls: The "Disputa" — Discussion 
concerning the Sacrament — The School of Athens, Parnassus, Justice, Julius II. and 
His Cardinals, Justinian Publishing the Pandects (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome). 
Frescoes: Heliodorus Driven out of Temple, Pope Julius and his Hearers, executed 
by Raphael himself, the rest largely by assistants ; Miracle of Bolsena, Atilla Turned 
Away from Rome, the heads of Leo X. and his cardinals, in part from Raphael's own 
hand, the rest by pupils; Liberation of St. Peter, the entire execution by pupils, 
chiefly Giulio Romano (Stanza dell' Eliodoro, Rome). Frescoes: Fire in the 
Environs of St. Peters, executed almost wholly by Giulio Romano; Battle of Ostia, 
execution not Raphael's, chiefly Giulio Romano's (Stanza dell' Incendio di Borgo, 
Rome). Fresco and stucco decorations: Illustrations to the Old Testament, whose 
present condition is such that little can be said of the execution, save that it could 
not have been Raphael's; some of the best seem to have been painted by P. del 
Vaga (Loggie, Rome). Frescoes: Galatea, Story of Cupid and Psyche, execution 
not by Raphael; figures by Giulio Romano (Farnesina, Rome). Fresco: The 
Prophet Isaiah (S. Agostino, Rome). Frescoes: Sibyls and Angels (S. M. Della 
Pace, Rome); "Madonna im Grunen" (Vienna); Portrait of Tommaso Inghirami 
(Palazzo Inghirami, Volterra). 

One of the lesser luminaries of this period was Andrea del Sarto 
(1486-1530), and it is as a remarkable manipulator of paint and lines, 
an astonishingly talented painter, rather than as an artistic genius, that 
we must regard him. Had he not lived between Michael Angelo and 
Raphael, who could do a great deal more than simply paint well, he 
would have occupied a higher place in the world of art. 

The son of a Florentine tailor, Del Sarto was apprenticed at the 
age of seven years to a goldsmith, where he showed such talent for 
drawing that he attracted attention. 

Andrea del Sabto — Madonna. 


Subsequently Fran9ois I. of France became one of his most 
enthusiastic patrons. His education was like that of the others, influ- 
enced by Masaccio, by the coloring of Titian, and by the mighty 
works of the two great Florentines. He learned it all, but could not 
make as lofty use of his knowledge. Nearly all his faces follow a 
fixed type, and his figures become tiresomely mechanical. 

Principal Works: Bus*- of His Wife, Madonna and Saints (Berlin); Marriage 
of St. Catherine, Sacrifice of Isaac (Dresden); Two Angels, Dead Christ, Four 
Saints, Predelle to Above (Academy, Florence) ; Deposition, Portrait of Himself, 
Holy Family, Life of Joseph, Annuciation, Dispute over the Trinity, Portrait of 
Himself, Assumption, Assumption, The Baptist (Pitti, Florence); "Noli Me 
Tangere," Portrait of His Wife, Portrait of Himself, Madonna dell' Arpie, Portrait 
of Himself, Portrait of Lady, St. James (Uffizi, Florence); Frescoes from the Life of 
the Baptist and four Allegorical Figures (Chiostro dell a Scalzo, Florence); Fres- 
coes with the story of S. Filippo Benizzi, Adoration of the Magi, Birth of Virgin 
(SS. Annunziata, Entrance Court, Florence); Head of Christ (SS. Annunziata, 
Chapel to Left of Entrance, Florence) ; Madonna del Sacco (SS. Annunziata, Inner 
Cloister, Florence) ; Last Supper (S. Salvi, Florence) ; Portrait of a Sculptor (Lon- 
don); Sacrifice of Isaac (Madrid); Holy Family (Munich); Charity, Holy Family 
(Paris); St. Catherine, St. Margaret, St. Agnes (Duomo, Pisa); Caesar Receiving 
Tribute (Poggio a Caiano) ; Pieta (Vienna). 

The followers of Raphael have continued the mannerisms of their 
great master, even until this day. Among the most important of his 
assistants was Giulio Romano (1492-1546), though it is difficult to 
understand why his name occupies so large a place in history. He 
was a sufficiently able assistant as long as Raphael supplied the essen- 
tial genius, but after the death of the inventor of this noble art this 
follower caricatured it, and there is no good color, no able composi- 
tion, no grandeur of conception to be found in Romano's productions 
when he was left to himself. His training as a painter enabled him 
to execute very good architecture, because he took pains to follow 
the established formulas. We shall presently consider the "school of 
Raphael" as it developed under the Caracci family's influence, but it 
is a painful fact that nothing came from the immediate following of 
the great Florentine but abject imitation, often distinguished badness. 


Principal Works: Copy of Raphael's "Madonna with the Pink" (Duke of 
Northumberland, Alnwick) ; Diana and Endymion (Buda-Pesth) ; "Madonna della 
Catina," Pan and Olympus (Dresden); Stoning of Stephen (S. Stefano. Genoa); 
"Garvagh Madonna" (London); "Lo Spasimo," in some part by Penni, "La Perla" 
(Madrid); Decorative Frescoes, executed chiefly by assistants (Palazzo Gonzaga, 
Mantua). Frescoes; Story of Cupid and Psyche, Fall of Giants and other frescoes 
(Palasso del Te, Mantua) ; Bust of an Ecclesiastic (Munich); Madonna della Gatta, 
Madonna col Divin' Anore (Sala Granda, Naples) ; Madonna in Glory and Saints 
(Parma) ; Nativity, Triumph of Venus and Vespasian, Venus and Vulcan, Portrait 
of Man, Circumcision, "Vierge au Voile," "Sainte Famille de Frangois I.," St. 
Michael Crushing Satan, Portrait of Giovanna d' Aragona, Portraits of Two Men 
(Paris); "La Fornarina" (Barberini, Rome); Madonna and Infant John (Borghese, 
Rome); Judith (Capitol, Rome); Lower part of Raphael's Transfiguration, Upper 
part of a Coronation, lower by Penni (Gallery, Vatican). Frescoes: Battle of Ponte 
Monte, Constantine Addressing his Troops (Sala del Constantino, Rome) ; Madonna 
(Miss H. Hertz, Rome); Altar-piece, Madonna and Saints (S. M. Dell' Anima, 
Rome) ; Flagellation (Sacristy, S. Prassede, Rome) ; St. Margaret (Vienna). 

Antonio Allegri da Correggio 


One of Correggio's pictures in the Louvre, a Satyr stealthily 
regarding Antiope and Cupid asleep, is so clear in its natural flesh tones 
(shades somewhat darkened only) that it is difficult to imagine how 
the work could have been executed four hundred years ago. All his 
art is different from anything else made at the period; the drawing 
indicating extraordinary command of form and foreshortening. What 
instruction aided his genius to accomplish these wonders cannot be 
determined. During a long and industrious career, he does not appear 
to have traveled far from his native city of Correggio; neither Venice 
nor Rome aided him, except as their pictures wandered within his 
reach. Francesco Bianchi, of Modena, seems to have been his master, 
and his uncle, Lorenzo Allegri, probably gave instruction. 

Most celebrated is the decoration of the dome of the Cathedral of 
Parma (1530) with "The Assumption of the Virgin." In the curve of 
the dome's interior the angels and cherubs are flung about in the 
most violent action, rejoicing and gesticulating about the Virgin, the 

Andrea del Sahto — John the Baptist. 


foreshortened legs wonderfully drawn but so confused as to give rise 
to the expression that the group was no more than a "fricassee of 
frogs." Below are the dignified ones, looking up to admire the 
rejoicing company. In the Benedictine Church is a similar work, a 
representation of the Ascension. Three of his important pictures 
were taken to Paris by the French during the wars, but restored to 
their place by the allies at the overthrow of Napoleon. They were 
"The St. Jerome," "The Descent from the Cross" and "The Martyr- 
dom of St. Placide." At the gallery in Dresden maj' be seen "The 
Night of the Nativity, " in which the light, instead of being thrown 
upon the figures from without, emanates from the body of the infant 
Christ and glows brilliantly upward upon all the figures. It is the 
pretty mother and attendants, with expressions of gaiety, attitudes 
somewhat over active and extravagant, angels a little too sprawl- 
ing, which indicate the temperament of Correggio. The composi- 
tion is a disturbed suggestion that the hovering angels might be 
scratching matches on the sk}'. However, originality is a rare and 
noble thing. That beautiful small panel, "The Reading Magdalen," 
is at the same place, and nothing so reveals the advance made in 
beauty, grace and fine painting since the Renaissance opened. It is 
less noble in expression than Raphael's works, but tenderer in touch 
and better in color. The "Nativity," the "Marriage of St. Cather- 
ine," at the Louvre, and- one resembling it at the Museum of Naples, 
illustrate drawing by means of masses of light and shade, rather than 
by distinct outline. The "Nativity" most of all illustrates the arti- 
ficial use of light and shade as a decorative element, without any 
regard for the facts of nature. This was Correggio's individuality. It 
is what has come to be known as "chiaroscuro" (clair-obscure). 
Raphael never uses it in this way; seems to have known little about 
it. In the work of Holbein (and almost universally in Germany at 
this time) there is no suggestion of it. 

Correggio spent a period in Mantua. 

The popular story about his death from fever contracted because 
of faiigue caused by packing a bagful of copper coins, received in 


payment for his last picture, is probably apocryphal, as he came of a 
family of respectable tradespeople and had much success in life, 
including a little fortune from his uncle and a wife of some position. 

Principal Works: Marriage of St. Catherine (Louvre, Paris) ; Marriage of St. 
Catherine (Naples); Madonna of St. Francis (Dresden); Holy Family (Pavia); 
Two Pictures (Uffizi, Florence), one of these "Madonna Adoring the Child"; Fres- 
coes (Convent of San Paola, Parma); Ascension of Christ (San Giovanni, Parma); 
Assumption of the Virgin (Duomo, Parma) ; Education of Cupid (London) ; Jupiter 
and Antiope (Louvre, Paris) ; lo (Vienna) ; Leda with the Swan (Berlin) ; Danae 
(Borghese Palace, Rome); Madonna della Scala, Madonna della Scodella, St. Jerome 
Presenting His Translation of the Scriptures to the Virgin, called "II Giorno" of the 
"Day" (Parma); "Santa Notte" or "The Holy Night," Madonna of St. Sebastian, 
Madonna of St. George (Dresden); Virgin of the Basket, Ecce Homo, Christ on the 
Mount of Olives, Studies of Angels' Heads (London); Marriage of St. Catherine, 
Hagar in the Desert, Repose in Egypt (Naples); Noli Me Tangere (Madrid). 

The chief figure in transalpine art was Hans Holbein (1497-1543). 
The French sometimes call him "Jean," because his real name was 
Johannes. With his father, his uncle and his brother, young Hans 
did much hard work in the paternal studio. Everything indicates that 
he was well instructed in all the art which these somewhat Gothic 
worthies knew. As many pictures by the father and the other 
relatives have been attributed to the greater Hans, we may conclude 
that in the early days they all painted pretty much alike as far as 
mannerisms go. It is always convenient to attach the greatest name 
that you, with or without conscience, can to any doubtful picture. 

Augsburg, a Suabian city in the mountainous country, has been, 
after much dispute, decided upon as the place and 1497 as the date 
of his birth, though these things have to be guessed at. 

All thinking men, who objected to going to jail or the stake, 
gathered at the free Swiss city of Basle, because there also the print- 
ers, whom the too particular ecclesiastics were disposed to dislike 
pretty seriously, found opportunity to send out matter to all the 
world. Basle was an important city, attracting all sorts of workers, 
among others the artists who expected to find employment at the 
hands of the publishers in illustrating books. In those days, as in 

.■ '*u ' t 

Hams Holbbin — Ladt Vaux. 


these, illustrative designing demanded the best efforts of the trained 
men. Young Holbein went with the crowd, and was soon employed 
to illustrate "The Praise of Folly," that celebrated satire by Erasmus, 
who was himself in Basle. 

In all the works of Diirer, his contemporary, we see nothing to 
speak of as "clever." Diirer was inventive, imaginative, dignified 
and sometimes powerful, but never clever. Holbein manifested 
cleverness, ingenuity and often mirthfulness. His ideas abounded, he 
knew his classics and could supplement the text with originalities 
which doubled its force. Of course he was never without work or good 
pay, considering the economical conditions governing all living. 

"The Dance of Death," a series of popular illustrations which the 
young artist made,- is peculiarly Teutonic in sentiment. All through 
the Gothic period this doleful array of horrible suggestions, associated 
with our taking off, decorated the German churches. We see the 
same taste for the substantialities of the serious side of religion at this 
day in the character of the crucifixes erected by the wayside. The 
crucified Christ must be made horrible or the figure leaves no taste in 
the mouth. One of the reasons why Protestantism so quickly found 
favor with the Teutons is discoverable in this desire to dwell upon the 
severe realities of religion. Catholicism was not severe enough, not 
genuine (at that time), and genuineness meant a strong dose of the 
horrible. Holbein's "Dance of Death" was presented in a series of 
illustrations for which he made the designs, little pictures, two by two 
and one-half inches. Skillfully engraved by another hand, as Holbein 
does not appear to have been an engraver, these give us his inventive- 
ness, his witty appreciation of the subject-matter and the way he could 
express himself with few lines. Some are grotesque, others entirely 
charming — all tell the story bluntly. Death misses nobody, but the 
artist delights most in letting him have his own remorseless way with 
the corrupt priest, the potentate, the hypocritical preacher, the 
soldier, the rich merchant, and is lenient only when the self-sacrificing 
priest is called upon while soothing the troubles of the afflicted. The 
mother, whose babe Death is snatching from the cradle, has an expres- 


sion of horror either touching or ridiculous according to your taste in 
such matters. Laboring faithfully in his field, the ploughman discovers 
Death lashing the horses (a tender pastoral), while the lady of fashion 
receives no consideration for her imposing decorativeness. Even the 
lover is brutally driven from his enamorata; Death taking his place, 
going at his love-making in a way to shock the most unimpression- 
able. Little initial letters, one inch square, each a gem of a picture, 
continue the dreadful scenes. Diirer would have made things like 
these equally impressive, equally literal; but he designed majestically, 
not popularly. 

It was the fashion, here and in Italy (where it originated), to 
embellish the flat house fronts with architectural elaborations, paneled 
with either religious or secular pictures, or scenes from domestic life. 
Paul Veronese displayed wonderful genius in this way, and so did 
Holbein. The fashion continues until this day. 

Religious art was by no means relegated to oblivion, as the diet at 
Worms did not occur until 1521. The leaven required time to raise 
the heavy dough. In Holbein's religious art, Italian influence shapes 
the composition and treatment; much more so than with Diirer's work. 
It is like the school of Raphael, but a dignified use of the influence. 
The young man never was in Italy, but on the road where Italian prod- 
ucts passed along. Diirer went to Italy, but escaped contamination. 

Holbein had an eye for the main chance, not refusing offers of 
money for country's sake, as Diirer did. Taking letters from Erasmus 
to Sir Thomas More, then Lord Chancellor of England, he made the 
journey to that far country. On the way, in Flanders, Quentin Mat- 
sys (then well along in years) received his attentions. 

Sir Thomas More's house and hand, influence and general support 
soon placed Holbein in a position to wear velvet coats. 

Our story grows dull with accounts of portrait painting, designs 
for dagger-hilts and jewelled cups, visits to the continent, to Basle, 
and more portraits when back in England, until the moment when 
King Henry VIII., having fallen in love with Anne Boleyn anj[ then 
grown sufficiently tired of her to want another wife, cut off her head 

Raphael — The Transfiguration. 


in favor of her successor. Then it seems that the king desired some 
one to originate decorations for the marriage festival, and to paint 
Jane Seymour's portrait as she in turn became queen. 

Holbein's true genius shows in these portraits, which are not sur- 
passed by any in the world from the point of view of exquisite finish, 
clean drawing and decorative effect. Titian made richer color and 
greater dignity; Velasquez stamped his portraits with the seal of aris- 
tocratic elegance and a "something else" which I cannot describe; but 
Holbein excites our wonder when we think of his limited early oppor- 
tunities and what he made of himself. These heads are wonderfully 
well "constructed" and wonderfully touched. With all the stately 
grandeur in many of Diirer's pictures, they never show such ease 
and simple naturalness as these. It is not enough to say that he 
could paint every detail with marvelous truth and minuteness, because 
other men have done this and all the German painters of the time 
excelled in it. There is something in Holbein's painting beyond 
ordinary ability. The portrait of Anne of Cleves, Henry's fourth wife, 
which he loved more than the original, is quite unique in that it 
shows us the face and all else full front equal on either side, two sides 
alike in everything. It has become a classic for all who seek dignity 
and repose. Coquetry wearies us after a time; grace and sweet cham- 
pagne sharpen the appetite for homeliness and old cheese. That out- 
landish headdress, winged out equally on either side, the rigid corsage 
equally bejewelled on either side, the hands crossed placidly, sustained 
by the equal ponderous sleeves, all these are as dignified as the domed 
capitol building at Washington with its peristyled wings. The artist 
saves the situation by half-concealed variations, as the two hands 
vary, though counterparts. This and the Jane Seymour portrait stand 
supreme in the artist's product. In common with all the painters of 
this period, Holbein worked more in oils than in distemper. Fresco 
painting did not appeal to these men, as there were few extensive 
wall spaces in the churches upon which to spread wet plaster to strike 
the fresh color into. Drawings on toned paper, done in chalk or ink 
and often tinted with water-color or colored chalks, sometimes show 


us the man better than his paintings. Diirer's drawings were strong 
but never so exquisite, perhaps not so correct. 

After the fall from power of Sir Thomas More, Holbein found his 
best supporters and protectors among the powerful German merchants 
(in London) of the celebrated Hanseatic League. 

Even great men are forgotten. It is not plainly written, but things 
indicate that Holbein went with the forgotten dead during the con- 
fusion attending the panic-spreading plague at London in 1543. 
Some claim that it was another date, 1554 — London so frequently 
luxuriated in plagues. 

Principal Works: The Passion, Dead Christ, Portraits of His Wife and Chil- 
dren (Basle) ; Portrait of Anne of Cleves, Erasmus ( Louvre, Paris) ; Meyer Madonna 
(Dresden); Portrait of Charles V. (Berlin); Portrait of Henry VIII. (Augsburg);. 
Ambassadors (London). 

French art assumes no national characteristics until the time of 
Louis XIV., and even then much of it was so influenced by the Italian 
as to be but little original. But there are several men who made 
excellent paintings in France about the time of Francis I. (sixteenth 
century). Francis, desiring to be in the fashion, and being also a real 
lover of art, imported Leonardo da Vinci from Italy, making him 
court painter. But the artist was at that time an old man and did but 
little work. 

In the Louvre are portraits of the king, and of men and women 
of his court, which recall remarkably the style of the Van Eycks, 
having the same careful finish and much of the clearness of color 
and firm drawing of the Flemings. Many of these probably are by 
Jean and Franfois Clouet. 

Other sixteenth century painters in France are not sufficiently 
original to merit attention. It was a period of superior sculpture, 
however, and architecture flourished. 

Jean Cousin (1501-1590) received his art impulse from Italy. He 
is better known as a painter on glass. His "Last Judgment," in the 
Louvre, is sufficiently celebrated because the work of an early French- 
man of pure nationality. It is said that he painted in oils. 

Raphael — Madonna del' Granbuca. 


Chief among the successors of Titian in Venice was Jacopo 
Robusti, called Tintoretto (1518-1594). These Venetian painters 
insisted upon growing as nature intended they should develop, and the 
soil was fertile. These were no artificially, fostered hothouse plants. 
Be it briar rose of cold Scotland or tropical orchid, we can but love 
the unaffected honesty of the flowers. The cognomen "il Furioso" 
tells us a great deal about Tintoretto, most of all that he worked when 
his talent glowed at white heat. It is then that an artist has liberty, 
and who dares say that it would have been better had Tintoretto 
never painted less well than his best, or that he should have been an 
"even" worker. All the criticism heaped upon him falls fiat when 
we think that his failures are but proofs of his unconfined genius. 
Did he not do a sufficient number of masterpieces to prove his might? 
Titian (forty-one years his senior), who was his master for a short 
period, sent him away, saying that he "would never be any better 
than a dauber." II Furioso at once determined to found a school of 
art all by himself. But for the presence of his somewhat greater 
master, and of Veronese, he would have carried out his purpose. As 
it was, he became one of the coterie which the world has counted 
splendid colorists, patterns for generations of artists to follow. As 
there were no great collections of dug-up antique statues in Venice, 
this young artist had to content himself with the reproductions of 
great statues originating with Michael Angelo (forty-three years 
older) and turn to nature more sincerely. The anecdotes related of 
his methods of study sound very much like similar experiences in the 
studios of Paris to-day. Drawing from these reproductions, creating 
little models in wax or clay, arranging his manikins in miniature 
apartments which simulated the compositions which he had in mind, 
hanging these up in various positions, creating artificial light and 
shade around them, performing multitudinous tricks long since grown 
familiar: these were his ways, and this history is the first authentic 
account which we have of these things, though doubtless used 
previously, in a degree. 

The cognomen "Tintoretto" came to him because of his father's 


trade of dyer. Poverty was less hard to endure in Venice than it is in 
New York, but nevertheless it required pluck in the young artist to 
borrow his father's dyestuffs in order to paint decorations on the 
exterior of houses (as the fashion was, and is, in Italy), and it showed 
the ruling passion, to make pictures in color rather than drawings. 
While still young, he undertook many commissions to paint exteriors, 
doing the work without profit, content if the materials alone were 
paid for by the patron. Fame found him, finally, so that he spread 
his beloved color over some arches of house fronts, to much better 
financial advantage. 

A legend, "the drawing of Michael Angelo and the color of 
Titian," which his boyish enthusiasm set up over his studio door, was 
written furiously over the palace fronts of Venice in very large char- 
acters of sacred and profane pictorial history, and this he did in addi- 
tion to numerous large interior decorations and easel pictures. 

Principal Works: Christ in the House of Martha (Aiigsburg) ; A Lady Dressed 
as a Queen (Carrara, Bergamo) ; Portrait of Procurator, The same, Madonna with 
SS. Mark and Luke, Luna and the Hours, Procurator before St. Mark (Berlin); 
Bust of Old Man (Herr Kaufmann, Berlin); Visitation, Portrait of Man (Bologna); 
Portrait of Senator (Mrs. J. L. Gardner, Boston, U. S. A.); An Old Man (Tosio, 
SalaXni., Brescia); Transfiguration (S. Afra, Brescia); Head of Old Man (Buda- 
Pesth); Deposition (Caen) ; Head of Old Man, Portrait of Senator of Eighty-three 
(Prof. C. E. Norton, Cambridge, U. S. A.); Portrait of Senator (Mr. Arch. Stirling, 
Carder House, near Glasgow); Ovid and Corinna (Cologne); Lady Dressed in 
Mourning, The Rescue, Two Gentlemen (Dresden) ; Christ Washing the Feet of the 
Disciples (Escurial); Two Portraits of Men, Portrait of Luigi Cornaro, Portrait of 
Vincenzo Zeno (Florence) ; Portrait of Himself, Bust of Young Man, Admiral Venier, 
Portrait of Old Man, Portrait of Jacopo Sansovino, Portrait of Man (Uffizi, Florence); 
Warrior (Consul Weber, Hamburg) ; Esther before Ahasuerus, Nine Muses, Portrait 
of Dominican, Knight of Malta, Portrait of a Senator (Hampton Court); Resurrec- 
tion (Leipzig) ; Portrait of a Senator (Lille) ; St. George and Dragon, Christ Wash- 
ing Feet of Disciples, Origin of the Milky Way (London); Portrait of Man 
(Bridgewater House, London); Busts of Two Old Men (Lord Brownlow, London); 
Adam and Eve (Mr. R. Crawshay, London); Moses Striking Rock, Portrait of Sen- 
ator (Mr. Butler, London); Portrait of Man, Portrait of Man by Window (Dorchester 
House, London) ; The Resurrection (Sir Wm. Farrer, London) ; Portrait of Andrae 
Barbadigo, Portrait of Man (Sir Arthur James, London); Galleys at Sea, Portrait of 

Raphael — Madonna dblla Tenda. 


Giovanni Gritti (Mr. Mond, London) ; Portrait of Admiral Venier (Lord Rosebery, 
London); Portrait of Ottavio di Stra (Mr. Salting, London); Raising of Lazarus 
(Lubeck); Portrait of Man (Sala L, Lucca); Danae, in part (Lyons); Battle on Land 
and Sea, Joseph and Potiphar's Wife, Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, Susanna 
and the Elders, Finding of Moses, Esther before Ahasuerus, Judith and Holofernes 
(Madrid) ; Pieta, St. Helen, Three Other Saints and two Donors, Finding the Body of 
St. Mark (Brera, Milan) ; Bust of Procurator (Museo Civico, Milan) Bust of man (Mr. 
T. H. Davis, Newport, U. S. A.); Portrait of Man (Lord Cowper, Panshanger); 
Susanna and the Elders, Paradise, Portrait of Old Man (Paris) ; St. John the Baptist, 
Portrait of Senator (Sir F. Cook, Richmond); The Baptism, Ecce Homo, The 
Flagellation (Capitol, Rome); Three Women and a Man Adoring the Holy Spirit, 
Old Man Playing Spinnet, Two Portraits of Men (Colonna, Rome); Portrait of Man 
(Doria, Rome) ; The Trinity (Turin) ; S. Giustina and Three Donors, Madonna, Three 
Saints and Three Donors, Portrait of Carlo Morosini, Portrait of a Senator, Deposi- 
tion, Senator in Prayer, Portrait of Jacopo Soranzo, Andrae Capello (Academy 
Venice). Ceiling: Prodigal Son, Four Virtues, Death of Abel, Two Senators, 
Miracle of St. Mark, Adam and Eve, Two Senators, Resurrected Christ Blessing 
Three Senators, Madonna, and Three Portraits, Crucifixion, Resurrection (Sala IV., 
Venice); Doge Mocenigo Recommended to Christ by St. Mark, Figures in grisaille 
around the Clock, Dige Daponte before the Virgin, Marriage of St. Catherine and 
Doge Dona, Doge Gritti before the Virgin (Collegio, Palazzo Ducale, Venice); Mer- 
cury and Three Graces, Vulcans Forge, Bacchus and Ariadne, Minerva Expelling 
Mars (Anti Collegio, Palazzo Ducale, Venice); SS. Margaret, George and Louis, 
SS. Andrew and Jerome (Ante-Room of Chapel, Palazzo Ducale, Venice); St. 
Mark Presenting Doge Loredan to the Virgin in Presence of Two Other Saints 
(Senato, Palazzo Ducale, Venice); Ceiling in part (Sala Quattro Porte, Palazzo 
Ducale, Venice); Alessandro Bono, Vincenzo, Morosini, Nicole Priuli, Ceiling, 
Lorenzo Amelio (Ingresso, Venice); Andrae Delphino (Passage to Council 
of Ten, Palazzo Ducale, Venice); Federigo Cintarini, Nobles Illumined by the 
Holy Spirit (Passage to Council of Ten, Palazzo Ducale, Venice); Paradise (Sala 
del Gran Consiglio, Palazzo Ducale, Venice) ; Battle of Zara (Sala dello Scrutino, 
Palazzo Ducale, Venice) ; Transportation of Body of St. Mark, St. Mark Rescues a 
Shipwrecked Saracen, Diogenes, Archimedes and Two Other Philosophers on separate 
canvases. Another Room, St. Roch (Palazzo Reale Libreria, Venice) ; Battle Piece, 
Portrait of Senator, Portrait of General, Portrait of Warrior (Prince Giovanelli, 
Venice) ; Crucifixion, Christ in Limbo, Resurrection (S. Cassiano, Venice) ; Assump- 
tion of Virgin, Circumcision (Gesuiti, Venice); Last Supper, Gathering of Mannal 
Entombment (S. Giorgio Maggiore, Venice); Michael Overcoming Lucifer (S. 
Giuseppe di Castello, Venice); Finding of True Cross (S. Maria Mater Domini, 
Venice); Last Judgment, Martyrdom of Paul, The Tablets of the Law and the 
Golden Calf, Martyrdom of St. Agnes, Presentation of Virgin (Maria dell' Orto, 


Venice) ; Glory of S. Marziale (S. Marziale, Venice) ; Last Supper, Assumption of 
Virgin (S. Paolo, Venice) ; Annunciation, Pool of Bethesda, St. Roch and the Beasts 
of the Field, St. Roch Healing the Sick, St.^och in Campo d'Armata, St. Roch 
Consoled by an Angel, St. Roch before the Pope (S. Rocco, Venice) ; Nearly All the 
Paintings on Walls (Ground Floor, Scuola di S. Rocco, Venice) ; Visitation (Staircase, 
S. Rocco, Venice) ; All the Paintings on Walls and Ceiling, Portrait of Himself (Upper 
Floor, Hall, S. Rocco, Venice) ; Crucifixion, Christ before Pilate, Ecce Homo, Way 
to Golgotha, Ceiling, altogether sixty-two paintings (Inner Room, S. Rocco, 
Venice); Marriage of Cana (Salute, Venice); Baptism (S. Silvestro, Venice); Last 
Supper, Washing of Feet, Agony in Garden (S. Stefano, Venice) ; Temptation of St. 
Anthony (S. Trovaso, Venice) ; Birth of Virgin (S. Zaccaria, Venice) ; St. Augustine 
Healing the Plague-Stricken (Entrance Hall, Vicenza); St. Jerome, Susanna and 
the Elders, Sebastian Venier, An Officer in Armour, Old Man and Boy, Two Por- 
traits of Men, Portrait of Man, Portrait of Old Man, Three Portraits of Men, Portrait 
of Lady (Vienna) ; Portrait of Ales, Contarini, Portrait of Doge Priuli (Academy, 
Venice) ; Portrait of Man (Woburn Abbey). 

Paolo Cagliari or Paul Veronese (1528- 1588) was also from the 
north of Italy. His uncle, Antonio Badile carried on an art school of 
which Paolo became a pupil. It has been said that his art was the 
commencement of the decadence. 

Nothing is more difficult than to determine the relative greatness 
of artists. Genius is great in and of itself without regard to the char- 
acter of its product. Raphael could never have been a Titian or a 
Veronese. He could draw (because so educated) with great perfec- 
tion in the manner of the refined Greeks, but he could never feel that 
gushing joyousness in swift painting merely for the sake of expressing 
his exuberance of spirits. He never knew, nor could know, the 
delight of reveling in gorgeous coloring purely for the sake of doing 
it. Was Veronese's genius of a higher order? Who can say that it 
was? Who can declare that it was not? What can be greater than the 
genius of a genius, whatever maybe its tendency? If there is nothing 
in the character of the beautiful Florentine to compare for a moment 
with that of these Venetians, it is equally true that they had no 
power to invest a pagan image, i.e., an antique, with that marvelous 
celestial expression which we find in Raphael's Madonnas. No Vene- 
tian ever conceived the expression of a Christ-child as Raphael did, , 

Raphael — Portrait of Himself. 


nor could imagine it in order to make the attempt. Shall we conclude 
that Raphael's genius was the greater? Each one will answer this 
after his own taste and affection. Some love the moral in a picture; 
some love the painter qualities. Argument is useless in attempting to 
influence either. If we love it, we love it, so reasoning is useless. 

Try as they would, not one of the followers of Raphael could make 
an expression like that in the Sistine Madonna. In all the genera- 
tions, even until to-day, they seek that attainment — uselessly. It 
must be that Raphael had a magnificent genius. However, it is 
equally true that all generations have emulated Titian and Veronese, 
with the same lack of success. Titian was a most original man, 
inventing human expression second only to Raphael, but surpassing 
the Florentine in painter qualities as the sun surpasses a candle in 
brilliancy. The wild gush of Tintoretto, which carries us all off our 
feet, was impossible for either Titian or Raphael. Again we come to 
a man who had a genius all his own; something impossible for any of 
his predecessors. I suspect that the criticism which is hurled at 
Veronese, that he was the turning-point between greatness and deca- 
dence, has its foundation in prejudice. It is largely a puff of smoke 
from that old war between classicism and spontaneity. Veronese 
painted from the fullness of his heart, drawing indifferently because 
not well trained in his classics, but painting like one of the gods, 
because his was painter genius. 

It does not signify that his successors, attempting his magnificence, 
revealed themselves only decadents, because the same is true of 
Raphael's followers, of Michael Angelo's, of Benvenuto Cellini's, and 
of every rare genius. The divine fire had burned itself out, so that 
there was no more genius in the land. Diirer, Holbein, Rembrandt, 
Van Dyck, Velasquez, all were followed by men of lesser light, some 
of them of no light at all. When the oil is consumed, what will you? 

Portrait painting is a great test of genius — the power to perceive 
the best there is in a face and set it forth effectively. Raphael's por- 
traits are not as wonderful as Titian's or as Holbein's, or as those of 
the magnificent delineator of character, Velasquez. The faces of 


Veronese's pictures are portraits, wonderful in character. No face in 
a picture by Raphael is a portrait, nor did he intend that it should be. 
Thus, men of great genius differ, as they should, but who is to deter- 
mine the degree of genius in each? There is reason to doubt the often 
accepted theory that so-called importance of subject has anything to do 
with the measurement of grade of genius. 

No man in the world has approached Veronese in the production 
of immense decorative panels, crowded with figures, nearly all life- 
sized and full of movement, set amid grandiose architectural sur- 
roundings only equalled in the tales of- the Arabian Nights, their 
persons clothed in rich garments, loaded with jewels and every sort of 
luxurious thing. No vessels of gold and crystal were too sumptuous for 
his noble company, nor could there be too many of them. The "Mar- 
riage at Cana" (Louvre) is more than twenty-five feet long, containing 
an immense number of figures, all the principal figures being portraits, 
including Veronese himself. The composition pays no attention to 
preconceived ideals of this scene, as Veronese sought only to produce 
a vast decoration filled with elegant people and objects. It is in 
reality a superb feast in which Venetian people enjoy themselves. All 
these things were rendered with the colors of the golden sunset, but 
modified by that wonderful harmonious gray which we talked about. 
His was far and away the most wonderful genius in this respect which 
the world has ever witnessed. The genius which has no competitors 
is indeed great, no matter in what manner it manifests itself. 

Many claim that the orientals have more native feeling for deco- 
rative effect than the occidentals. If this be true, it is the direct 
outcome of genius, and Veronese had this power more than any other 
occidental. He lived sixty years, and then the light went out, as it 
has done many times since, and with equal suddenness. One genius 
does not create another genius. It may help to develop one; but only 
the Almighty knows where genius comes from or why it comes. 

Principal Works: Madonna with Cuccina Family, Adoration of Magi, Mar- 
riage of Cana, Finding of Moses, Portrait of Daniel Barbaro (Dresden) ; Portrait of 
Daniel Barbaro (Pitti, Florence) ; Martyrdom of St. Giustina, Holy Family and St. 


Catherine (UfBzi, Florence); Madonna and Saints (?) (Hampton Court) ; Consecra- 
tion of St. Nicholas, Alexander and the Family of Darius (London) ; Holy Family 
(Dr. Richter, London); Christ and the Centurion, Finding of Moses (Madrid); 
Frescoes (Villa Barbaro, Maser); SS. Antony, Cornelius, and Cyprian, and Page 
(Brera, Milan); Martyrdom of St. Giustina (Padua); Christ at Emaus (Paris); Young 
Mother and Child, Marriage of Cana (Paris) ; Portrait of Man in Green (Colonna, 
Rome); St. Antony Preaching to the Fishes (Villa Borghese, Rome); Battle of 
Lepanto, Feast in House of Levi, Madonna with SS. Joseph, John, Francis, Jerome 
and Giustina (Academy, Venice); Thanksgiving for Lepanto ( CoUegio, Palazzo 
Ducale, Venice); Rape of Europa (Ante-Collegio, Palazzo Ducale, Venice) ; Holy 
Family (S. Barnaba, Venice) ; Marriage of St. Catherine (S. Caterina, Venice) ; Holy 
Family with SS. Catherine and Antony Abbot (S. Francesco della Vigna, Venice) ; 
Madonna and Two Saints, Crucifixion, Madonna in Glory with St. Sebastian and 
Other Saints, SS. Mark and Marcilian led to Martyrdom, St. Sebastian Being Bound 
(?) (S. Sebastiano, Venice) ; Onofrio and Paul the Hermit, SS. Matthew and Mark, 
SS. Roch, Andrew, Peter and Figure of Faith, Tiburtine and Cumaean Sibyls 
(Frescoes, SS. Sebastiano, Venice) ; Portrait of Pasio Guadienti, Deposition (Verona) ; 
Martyrdom of St. George (S. Giorgio, Verona); Madonna and Saints (S. Paola, 
Verona); Madonna (Sala II., Vicenza); Feast of St. Gregory (Monte Berico, 
Vicenza); Christ at the House of Jairus (Vienna). 



The contest between an inclination to delineate objects as they 
exist and the desire to present lofty idealizations has occupied the 
attention of artists of all times. The division into distinct classes did 
not begin however, until the fifteenth century. 

Among the first of the realists was Tomaso Guido, called 
Masaccio (1401-1429), and his ability to paint what passed before his 
eyes had a marked influence. His works were almost entirely of a 
realistic character, and he broke loose in a measure from the restraints 
which the ecclesiastics had fastened upon art. Departing from the 
fixed formulae imposed by the church, he copied freely from real life 
with such success that his frescoes were studied by the greatest artists 
of his time. 

Principal Works: Adoration of Magi, Martyrdom of St. Peter and the Baptist, 
A Birth Plate (Berlin); Madonna, Child and St. Anne (Academy, Florence). Fres- 
coes: Expulsion from Paradise, Tribute Money, SS. Peter and John Healing the 
Sick with Their Shadows, St. Peter Baptising, SS. Peter and John Distributing Alms ; 
In the Raising of the King's Son, Middle Group and part of St. Peter, and scene to 
R., St. Peter Enthroned (Carmine, Brancacci Chapel, Florence); Trinity, Madonna, 
and St. John, and two Donors (S. Maria Novella, Wall R. of Entrance, Florence). 

The great masters of the Renaissance, da Vinci, Angelo, Raphael, 
Titian and his following, still painted their highly-idealized concep- 
tions of religious characters, though more naturally; and they all 
executed portraits, somewhat ideal, though nearly naturalistic. 
Angelo and Raphael idealized drawing according to the forms of the 
antique statues. The Venetians, influenced less by the antique, 
became wonderful colorists, and finally almost realists, as with 



The following of this great Renaissance rapidly degenerated, pos- 
sibly because the Italian people degenerated. Correggio was more 
naturalistic, and many of his erotic pictures will not altogether bear 
description. In churches, the ecclesiastics still controlled the art, 
though even there it lost dignity and religiosity. In many convents 
were painted decorations and easel pictures beyond belief frivolous. 
Excellent portraiture flourished, though the artists who may be admit- 
ted to the enchanted ground occupied by Titian, Velasquez, Van 
Dyck, Rembrandt, and — in a judgment of charity — Reynolds, are 
almost limited by the names mentioned. Portrait painting is one 
of the noblest of arts; but for this reason good portraits are scarce. 

After Raphael's career was ended, a school was formed for the 
express purpose of perpetuating his style and that of the other great 
masters just gone. It was called the Academy of the Caracci. Its 
masters had no real conviction, and the material with which they 
worked was degenerate Italian, but its influence was important, and it 
resulted in raising up Guido Reni, Domenichino and indirectly Carlo 
Dolci. The manner in which history continually repeats the same 
story is illustrated by this movement. Like undulations in the land- 
scape, when the top of the hill is reached, there is but one possible 
development — that the land shall descend. The top of most hills is 
very soon traversed. The ascent having been long and tedious, the 
descent is long but easy, and the next level valley quite often tedious 
to traverse. 

That which happened in Greece, when the epoch of Phidias became 
that of the over refined Praxiteles, who was followed with indifference 
and frivolity, happened in Italy at this time, and it happened in France 
during the reigns of Louis XV. and Louis XVI. The Italian artists 
grew to be like naughty boys who needed to be gathered in a reform 
school. To this end Ludovico Caracci (1555-1619) created a school 
for teaching artists good manners. Exactly the same thing occurred 
when David attempted the reformation of French art (following the 
Bourbons mentioned) at the time of the Revolution and the Empire. 
The French had still sufificient virtue and the movement was a success 


eventually. The reform school of the Caracci family produced Guido 
Reni as its best example. The school of David produced Ingres, who 
was a better proposition. From this latter movement the best art of 
the nineteenth century sprang. Also, as Caravaggio rose up as the 
revolutionary force to set in movement a realistic and "romantic" 
movement, so Delacroix rose up to counteract the too well regulated 
art of David. It is necessary to keep these tendencies well in mind, 
if we would clearly appreciate the history of art. 

The elder Caracci was slow and laborious in his execution, gaining 
the cognomen "the Ox," but technique, careful and well-regulated 
drawing, imitation of Michael Angelo for certain''styles of picture, of 
Raphael for others, of Titian in the proper moment and Correggio 
when it was suitable, made him a reformer who might have done 
much for art, had the material he worked upon been better. His has 
been called "the Eclectic School," which at once bars the idea of 

His first instructor was Fontana, of his native city, but Tintoretto 
did more to influence his color, and imitation of Raphael his style. 
His picture, "The Preaching of John the Baptist" (in the Louvre), is 
charmingly executed and pleases those who are satisfied with good 
technique for its own sake. His most important works are in the 
Palazzo Magnani and the Zampieri at Bologna, and in the churches of 
the same city. 

Principal IVorks: Madonna with SS. Dominic, Francis, Clara and Mary Mag- 
dalene (Academy, Bologna); Pieta (Corsini Collection, Rome); Entombment 
(Munich) ; Feeding of the Five Thousand, Punishment of Amor (Berlin). 

Assisting Ludovico were his cousins, Agostino Caracci (1558-1602) 
and Anabale Caracci (1560-1609). The former was the learned man 
of this company; the latter the energetic and by far the most talented 
one. The elder wrote books on perspective and architecture; the 
other did the good painting. In addition to these leaders there were 
the son of Agostino, Antonio Caracci (1583-1618), and the youngest 
brother of the important pair, Francesco Caracci (i 595-1622), who 
kept the Academy in operation. 


Important Works of Anabale Caracci: Frescoes (Farnese Palace, Rome); 
Madonna of the Cherries, Madonna of Silence, Resurrection, Appearance of the 
Virgin to St. Luke and St. Catharine (Louvre, Paris) ; Three Marys (Castle Howard, 
England) ; Bacchante (Naples) ; Holy Family (Gallery of the Capitol, Rome) ; The 
Lute Player (Dresden); Susanna, Eros and Anteros Fighting before Venus (Munich); 
Christ, Mary, St. John Baptist, Twelve Apostles (Berlin). 

While Ludovico and his relatives were in full course of manufac- 
turing indifferent artists out of indifferent material, a child was born 
(of rude parents) who knew nothing of all this posturing and who 
painted just as nature moved him to paint, and because he could not 
help painting that way. His name was Michael Angelo Amerighii 
called Caravaggio (1569-1609). 

Michael Angelo Amerighi (or Morigi), called Caravaggio (1569- 
1609), was born, as his cognomen indicates, in a village of that name, 
near Milan. The son of a mason, he carried mortar to spread on the 
walls that the fresco painters might rapidly strike their colors into it 
before the surface was dry and so caught the infection and imitated 
the artists. No schooling of academical Caraccis held him to the 
proprieties, no rotten civilization had tainted his native force. He 
painted what was before his eyes, even the common objects, fruits and 
vegetables, still life and country people. Drawing with native spirit 
unhampered with the traditions of the antique or of Raphael, he 
spread the surfaces with colors somewhat more loud than charming, 
but always with sincerity and native force. Naturally the people 
liked it so much that a great many trained painters felt obliged to 
yield a point in the same direction. 

Some of the historians, who are wedded to the proprieties of 
academical painting, have spasms over this departure from pure style. 
But if ever an innovator, however rude, was needed, this was the 
moment for his appearance. 

Called to Rome, he painted in the churches, always in his own 
manner, very little modified by the influences about him. The Caraccis 
affected skillful modeling of the figure in full light, thinking strong 
shades vulgar. Caravaggio showed his remarkable originality by 


abandoning this affectation and dashing in all the sparkle, light and 
shade and color contrasts which nature suggested to him. On the 
whole, the priests did not long permit this "desecration" of sacred 
things, but the impetuous artist found abundant commissions in por- 

In our history the not unimportant influence which this son of the 
soil had upon Italian art is less interesting than its influence upon 
another nation, one which was then advancing, coming up out of the 
darkness of priestly rule — upon Spain. 

Caravaggio went to Naples and met there a young Spaniard, 
named Ribera, who was fresh in sentiment and the first of his nation 
to make an impression upon his country in a healthy art direction. 
Many of Caravaggio's pictures were sent to Spain and there influenced 
one of the greatest painters of all the world, Velasquez. 

How strikingly this resembles the history of the "school of David" 
(French, early nineteenth century), in as much as that master was a 
marvelous draughtsman who ignored color, just as the Caraccis did, 
and his revolutionary pupil, Delacroix, drew less well but gave color 
its full development, as was the habit of Caravaggio. And in the 
matter of action of figures, it was exactly a parallel case — one reserved 
and "proper," the other abandoned and impetuous, utterly indifferent 
to the proprieties. 

Holbein had been dead twenty-six years when Caravaggio was 
born. Except in Italy no art movement is in evidence at this time. 

Rubens visited Italy about 1600, just before Caravaggio died, but 
there is nothing to indicate that he was affected by the art of the rude 
Italian. Salvator Rosa was born six years after Caravaggio's death 
and was doubtless greatly shaped by him, being a similar character. 

Principal Works: Beheading of St. John Baptist (Malta); Holy Family 
(Borghese Palace, Rome); Entombment (Vatican); Gamblers (Sciarra Palace, 
Rome); Fortune Teller (Capitol, Rome); Medusa Head (Uffizzi, Florence); Lute 
Player (Vienna); Guardsmen, Card Players, St. Sebastian (Dresden); Christ 
Crowned with Thorns (Munich); Entombment, St. Matthew, Love Triumphant over 
Arts and Sciences, Young Roman Girl (Berlin) 


To return to the school of Caracci, the first important pupil is 
Guido Reni (i 575-1642). Born in Bologna, he early joined the Acad- 
emy of the Caracci and was precocious. Some brilliant works by 
Caravaggio carried him away by their power and sparkle, so that 
he adopted that manner. The proverbial red rag in front of a bull 
suggests the effect of a Caravaggio before one of the Caracci. It 
made him rave about vulgarity and the betrayal of the sacred trust of 
the artists — always the same story of the war between realism and the 
classics. What most worried him was the disposition of this son of a 
bricklayer to paint naturalistic subjects. Nature must not come into 
their presence without proper court manners. This little by-play of 
war between classical painting and genre painting is pretty impor- 
tant because we shall meet it many times. Both kinds are right just 
half way. Finally the victory was won by Caracci, though later, when 
Cardinal Borghese invited Guido to do some painting, it was stipu- 
lated that it should be in the manner of Caravaggio. Guido partially 
kept to that style, though his heart was no longer in it. 

It seems that the student is forced into the senseless method of 
contemplating the history of art as if it were divided by the centuries 
into distinct strata. Guido Reni actually did most of his work in the 
seventeenth century, but he belongs to the movement of the Renais- 
sance, as do Domenichino and Dolci. The true history of the seven- 
teenth century is written in Spain and the Netherlands -excepting 
that made by Claude and Poussin, two Frenchmen who resided in 
Italy. It is not my desire to attempt this arbitrary division in this 
writing, but rather to picture the art world as it actually moved. 

It is a sorry task to speak slightingly of something which many 
people love, but no art critic has the right to pretend that the superior 
mechanics of Guido is in any way great art. It may be pronounced 
remarkably excellent painting, however. He learned how to paint 
better than any other of the numberless students in the Caracci 
academy, but he did no more than that. Fine painting is worth 
having, when we cannot command great painting. 

His best known work, the "Aurora," gives us one of the best 


mura. decorations in Italy, judged simply as a decoration. The 
figures are direct copies of antiques, but well arranged and delicately 
painted. Were they not in competition with the work of Raphael ail 
would be well. Doubtless most people like it better than anything by 
the great master. It is so easy to like Guido! He boasted that the 
Venus of Medici and the Niobe were his models, and his work sub- 
stantiates his claim to the uttermost. As it happens that both these 
antiques are of the debased Greek period, the claim does not elevate 
the situation. But judged by the jealousy and intrigue aroused by 
his success, there must have been something in his art far above the 

Principal Works: Altar piece (Churcn of San Lorenzo, Lucina, Rome) ; Cruci- 
fixion of St. Peter (Vatican); Madonna della Pieta, Crucifixion (Bolognese Museum). 
Frescoes; Aurora (Casino of the Rospigliosi Palace); Beatrice Cenci (?) (Barberini 
Palace, Rome) ; Ecce Homo (Corsini Palace) ; St. Michael and the Dragon (Church 
of the Capuchins, Rome) ; Massacre of the Innocents, II Pallione, Nativity (Naples); 
Ecce Homo, Labors of Hercules (Louvre, Paris); The Hermits St. Paul and St. 
Anthony (Berlin) ; Ninus and Semiramis (Dresden) ; Ecce Homo, Assumption ' 
of the Virgin (Munich); St. Jerome Reading Sibyl (Uflfizi, Florence); Cleopatra, 
Rebecca al the Well (Pitti Gallery, Florence); Portrait of Himself (Capitol, Rome); 
Magdalene (Coronna Palace, Rome); Daughter of Herodias (Corsini Palace, Rome); 

A Dutchman who was conspicuous at this time was Franz Snyders 
(i 579-1657) — so well known on account of his engravings that a word 
about him is necessary. His treatment of hunting scenes and con- 
ventional landscapes was vigorous, and for realistic portraiture of 
animal life he is worthy of note. 

Principal Works: Twenty-three pictures of wild hunts, dead game, lions, 
goats, fruit, etc. (Madrid); Hunts and dead game (Dresden); Kitchen Interior 

Domenico Zampieri, called Domenichino (1581-1641), is not so 
dangerous as Guido because less popular. The dignity in his figures'^ 
comes pretty near to stiffness; and his still life, introduced persist- 
ently as enrichment for holy figures, proves how poverty-stricken the 

GuiDO Rbni — Beatrice Cenci. 



art had become. It is excellent jewelry and lace that ne pamts, and 
a cup or holy vessel is beautifully rendered, much better than Raphael 
could do. At least, I suppose that this is true, though the great 
master may have had so much better things in mind than Domenichino 
ever dreamt of, that he paid no attention to still life. This man is 
another painter of classical statues — very correct reproductions they 
are, but little more than that. The work marks an epoch as concerns this 
matter of the lace and jewelry. Some of his saints appear in dresses 
which come pretty near modern costume, and this element of realism 
is a factor in his art. He could make a landscape which approaches 
atmospheric rendering, getting the world ready for Claude's coming. 
The wolf could not get in at his door because of Sibyls; any one of 
which became a St. John when the turban was taken off — an econom- 
ical use of one antique head for two characters; that is, if any of them 
had a character. He kept antique forms in stock like theater 

He was born in Bologna, was a student in the Caracci Academy 
with Guido, and like him responded to calls from cardinals and popes 
to paint the walls of palaces and churches, work which he did superbly 
from the point of view of the artists of that time. Probably the near- 
est counterpart of these leaders of the Italian artists of the end of the 
Renaissance is David's pupil Ingres. But Ingres' race was a stronger 
one, a coming lineage, not a departing. Intrigue waxed hot in those 
days. Any man of superior excellence was persecuted by rivals. 
Like Guido, he retired to Bologna to rest until his end came, though 
always painting. Claude, Poussin, Velasquez, Murillo, Rubens, Van 
Dyck, Rembrandt, all came into prominence during the lives of Guido 
and Domenichino. 

Important Works: Frescoes: Evangelists CSan Andrea della Valla, Rome); 
Last Communion of St. Jerome (Vatican) ; Murder of St. Peter of Verona, Martyr- 
dom of St. Agnes (Bologna) ; Martyrdom of St. Sebastian (Church of Santa Maria 
degli Angeli) ; Scourging of St. Andrew (Chapel of the Saint on Monte Celio, Rome) ; 
Madonna of the Rosary (Bolognese Academy); Cumaean Sibyl, Diana and Her 
Nymphs (Borghese Palace, Rome); St. Cecilia (Louvre, Paris): Guardian Angel 
(Naples); Susanna at the Bath, St. Jerome Writing (Munich); Deluge (Berlin). 


While it is true that Italy was the cradle of art up to the seven-, 
teenth century, we find a number of famous painters in other con- 
tinental countries. The naissance of art in Holland was especially^ • 
notable. The Netherlands had divided and after the conflict which 
resulted partially in throwing off the Spanish yoke their individuality 
became apparent. Revolutions have always inspired artists and 
writers and Flanders was no exception. 

The name of Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) was of course the 
most prominent. Owing to political disturbances, the father of the 
artist, who was a man of importance in Antwerp, retired to Germany 
where Rubens was born in a small town not far from Cologne, but was 
taken back to Antwerp very early. The fact that the Roman Catholic 
church still maintained its power in Flanders and that there was a 
minor court there provided the opportunity for this man and his pupil, 
Van Dyck, to paint immense canvases while the Dutch could do so • 
only to a limited extent. The one people called for domestic 
pictures, the other for the grand art. Rubens was brought up a gentle- 
man in the home of a nobleman, learning there the manners which • 
later were used by this artist-diplomat to so great advantage. ; 

Early taught the technique of his art by two men. Van Veen and • 
Van Noort, he went to Italy to the household of the Duke of Mantua, i 
who soon discovered his worth and sent the young man on a delicate 
mission to the court of Philip III., at Madrid, where he painted: the 
king's portrait. All over Italy he had already gained great fame by 
the creation of magnificent church decorations. He learned Ian- w, 
guages, studied science, gained distinction in art and returned to 
Antwerp, after eight years of splendid success, to take a wife from an 
important family, build a superb house, and, finally, to be sent on 
another mission to Spain, where the great Velasquez, then just win- 
ning fame, became his friend. There he painted more great pictures. 
What an array of superlatives are required to describe the movements 1 
of this many-sided man, prolific painter and polished gentleman! ' 

One mission caused another to claim his attention; this time to 
England, when Charles II. was king. His portrait was painted and a 

Rubens — Holt Familt. 


ceiling in the Whitehall Palace banqueting room, which gained him 
the honors of knighthood. He had received the same honor previously 
from Philip IV. of Spain on his second visit to Madrid. His home in 
Antwerp saw the later years of his eventful life, where death found 
him rich, honored and one of the most widely-known artists of history. 

As if it were not enough that his painting should be scattered all 
over the rest of Europe, the French employed him (1622) to paint the 
enormous series in honor of Marie de Medici, which is now newly 
arranged in a special gallery at the Louvre. Much has been said 
about this collection, that it belies Rubens' genius because his other 
occupations forced the excution of it upon his pupils and helpers. A 
recent examination of the collection convinced me that the great man 
did most of the work. It is easy to determine where he left off and 
the lesser men took up the work. All important heads and figures 
are by the master, and they are very fine. 

Rubens was not as great a man in many respects as Velasquez, not 
possessing the power and stately dignity of the Spaniard, but he was 
superb as a colorist and brushman, abandoned in line and dashingbeyond 
all other painters. Magnificence as man, courtier and painter are the 
words which describe him, and in these respects he stands alone in 
art history. His color is laid with extraordinary freshness, the shadow 
parts often struck in with pure vermilion. The lights kept company 
with such a furious scale, and still there was a certain cool gray qual- 
ity which it is hard to imitate. As is usual in such cases of simple 
directness, the pictures remain to-day almost as fresh as when first 
laid in, examples to artists and admiringly studied in all ages since. 

His drawing was careless, as judged by the standards of Raphael, 
and in no case do we find such divine expression as with the great 
master of religious works. Being a Fleming, he loved to delineate 
robust women in twisted attitudes that are more picturesque than 
dignified. Anglo-Saxons do not admire this element in his works, 
but it must be remembered that a man is greatest when he is himself 
and giving full play to his personality. With it all, there is but one 
painter in the world like this and originality has no price. As colorist, 


nothing could surpass him, another matter which stops the mouths of 
his detractors. A landscape in the Louvre shows his appreciation of 
the atmosphere of a foggy morning, the sun struggling through the 
penetrable mists. The composition suggests that it was made in 
Italy, where, no doubt, he fell under the influence of the men already 
mentioned who looked at nature as a display of poetical effects rather 
than of bald facts. This is the wonderful advance which the seven- 
teenth century painters made as compared with the landscape paint- 
ing of earlier artists. 

Principal Works: Descent from the Cross, Elevation of the Cross, Assumption 
■of the Vu gin (Cathedral of Antwerp) ; Holy Family (Church of St. Jacques, Antwerp) ; 
"Venus and Minerva Contending for a Youth, Portraits of His First and Second Wives, 
Bacchanalian Scene (Uffizi, Florence) ; Holy Family, Mars Going Forth to War, with 
Flames and Destruction before Him, Four Philosophers (Pitti Palace, Florence); 
A Portrait (Corcini Palace, Rome); Brazen Serpent, St. George and the Dragon, 
Perseus Delivering Andromeda, The Three Graces, Nymphs and Satyrs, Diana and 
Calisto, The Garden of Love, Judgment of Paris, Adoration of the Kings (Madrid) ; 
Mai ie de Medici Series (Louvre, Paris) ; Peace and War, Triumph of Julius Caesar, 
Judgirent of Paris, Brazen Serpent, The Residence of Rubens, Lady in Straw Hat 
(Londob); St. Jerome in Prayer, Bathsheba, Daughter of Herodias, Neptune Stilling 
the \^ aves. Drunken Hercules, Satyr Pressing Out the Juice of the Grape, Diana 
Returning from the Chase, Argus Surprised by Mercury (Dresden) ; Drunken Silenus, 
Massacre of the Innocents, Fall of the Condemned, Rebel Angels, Castor and Pollux 
Carrying off the Daughters of Leucippas, Last Judgment, Crucifixion, Children with 
Fruit, Virgin and Child, Martyrdom of St. Lawrence, Susanna Surprised at the Bath, 
Capture of Samson, Portraits of Himself and His Wives, Hay-Harvest, Battle of the 
Amazons (Munich); Neptune, Andromeda, Procession of Children, Stag Hunt, 
Resurrection of Lazarus, St. Cecilia (Berlin). 

Though of somewhat later date, Frans Hals (1584-1666) should be 
mentioned here. Though born on Flemish soil, his life was spent at 
Haarlem in Holland, except for some little excursions to paint 
portraits in cities which seem so near his own that we of the great 
distances would consider them suburban. In him we find the native 
characteristics of strong nerves and a steady hand. Not every 
painting is equal to his best, but all are superb. 

His entire output seems to have been portraiture; that art which 

Rubens — Madonna and Child. 


admits of so much good painting united to keen perceptive faculty, 
though it calls for less invention than the creation of lofty idealiza- 
tions. Still, great portraits require a high order of imaginative 
genius. Just here is our opportunity to contrast Hals with Velasquez 
and Van Dyck. The former's portraits look like real people; the 
latter's like real people plus an expression of nobility and strange 
refinement. All the Flemish painters, after the Van Eycks, painted 
admirably the real facts, so that their near neighbor, Hals, lacked 
nothing in the way of example. Many little heads were capitally 
swept in by the earlier men; Hals' were life-sized heads, better still, 
and it may be declafed that no painter has ever been more able 
to strike a brush, well loaded with color, on the canvas just where 
he wanted it, accurately, forcibly, knowingly and purposefully. 
All the Flemish painters of the early school secured good color; 
Hals did the same and in a still larger manner. This is his claim to 

To our younger generation, he is a magnificent example of frank 
technique. Portrait groups of the directory-boards of hospitals, often 
women, long canvases ranged around the walls of guardsmen's 
armories (as we see those by Hals in the city hall of Haarlem) were 
the only opportunities offered the Dutch painters to execute impor- 
tant canvases. Holland was not royal and had no palaces; was not 
Catholic and had no ecclesiastics to gratify with religious decorations, 
as was the case in Flanders. 

A family group in the Louvre, "La Famille de Berestyne," is so odd 
in its quaint arrangement (lacking grace or grouping) that one smiles 
at the "innocence" of the artist. It is guileless. Four adults (two 
being nurses) and six children are ranged as if for taking an inventory 
of the assortment. All these moon-faced cherubs are placed in full 
light to give the drawing complete and allow of modeling to perfec- 
tion. Frankness of color and touch make one respect the work 

Principal Works: Portraits (Louvre, Paris); Portraits (London); Archer's 
Guild (Amsterdam Museum). 


Spain in the sixteenth century reveals so little worthy art that it 
is not in our present consideration. Every one of the little painters 
was an imitator of some Italian. The Inquisition ruled everybody and 
everything, dictating the forms and patterns of the saints and holy 
men depicted, even disputing as to whether the figure of Christ dare 
be represented at all, or, if made, whether the feet should be crossed 
and pierced with one nail or separated and fastened with two. In the 
time of Charles V., that monarch called Titian to Madrid and from his 
hand many fine works were left to ornament the churches and palaces, 
which served Velasquez well when it came his turn to look for 
examples as guides. Many other fine Italian pictures were imported, 
so that the painters of the seventeenth century did not lack for art to 
look at. 

Jose Ribera, called Spagnoletto (1588-1656), was a Spaniard, 
although his entire life was spent in Italy, and as a pupil of Cara- 
vaggio of Naples, his sympathies were altogether Italian. 

All the Spanish painters of this early part of the seventeenth 
century were like the wild Italian in feeling, though many of them 
less violent. This is to say that they were literalists, strong and posi- 
tive painters, uninfluenced by the attenuated doctrines of the school 
of the Caraccis. 

In the Louvre is Ribera's picture of the shepherds visiting the 
infant Christ. They are real men in the costumes of their life, 
nothing ameliorated or changed. The Madonna is .a portrait (slightly 
if at all idealized) of some maiden who posed for the artist. The babe 
is one of the prettiest pink infants I remember to have seen, and 
superbly painted with frankness of touch and fresh color. When we 
think of the insistence of the Caraccis on artificiality of form and on 
paleness of color, it astonishes us to see such honest frankness com- 
bined with as much idealization as is considered necessary in our own 
time. There is a lamb, with legs tied just as farmers do it in these 
days, laid down beside the shepherds, whose wool is so forceful and 
real that nothing could exceed its seriousness as a direct study of 
nature. No sheep painter of the strongest modern school has been 








able to excel this realism. Above all, the expression of that pros- 
trate victim of sacrifice is naturalness itself. All the Spanish painters 
of this century have been marvelous for the rendering of facial expres- 
sion, and this lamb's face is not outdone by that of the human beings 
in the work. The school of the Caracci would have made the lamb in 
some one of the classical attitudes and his wool should be silken like 
that of Verboeckhoven of our own time. This artist spent his life in 

Ribera was prodigal of paint, — a brushman of vigor and certainty, 
and a man of distinction. Many of his pictures went to Spain to influ- 
ence Velasquez. 

Principal Works: Neptune, St. Jerome (Borghese Gallery, Rome); St. Jerome 
(Corsini Palace, Rome) ; Prometheus Bound, Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew, Ixion 
at the Wheel, St. James, St. Roch, The Heads of the Twelve Apostles, Jacob's 
Ladder, Magdalene Ventura (Madrid); St. Mary of Egypt, Martyrdom of St. 
Lawrence, St. Andrew, Head of Diogenes (Dresden) ; Martyrdom of St. Bartolomeo 

Indigenous French art had not yet begun to assert itself. The 
work of those artists who were not fully imbued with the Italian 
feeling was primitive, and with the possible exception of les Lenain 
(1583 and 1585-1648) and Simon Vouet (1590-1640) none deserves 

The brothers Lenain were of the same age as Hals and their art 
resembles his in a striking way, though done in miniature. There is 
the same direct touch and knowledge of the "planes" in the head. 
Nothing is smoothed over, the touches being allowed to remain as 
applied. Probably they learned in the same school as he, though 
there is no account of visits to Holland or Flanders. Attitudes and 
arrangements are primitive, but the workmanship is almost as good as 
that of Hals. These little known works may at some time claim their 
due fame. 

As the fashion was, Vouet went to Italy and returned with much 
good painting, but having been made court painter to Louis XIII., he 
deteriorated because he was over-worked with painting large decora- 


tions, and far from his original source of inspiration. He interests us 
because the greater artist, Poussin, was made so uncomfortable by his 
intrigue that he returned to Italy without accomplishing the work 
laid out for him. Vouet established the first art academy in France 
and brought out Le Brun and Mignard. 

Principal Works: Presentation in the Temple, Roman Charity (Louvre, Paris). 


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Rubens — Pohtbapt op his Wife. 



The seventeenth century brought with it nothing that was really 
new. Artists have always painted on the first of January as they did 
in December, and the beginning of a century brings no more momen- 
tous change. Yet every day means a certain variation that counts for 
development. In 1600 Rubens, the Fleming, was making pictures, 
though still young. In Holland, Frans Hals leads the chronology. 
He was sixteen. In Italy it is not an Italian but a Spaniard, Ribera, 
who traveled in that country and was eleven when the century came. 
Velasquez and Van Dyck were both one year old; Poussin was six years 
old; Claude came to greet the new century; Rembrandt came six years 
later; Salvator Rosa, fifteen years, and Dolci, sixteen. How shall we 
classify artists amid all this confusion of nationalities and influences? 
They group by influences largely, but nationality and political condi- 
tions have an enormous weight. Yet first of all, personality makes 
the artist. 

It begins here to be difficult to separate landscape from figure 
painters — always a foolish classification. In fact, classification is 
absurdly enslaving, however made. Is Millet of Barbizon a figure or 
a landscape painter? He painted his figures as if in the atmosphere 
of his landscape, and is therefore a landscape painter. Poussin is 
counted a remarkable landscapist; but he made his figures so inde- 
pendent of the atmosphere that he is actually a figure painter. 

It is time that we examined landscape painting, because it begins 
to claim a place for its own worth. In due course of time, there rose 
up artists who never could see nature out-of-doors without her accom- 
paniment of human life, and that is the true landscape painting. Yet 
there have been many artists who could not draw well enough to ren- 



der the human figure, but were full of sentiment for atmosphere and 
light; and there have been others who gave all their hearts to the study 
of the human figure, neglecting landscape altogether. Rubens made 
some little landscapes which revealed so much feeling for atmospheric 
phenomena that we wonder how he conceived the idea. He was in 
Italy while Claude was at work there, but his effects do not resemble 
the latter' s in the least. Rubens' landscapes are composed upon the 
formal lines of the old painters, but with a different sentiment, an orig- 
inal observation of nature's phenomena. To make a clear statement 
of the matter, it may be said that the old painters used some landscape 
forms as backgrounds to their figures but did not think about the 
gradations of distance to any great extent nor about the atmospheric 
conditions at all. To secure a truthful presentation of light effects 
was no' part of their purpose. Real landscape began when the light, 
the fog, the lambent air counted as more important than a simple 
shaping of certain trees or hills, rocks or mountains. It was Claude 
who gained the reputation of doing these things and teaching the 
rest of the world this lesson. Possibly had Rubens given more 
extended attention to this matter, he might have carried off Claude's 

The history of Claude Gelee, called Lorraine or de Lorraine 
(1600-1682), is as obscure as his family is supposed to have been. He 
may have been of reasonably good extraction, but little is known on 
the subject. If he was the apprentice of a pastry-cook, it matters 
nothing, as genius recognizes no social position. What we are sure of 
is that he went to Italy and learned to paint, possibly accidentally 
thrown in contact with painters because he became the lackey of an 
artist. Many other great men have had as humble a beginning. As 
Jie went to no art school for extended periods, he never learned his 
classics as the students of the Caracci academy were taught them, and 
never learned to draw more difficult matters than trees and rocks, nor 
these very wonderfully. But the sense of nature's poetry was his 
birthright. A moderate amount of teaching and a great deal of 
cleverness enabled him to paint what he saw before him in the fields 





where he spent the long summer days, an untrammelled student of 
nature. There are accounts of his spending long periods in an art 
school. These are questionable stories. Whatever else, we know 
that he never could draw the human figure and was obliged to call in 
another to do this for him. In the definition of "classicism" two 
kinds are described: imitation of the antique statues, and formal 
arrangement as contrasted with the copying of nature exactly. Claude, 
living in classical Italy, could not escape from formalism; that is, he 
was the second kind of classicist. All the objects in his pictures are 
arranged with care to secure a pleasing flow of line and an appropriate 
massing of forms. The introduction of classical nymphs added to the 
well-regulated effect. Claude was a painter of light and atmosphere; 
that was his advance over those before him. He even set the sun in 
the heavens in the midst of his picture and attempted to imitate his 
radiance. Others had done something like this before, but not as 
well. , The golden glow in his pictures is also new; though it is pos- 
sible that some of it is due to the ripening of the varnish. But why 
did no one else have the good fortune to secure the same accommo- 
dating varnish? Probably the gods were good to his pictures because 
he painted them right. 

John Ruskin hurled much magnificently written literature at Claude 
{Modern Painters) and compared his painting unfavorably with Turner's, 
seeking to check the too great popularity of the Franco-Italian 
among English picture buyers. He could not understand Claude — nor 
Turner either, for that matter. Both men were poetic painters. 
Ruskin was a narrow literalist. As Turner lived one hundred and 
fifty years after Claude, he learned much of which the older man was 
ignorant. Claude was not very careful about the literal form of things; 
neither was Turner. He was a painter of sentiment — it is this which 
marks his immense advance. Turner was not wise when he attempted 
to rival Claude, as each had his own glory. The Englishman's pic- 
ture in the National gallery suffers beside the Claude it was intended 
to eclipse. 

Claude's "Liber Veritatis" (Book of Truth) consists of a series of 


mezzotints mav^e for the purpose of verification of his pictures. In 
these days, artists use photography for this purpose. 

As fashion must be considered in art, Claude was obliged to 
give a classical title to his works and sustain it with figures of nymphs 
or gods. These figures, the work of an assistant are entirely second- 
ary and work only as spots. 

Principal Works: Book of Truth, a volume of two hundred drawings (Duke 
of Devonshire) ; Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba, Marriage of Isaac and Rebecca, 
Narcissus (London); Worship of the Golden Calf, Sernron on the Mount 
(Marquis of Westminster); Morning, Noon, Evening, Night (Hermitage, St. Peters- 
burg); Marine View (Uffizi, Florence); Landscape (Capitol, Rome); Landscapes 
(Doria, Rome); Sunset Scene, Sunrise over the Sea, Other Landscapes (Madrid); 
Landscapes, Marine Views (Louvre, Paris) ; Flight of the Holy Family, Coast of 
Sicily (Dresden); Landscapes and Marine Views (Munich); Landscapes (Berlin). 

Nicolas Poussin 


The art of painting did not flourish, at the time of Poussin's birth, 
in his native country, France. After receiving instruction from sev- 
eral painters who made no mark in art history, he went, at the age of 
thirty, to Italy and remained there for the rest of his life with the 
exception of some two years spent in France, where he was called 
(1640) by the king, Louis XIII., and made court painter. A man of 
small parts, Vouet, was then in favor and began at once to create 
annoyances for him. Before concluding any important commissions, 
except an excellent "Last Supper," he returned to Italy, rejoicing 
once more in congenial art surroundings. 

Claude was about twenty-four years old when Poussin first arrived in 
Italy, and possibly had already some reputation as an artist. Poussin 
was, however, much better trained in drawing than his fellow country- 
man ever became. He was brought into contact with certain sculp- 
tors, who led him to study the antique and Raphael. It is related that 
he did a considerable number of sculptures, which in itself assured an 
education in drawing and this is sustained by the sculpturesque qual- 
ity of his figures. Some have called hirii "the Raphael of France," 

Velasquez — Don Balthazae Carlos. 


but he had no claim to this title other than that he was one of the hun- 
dreds of imitators of the great master. Yet he was a fine draughts- 
man. It is useless to classify him either as landscapist or as figure 
painter. His figures were his first care and the landscape served as a 
setting for them, as the fashion had been before his time. He did not 
paint landscape with love, as a sentimental effort. All critics who 
love facts distinctly stated love Poussin; those who love sentiment in 
landscape do not seriously love his works except as the tone was 
serious and profound and the figure painting excellent. In the 
Louvre, his pictures have turned very dark, looking like somberness 
itself, though there is every reason to think that he may have been a 
wonderful colorist in his day. This belief is sustained by certain pic- 
tures now in Italy which are well preserved. Classical subjects pre- 
vail, the figures beautifully carried out. 

In Italy, he married the sister of Caspar Dughet, who then called 
himself "Poussin," thus causing an unnecessary confusion of names. 
The reason of Ruskin's preference for Poussin rather than Claude is 
easily discoverable in the fondness of the English critic for material- 
ism and his utter lack of appreciation of sentiment, except sentiment 
in subject matter. Poussin, however, if he be judged rightfully, holds 
a high place. 

Principal Works: Arcadian Shepherds, Rebecca at the Well, Finding of 
Moses, Judgment of Solomon, Triumph of Flora, Four Seasons, Diogenes Throwing 
Away His Cup, Eleazar and Rebecca, Israelites Receiving Manna (Louvre, Paris); 
Adoration of the Shepherds, Entombment, King Midas Begging the Revocation of 
• His Gift of Turning Everything to Gold (Munich); Bacchanalian Dance, Phocian, 
Landscapes (National Gallery, London); Series of Seven Sacraments (Duke of 
Rutland); Moses Striking the Rock (Bridgewater Gallery) ; Martyrdoms (Vatican, 
Rome); Landscapes (Corsini Palace, Rome); "The Deluge," "Plague of the Philis- 
tines," "Rape of the Sabines," "Moses," "Triumph of Truth," (chiefly in Louvre). 

Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velasquez 

I am disposed to place Velasquez at the head of the portrait paint- 
ers of the world. As knowing as Hals in brush work, while much 


more refined; as capable of securing noble expression as Van Dyck 
and still more subtle in characterization; not as rich a colorist as 
Titian, yet his tones of gray are the embodiment of colorfulness — 
possibly a more difficult accomplishment. Above all, there is an ele- 
ment of character-greatness displayed by Velasquez which, it maybe, 
no man in all the world has equalled. 

His school-teaching father came of a noble family (originauy 
Portuguese), his mother's family was more directly aristocratic. This 
circumstance accounts for the use of his mother's name rather than 
that of his father, de Silva. Well educated and of cultivated man- 
ners, the royal court was as natural to him as his home. 

There were no antique statues in Spain, the Inquisition viewing 
them as pagan idols. The ecclesiastics forbade the nude in art (which 
does not seem to have aided the development of morals) so the artists 
began their study with still life, painting vegetables and kitchen fur- 
niture, cooks and beggar-boys, the latter as nearly nude as might be. 
This led to realism, and the pictures of Caravaggio, Ribera and other 
vigorous painters of strong light and shade, with realistic shadows and 
intensely natural colors, furnished examples to imitate. The atten- 
uated refinements of the school of the Caracci found no favor with 
these sincere men. It will be remembered that Titian spent five years 
at the court of Charles V., in Madrid. There were also certain exam- 
ples of Raphael to be seen. Very early (but not until he had learned 
to paint) Velasquez spent many months working in the royal palace^ 
copying these pictures. His opportunities were by no means limited, 
the strongest influences being those of Ribera and Titian. The Span- 
ish painters had an extraordinary ability in catching fleeting expres- 
sions, nothing like it being found in any other nation. Velasquez had 
this talent, but used it as no other did, inasmuch as he was made of 
finer stuff. 

Philip IV., king of Spain, soon discovered the abilities of the young 
man, taking him into his confidence in a manner hardly equalled in 
the history of the relations between royalty and art. At the time of 
Rubens' second visit tc Madrid (on an errand of diplomacy) he was 

Velasquez — Philip IV. 


greeted by the young Spanish painter, delegated by the king to this 
office. It seems to have been Rubens who persuaded the royal art 
patron to send Velasquez to Italy, and it is interesting to note that he 
was commissioned to send home a large collection of the hated 
antiques, as well as many pictures of the great Italian masters. His 
reception in Italy was as royal as that of any king's favorite could be. 
He stole away to Naples incognito to talk with the man whose works 
had so much influenced him, Ribera. The copying of Italian master- 
pieces does not seem to have changed his style, as he was not impres- 
sionable like Raphael. 

Important palace pictures (rather than religious art), usually portrait 
groups or battle pieces, furnished him opportunity for painting large 
canvases. Some of these show us the inner side of his genius, made 
to please the art-loving king, and too undignified for public display, 
in those days of formality and courtliness. 

We read in books about the remarkable color of Velasquez. Mis- 
leading words; words cannot make us feel color. His color is grave 
and gray; the most positive tints far from pure pigment, always 
broken grays and pretty low in tone. In the "Las Meninas" (Maids of 
Honor) the large canvas is quiet, all blues and greens low down in the 
scale and scarcely defined as such. There is scarcely any red at all, 
as we commonly understand the color, but a succession of varied red- 
dish spots in sequence, reaching around the composition and placed 
where they will do the most good. The floor is one broken warm tone 
and this spreads itself to interlock with the series of cool tones occu- 
pying the upper part of the canvas. There are many figures and in 
the midst stands the little Infanta, her balloon skirt of steel gray 
spreading out so that the little hands rest upon it as on the top of a 
hogshead. The wonder is that an artist could make so good a pic- 
ture out of these almost impossible materials. Good color is artis- 
tically managed color, and it is always difficult to copy — as this is. 
Most of all is it difficult to paint gray flesh so that it will gleam out 
from the walls of a gallery, ruling all else, as the cool flesh of Velas- 
quez does. 


The "Reunion of Drinkers" shows us no rowdies like those in the 
Dutch pictures, but only pleasantly merry fellows with that subtle 
expression revealing the special talent of the Spaniards In many 
respects, this is the best exponent of the artist's peculiarity, though 
many prefer the "Lace Makers," an interior full of atmosphere such 
as almost no artist had been able to secure previously. In front, 
there are women in dishabille, working in the suffocating heat; beyond 
is space, and other figures in the lighting and aerial perspective which 
demanded close observation of delicate truths of effect. This indi- 
cates the naturalist, the man who had no sympathy with classical 
formulas. Still , it is reserved and duly arranged — an artistic naturalism. 

Velasquez died of fatigue from his efforts to prepare a festival on 
the occasion of the marriage of the Infanta Maria Theresa to Louis 
XIV., of France. 

Important Works: Gardens of Aranjuez, Prospect of Pardo, Coronation of 
Mary, Dead Christ, Portraits of the Imperial Family, Las Meninas, The Surrender of 
Breda, Topers, The Spinners, ^sop (Madrid) ; Portrait (Capitol, Rome) ; Philip IV. of 
Spain (Louvre, Paris) ; Admiral Paraja, The Scourging of Christ, Philip IV. of Spain, 
-Hunting the Wild Boar (London) ; Spanish General Borro, Trampling on the Bar- 
berini Banner, Maria of Spain (Berlin). 

Several lesser Spanish painters had the peculiar talent highly 
developed in Velasquez— the ability to see and reproduce facial expres- 
sion, as Francisco Zurbaran (1598-1663), just one year younger than 
the great man. Impetuous, like Ribera, and still more fiery in tem- 
perament, he painted textures and vigorous light and shade, neglect- 
ing no truth of color. Lack of sensitive feeling for the refinements of 
realism placed him in the second rank, however. The "Funeral of a 
Bishop" (Louvre) shows his substantial stuff-painting; but better than 
all else is the movement of suppressed excitement among the attend- 
ant monks as they quietly talk about the virtues of the deceased. 
This is true Spanish talent. 

Principal Works: St. Thomas of Aquinas (Museum of Seville); Kneeling 
Monk, Sleeping Christ, Infant Christ (Madrid) ; Franciscan Monk (London); St. 
Celestin Refusing the Papal Tiara (Dresden) ; Miracle of the Crucifix (Berlin). 





Francisco Collantes (1599-1656), exactly the same age as Velas- 
quez, painted realistic landscapes, very correctly but with the classical 
arrangement of masses and light and shade. His figures are not, like 
Claude's, classical but natural, as in the "Burning Bush" (Louvre), in 
which the Moses was painted from a real peasant and his attendant 
donkey from the real animal, trappings and all. 

Anton Van Dyck 


Van Dyck's portraits "have an air" about them, a something apart 
from simple likeness. Largely painted from aristocratic sitters, they 
carry the conviction of stateliness. Frans Hals' portraits have none 
of this air, possibly because the sitters had none, possibly because the 
artist had no feeling for stateliness. Two portraits of gentlemen 
(Louvre), each with a child accompaniment, show Van Dyck's powers 
of character delineation much as we see it in the famous "Children of 
Charles L" (Windsor castle and Dresden), showing that in all things 
he maintained his excellence. Scarcely any one has excelled him in 
child painting. 

Perhaps no one has painted so many people in black clothes while 
maintaining his reputation as a colorist. Black made colorful is a 
triumph in good coloring. Where Rubens spread sumptuous masses 
of well-managed reds and yellows, Van Dyck displayed his command 
of tender, neutral grays. Where Rubens' flesh paraded his command 
of shining skin in brilliant tints. Van Dyck kept to the moderate 
scale. Still his flesh gleams more than almost any other in the galler- 
ies, almost as much as Velasquez's. 

The followers of Raphael painted as much like their idolized leader 
as possible. Van Dyck, much as he admired the exalted Rubens (his 
master), never imitated him after his student days were over. This 
is saying that he was more original than most men can be. 

Van Dyck's life divides itself into three periods: portraits and 
religious decorations in Flanders (while still young); a long stay in 


Italy, painting the same kind of pictures; and ten years in England, 
a petted favorite, with every distinction heaped upon him. Ladies 
sought his dinner table and posed before his easel; the king knighted 
him and filled his purse. Under royal patronage he married the 
daughter of a noble house. On the honeymoon journey with this 
wife of convenience, he sought to emulate Rubens' Marie de Medici 
series by securing a similar commission from the French government; 
but Poussin had at that moment been called from Italy to execute this 
extensive decoration, a work which he never accomplished. 

Van Dyck's career in England lasted ten years, from the age of 
thirty-two until his funeral with impressive honors at the hand of Eng- 
land's nobles. The king was not present, being, a fugitive, already on 
the road to the headsman's professional attentions. 

It is not too much to declare that, next to Titian and Velasquez, 
he takes the lead among portrait painters. With Rubens and Van 
Dyck, the current changes: Students went to the Netherlands instead 
of Italy. Velasquez was born in the same year as Van Dyck. 

Principal Works: Cardinal Bentoviglio, Repose During the Flight to Egypt 
(Pitti Palace, Rome); Entombment, Crucifixion (Borghese Gallery, Rome); Cruci- 
fixion (Mechlin); Entombment, Crucifixion, Deposition from the Cross (Antwerp); 
Pieta, Burgomaster of Antwerp and His Wife, Organist Liberti, Duke Wilhelm, Por- 
trait of Himself and of His Wife, Queen Henrietta Maria of England, Colyn de Nole, 
Jan de Wael and Wife, Madonna, Dead Christ (Munich); Vision of the Blessed 
Hermann Joseph, Enthroned Madonna with Saints (Vienna) ; Children of Charles I., 
Infanta Isabella, Prince of Carignan, Pieta, Ecce Homo, Three Penitents (Berlin) ; 
Charles I. , Queen Henrietta Maria and Their Children, Martin Ryckaert, The Brother 
of Rubens, A Man in Armor, Thomas Parr, St. Jerome, Apostles (Dresden); 
Countess of Oxford, An Armed Knight, A Black -robed Cavalier, Organist of Ant- 
werp, Portrait of Himself, Earl of Bristol, Saviour Crowned with Thorns, Betrayal of 
Christ (Madrid); Virgin and Donor, Portrait of Himself, Children of King Charles 
I., Dnke of Bavaria and Prince Rupert, Duke of Richmond, Marquis d' Aytona, 
Madonna and Child (Louvre, Paris) ; Charles I. on Horseback, Miraculous Draught 
of Fishes, Crucifixion, Portrait of C, van der Geest, Portrait of Himself (National 
Gallery, London); Portrait of Charles I., Children of Charles I., Charles I. and 
Family, Henrietta Maria, Sir Kenelm Digby, Lady Venetia Digby (Windsor Castle); 
Portrait of James Stuart, Duke of Richmond and Lennox (Metropolitan Museum, 
New York). 

Van Dtck — Portrait of Himself. 


Paul Rembrandt van Rijn 


The Flemings and the Dutch are not the same people, though related. 
Several exclusive old provinces furnished material to people Flanders; 
not so many Holland. The Dutch had won their independence by 
hard fighting. The Flemings had not. An upper class in Flanders 
cultivated courtly manners. None of the Dutch seem to have been 
courtly. Herein is to be found much cause for the contrast between 
the art of the two peoples — homes in Holland, chateaux in Flanders; 
modest guild-houses in Holland, palaces in Flanders; the art suited 
to these conditions in each land. We know of but few large pictures 
from Rembrandt, the "Night Watch" (thirteen by fourteen feet) 
leading in dimensions. Rubens and Van Dyck painted great numbers 
of large religious decorations. 

As painter and etcher, Rembrandt loved to dash in colors and swift 
lines, masterful strokes, at times brutally but always knowingly and 
correctly. The habit grew upon him. However, the "Gilder" 
(Metropolitan Museum) is finished to the uttermost, though still free, 
and the "Lesson in Anatomy" contains a group of serious faces 
superbly complete in execution. He was twenty-six when it was 
painted, and it does not suggest the little window and single shaft of 
light, of which we hear so much as being his favorite manner. The 
color is cool; not in the rich tones usually attributed to him. Toward 
the end of his life, he painted the "Syndicate of Drapers," also with- 
out the centering of light, though it is warm in tone. 

His single portraits nearly all show this favorite arrangement of 
one spot lighted in the midst of vibrating darks. A large white ruff 
and one side of the face usualh^ show a forced light against a black, 
wide-spreading beaver, this light spot surrounded with dark back- 
ground. Exactly this composition rules in the "Night Watch," the 
captain in black clothing against the lieutenant in gray-yellow and a 
gleaming spot of light on the ground which suggests the broad ruff; 
this group of lights surrounded by darks all over the picture, except 
the echo of light in the second plane. The "Menage du Menuisier" 


(Louvre) is one of a very large series of little pictures, about a foot or 
even less in size, nearly all with the concentrated spot of light. It is 
a domestic interior, the carpenter at his work beside the window 
receiving the light on his shoulder. This light falls next on the 
mother and naked babe, leaving the head of the mother in shadow, 
also that of the attendant woman, though her garment and a spot on 
the floor receive its full force. All about this centering of light, the 
room is in luminous gloom. There is no positive color in the picture, 
but an abundance of rich tone. It is very smoothly and tenderly 

When the "Night Watch" was cleaned one day, behold, it was not 
night but late afternoon. Time and varnish had deceived every one. 
It is one of the richest in color of all Rembrandt's pictures, though 
little pure pigment can be found. It occupies suitably the most con- 
spicuous place of honor in the museum at Antwerp, making neighbor- 
ing work appear thin and meager by comparison. 

Rembrandt gained the attention of his countrymen at an early age, 
having a great many pupils. The story of his marriage pleases the 
Anglo-Saxon peoples, who dearly love a true lover. His wife did not 
live to see his misfortunes. In middle life it came about that Holland 
experienced "hard times" and the artist was bankrupt, and his pic- 
tures, studies, collection of art articles, costumes, plate and fixtures 
were mercilessly sold out. He never recovered from this blow, but 
spent the rest of his life making etchings, for the most part, to pay 
his living, not too generously. People do not altogether love rough 
pictures, however artistic. His painting certainly grew ruder, though 
never less magnificent. His pupils, especially his first one, Gerard 
Douw, gained a place for themselves with an art that was prettier and 
easier to understand than his. 

The free line of the etching needle suited exactly the spirit of his 
impulsive nature. He stands through all time the prince of etchers. 
Of all men who produced art solely for the sake of artistic expression, 
Rembrandt is head. Any group of peasants, in any old clothes which 
happened to be at hand, answered for religious or secular subjects 


alike, if sufficiently picturesque. In portraits he made people very 
real, never lacking character, though not with the nobility of Van 
Dyck or Velasquez. Men imitated his manner but not his character- 

Principal Works: Susanna, Lesson in Anatomy (Hague Museum) ; Gilder, 
Burgomaster (Metropolitan Museum, New York); Supper at Emmaus, Philosopher 
in Meditation, Menage du Menuisier, Four Portraits of Rembrandt, Old Man, Young 
Man, Woman of the Bath (Louvre); The Night Watch, The Syndics (Amsterdam); 
Two Portraits of Himself, Jewish Rabbi, Old Lady in Cap and Ruff, Landscape 
with Tobit and the Angel, Woman Wading through a Stream, The Adoration of the 
Shepherds, Woman Taken in Adultery (National Gallery, London) ; Gray-bearded Old 
Man, Old Woman Weighing Gold, His Wife Saskia Holding a Pink in Her Hand, 
The Artist Drinking Champagne with His Wife on His Knee (Dresden) ; Portrait of 
Himself, Holy Family (Munich) ; Portrait of Himself, Portrait of His Wife Saskia, 
Potiphar's Wife Accosting Joseph, Daniel, Pastor Ansto, Samson Threatening His 
Father-in-law (Berlin). 

Albert Cuyp 

{1606-167 J. Dutch.) 

This artist is not to be confused with his father, Jacob, nor his 
nephew, Benjamin. Albert was a painter of simple landscapes with 
cattle and horsemen. He is merel\' an unusually good painter of rich 
tones. Many of his pictures seem as if lighted through amber glass. 
The cows are well drawn, and in near!}' every one of his pictures of 
horsemen there is a red coat. Let us call him the painter of golden 
tones centered with a spot of red, cow or coat as the case may be. 
Time has treated him so well that collectors search for his remarkably 
fresh works. 

Born the same year as Rembrandt, pupil of his father, Jacob Cuyp. 

Principal Works: The Cavalier (Dresden); The Departure, The Return, 
Landscape, Marine View, Group of Children (Louvre, Paris). 

Gerard Terburg 

{1608- 168 1. Dutch.) 
Terburg is one of the lesser painters who did his part toward pull- 
ing down Rembrandt. His pretty art consisted of a white satin gown, 
wonderfully hard and unpoetical, and a crimson velvet jacket worn by 


a young woman who takes a music lesson or converses with an officer. 
The neighboring table is always beautifully painted and the silver, the 
glass and the guitar are beyond reproach. No genius, but superb 
finish and absolute facts, — these measure him. He journeyed in France 
and Spain, learning the taste of the grandees who liked pretty pic- 
tures. He studied in Rome and painted as his Dutch literalism 

Principal Works: The Satin Gown (Amsterdam) ; The Guitar Lesson, Peace 
of Munster (London) ; Lady Washing Her Hands (Dresden) ; The Music Lesson, The 
Gallant OfRcer ( Louvre, Paris); Interior of a Cottage (Munich) ; Paternal Instruc- 
tion (Berlin). 

Van de Velde 

This name is common in Dutch art history. In the later fifteen 
hundreds lived Esais and his brother James, fairly good figure painters. 
Later, " William the Elder " (1610-1693) and "William the Younger" 
(1633-1702) came into notice. They were marine painters; the elder 
being an early example of the true war-artist, going out with the fleet 
of DeRuyter to sketch actual battles. Later he was employed by 
King Charles II., of England, as marine artist. "The Younger" 
painted a great many of these sketches of "The Elder' ' in oils, also for 
the English court and nobility. Some capital work came from these 
men's easels. 

Principal Works of William Van de Velde: Nine pictures (National Gallery, 
London); Calm (Louvre, Paris) ; View of Amsterdam (Amsterdam); Storm, Calm 

Adrian van Ostade 

{1610-168^. Dutch.) 

Though a pupil of Frans Hals, van Ostade made small pictures in 
the manner of Rembrandt's delicate work. On the other hand, a pic- 
ture of a fish merchant, painted about life size, shows a table loaded 
with large fish, painted so frankly that it might be from the severely 
rude, realistic school of this day. 

Principal Works: Fish Market, Schoolmaster (Louvre, Paris); Alchemist 
(London) ; A Smoker (Metropohtan Museum, New York). 

Rbmbbandt — Portrait of Himself. 


David Teniers, the younger 

{i6io-i6go. Flemish.) 

The elder Teniers was a pupil of Rubens and painted tavern scenes, 
like those of his more talented son. The younger Teniers was more 
like the Dutch painters than any of his great neighbors already men- 
tioned. But the royal province and its little court had its influence. 
The governor-general made him curator of the art collection and gave 
the young man opportunity to copy many works by famous painters. 
This was his schooling, and he used his remarkable talent to produce 
superb color tones, rarely using pure pigment as fine tonal painting 
distinguishes his works. His subjects were village festivals, royster- 
ing peasants, landscapes and farmyard scenes and stories of domestic 
life, usually humorous. There is no greatness in Teniers, but remark- 
able ability. 

Principal Works: Rinaldo and Armida, La Graciosa Fregatriz, Village 
Festivals (Madrid) ; Peter's Denial, St. Anthony, Tavern Scene (Louvre) ; Chateau 
at Pearck, Four Landscapes of the Seasons, the Music Party, Backgammon Players, 
The Miser."?, Dives, or the Rich Man in Hell (London); Rural Fetes, Peasants, 
Interiors, Incantation Scenes, Temptation of St. Anthony (Dresden); Italian Fair, 
Feast of Monkeys, Dutch Ale-House, Violin Player (Munich); Kermess, St. 
Anthony's Temptation, Family of a Painter (Berlia), 

Somewhat later came Pedro de Moya (1610-1666), a Spaniard, who 
is interesting because, determined to see the world at all hazards, he 
enlisted in a troop destined for service in the Netherlands. Arriving 
there, his officers gave permission to paint in the galleries where Van 
Dyck's works were hung. The great artist was in England, so thither 
Moya followed, only to find the life of his exemplar going out. It 
must have been about 1641. Van Dyck dying, he returned to Spain 
and met Murillo, to whom he communicated all the new methods 
learned in the north. Moya seems to have been an excellent imitator, 
but not original. 

Meindert Hobbema 

(/6//-.? Probably Dutch.) 
Though possibly born in Antwerp, this excellent landscape painter 
lived his life in Holland and was an intimate friend of Ruj'sdael, 


Berghem and other men who made such astonishingly good outdoor 
pictures. This is the moment when Claude was making his revela- 
tions of what a landscape should be, and these men took their impulse 
from Italy. There is no such poetry in these works as in those of the 
Franco-Italian, but the statement of the facts of nature's phenomena 
was loving and imbued with the atmosphere of the heavens. Col- 
lectors in this day prize all this art very highly. Mill sites, pastoral 
scenes, wood interiors, gray tones, little positive green, silvery skies 
and entire unity of effect reveal a high order of artistic talent. The 
figures in Hobbema's landscapes were touched in by his better- 
instructed companions. None of these Dutchmen indulged in the 
absurdity of introducing classical anecdote, as Claude felt obliged to 
do. Animals and men are good honest Dutch stock. 

Principal Works: The Mill (Louvre) ; Others in England, Berlin, Venice, and 

In France Pierre Mignard (1612-1695) followed LeBrun, though a 
little older, as court painter and was in nearly all respects like him, 
producing Gobelin-tapestry designs and stilted Italian art. Both men 
studied long in Italy in the time of Carlo Dolci. 

Principal Works: Vierge a la Grappe, St. Cecilia, Portrait of Madame de 
Maintenon, St. Luke Painting the Virgin (Louvre); Maria Mancini (Berlin). 

Gerard Douw 

{1613-1680. Dutch.) 
After spending three years in Rembrandt's studio, Douw had 
learned how to manage a picture and made one of the most remarkable 
painters of any period. Lacking an element of greatness of character 
which made his master notable, he painted so well that no imitator 
has approached him in sentiment. Aside from the wonder of it, his 
minute execution was so sincere in following nature, so tender in 
artistic sentiment, so loose in handling and refined in color that no 
one can assign to him a second place. While Rembrandt lost his hold 
upon the public, being too highly artistic, Douw gained in riches untii 

MiGNABD — Child of Mignahd. 


the last. This in itself is somewhat to his discredit, not that wrong 
can be charged against him, but simply because it indicates a lower 
grade of art. 

Minute finish presupposes small canvases. Many of them are 
from six to twelve inches long, heads as small as a pea, finger nails 
like pin heads and the minutest possible finish in every part — an 
almost impossible finish and no imaginable detail omitted. One 
favorite arrangement was to place a figure or two in the embrasure of 
a window, as seen from the street, with perhaps the introduction of a 
curtain as if it had been drawn aside to reveal the picture. About the 
figures are gathered the articles appropriate to the personages. The 
housewife has a rabbit and a chicken, just bought in the market, every 
tiny feather and hair painted beautifully, yet not ruined by hardness 
of finish. Imitators of Douw could create as much detail as he, but 
could never touch so deftly or render nature's atmosphere so feel- 
ingly. Tenderness with sentiment, these are his attainments; nor did 
he fail of these however minute the detail. No artist in the world 
has done this thing like Douw. He is rightly called "great" who 
leads all others. 

Principal Works: Schoolmaster (Uffizi, Florence); La Femme Hydropique, 
Reading the Bible, Dentist, Woman (Louvre) ; Poulterer's Shop (London) ; Hermit 
Kneeling before an Open Bible, Young Girl at a Window, Schoolmaster, Old 
Woman, Two Portraits of Himself (Dresden) ; Old Woman, Lady at Her Toilet, 
Quacksalver, Hermit (Munich); Cook, Penitent Magdalene (Berlin). 

Gabriel Metzu, or Matzu 

{ibis-ibs8. Dutch.) 

Metzu was a genre painter whose work resembles that of Terburg, 
silken petticoats and all, though he showed more variety in his sub- 
jects. Some of his pictures are like Douw's. As with all excellent 
technicians, he commands the admiration of collectors. 

Principal Works: Vegetable Garden at Amsterdam, Music Lesson (Louvre) ; 
Lovers at Breakfast, Lace Maker (Dresden); Dutch Family (Berlin); The Duet 


Salvator Rosa 

(i6is-i6yj. Italian.) 

Easel pictures traveled about a good deal even in those days of 
difficult transportation; but history is meager, therefore it is hard to 
determine how much, if any, Claude may have influenced this man fif- 
teen years his junior. Coincidences in art movements are to be found 
in a strange way all over the world, like the discovery that Rubens 
was also a landscape painter who advanced far beyond his fellows, 
though he worked in Italy at the time of Rosa. The Dutch painters 
also produced excellent landscapes; nearly always learning their pro- 
fessions in Italy, leaning now to Claude, now to Rosa. 

Rosa's home was near and in Naples, far to the south, whereas 
Claude lived in the center of the country and in the beaten track. It 
is pretty certain that Rosa came under the influence of Caravaggio 
very early in his career and the effect of this circumstance may easily 
be traced in his work. He has the same dash and the same indiffer- 
ence to the over-delicate finish of the Caracci Academy, just ending its 
existence but maintained as to influence by its following. 

Born of a succession of painters, in Rosa's blood flowed the desire 
to paint, and it was so strong that parental designs as to a change of 
profession in the family, could not turn him away from paint brushes. 
Being willful, he not alone would not allow himself to be made into a 
lawyer, but he would not go to the art school, preferring to go sketch- 
ing. Naturally, this did not improve his drawing, but it did make an 
original landscape painter of him. 

There is a picture by Rosa in the Louvre, of a fight between 
horsemen, full of violent action (the sort which the Caracci followers 


MuKiLLO — The Beggah Boy. 


disliked) and the faces are all turned so as to conceal the features. 
But he did many portraits fairly well, as a man of talent may even 
if he is not a wonderful manipulator of line. 

While on a sketching trip, the brigands picked him up, which was 
not a serious matter as he had nothing that they could steal, and poor 
people had no fear of brigands. What a find he must have been to 
these wild sons of Italy, who were born with the love of pictures, and 
how polite they must have been to this genius, those cultivated out- 
laws! It was a chance too that would have delighted any artist, to 
sketch picturesque clothes and magnificent mountain passes and all 
that life of camp and bivouac. There is one of his earlier pictures in 
the Louvre, made a good deal like some of Claude's, or like the 
classical style of landscape, but the later ones with the life of the wild 
men are as wild and violent as the brigands themselves. Massive 
mountain forms, lakes in deep shades of furious Prussian blue, cliffs 
and rocks, forest trees, profound shadows, all that the Caraccis con- 
demned, superbly vulgar art possibly, but heart art. I recall one in 
which the brigands and soldiers shoot at each other, rather rudely 
touched in, but lifelike. All this was like Caravaggio and the oppo- 
site of the tender, full-lighted, shadowless art of the other school of 
painting. Wild marines attracted him; any disturbed composition. 
Though critics of the classical tendency rail at this genius, calling him 
the last tortured remnant of the fine art of Italy, he has had an extended 
influence on the art of the world, even upon our own painters of the 
"Hudson River School," and the Dutch artists of his own period. 
Ribera, the Spaniard, who lived his life in this locality and who was 
also a follower of Caravaggio (though rarely painting pure landscape), 
led Rosa by twenty-seven years. The active Dutch school had many 
landscape painters at this time, and so had the Spanish. Italian art 
was a-dying. 

Principal Works: St. Jerome in the Desert, Landscapes (Madrid); Battle 
Landscape, Conspiracy of Cataline (Pitti Gallery, Florence); Two Battle Scenes 
(Corsini Palace, Rome) ; Mercury and the Woodman (London) ; Landscapes (Munich) ; 
Samuel's Apparition to Saul (Louvre) ; Warrior Doing Penance (Vienna). 


Carlo Dolci 

(1616-1686. Italian.) 

The master of Dolci was Jacopo Vignalli, who, rn turn, came from 
a direct lineage of painter and pupil from Raphael. But the influence 
of the Caracci Academy was in the land and fell upon him also. If an 
artist can paint with extraordinary smoothness, draw correctly and 
gracefully, and secure sentimental expression, he is sure of popular- 
ity. Dolci is the Cabanel of this time, though the pretty painting of 
the Frenchman led others into better ways, whereas Dolci had no fol- 
lowing except servile imitators. Over all this line of artists hangs the 
shadow of a declining period. 

"The School of Raphael" ends with Dolci, as far as Italy is con- 
cerned. Numberless men in other countries have followed in the 
same line and will do so possibly until the end of time. 

Dolci invented an Ecce Homo and a Mater Dolorosa, keeping at 
variations of these patterns through many years. All the world likes 
them, though even the enthusiastic laudations are dampened by 
apologies for the lack of character and the enforced slickness. 

The daughter of Herodias bearing that bloody head of St. John— 
wasn't that a dainty dish to set before a king? The imagination 
lingers about the thought of this pretty savage with her grewsome 
offering. What an opportunity for an artist to study subtle expres- 
sion! Dolci's intellect carried him no farther than pretty figure 
painting, well done according to rule. 

His sweet Mother of Sorrows, it is simply a novice from some 
convent, the draped head carefully adjusted to show the impassive 
face and a bit of thumb. That coquetish thumb— always the same 
thumb, sometimes peeping out a little more and then retreating coyly. 
How refinedly repentant are his Magdalenes! Is it possible that these 
are intended to portray one of the most mom.entous heart sorrows in 
human life? 

More still life he has painted — lilies and roses astonishingly well 
done, but marble blossoms. It is said that another did these for him, 
his own laborious finish not reaching the standard of lifeless polish so 

MuRiLLO — Madonna. 


dear to his heart. It were not worth while to dwell upon these 
declining, sugar-coated weaknesses of the dying school of Raphael, 
were they not so popular, so cherished in museums. 

Most of Dolci's works are small, though he also made some life- 
sized figures. 

Gerard Douw painted as smoothly as Dolci, but there is a certain 
sincerity and genuine observation of nature in those Dutch pictures 
which command infinite respect as against the absolute surrender to 
weak classicism we find here. 

The art of these three men, Guido, Domenichino and Dolci, was 
so popular that even the highly-endowed Murillo forgot much of his 
native force in attempting to imitate it. Murillo and Dolci lived their 
lives at the same time, and the Spaniard's change to over-sweetness 
is contemporaneous with the arrival in Spain of Dolci's product. 

Principal Works: St. Cecelia, Daughter of Herodias (Dresden); Madonna, 
Ecce Homo (Corsini Palace, Rome); Madonna and Child (Borghese Palace, Rome); 
Penitent Magdalene, Madonna of the Thumb, Angel of the Annunciation (Uffizi, 
Rome) ; Martyrdom of St Andrew, Fra Angelica, God the Father (Academy of Fine 
Arts, Florence); Dream of St. John, Mater Dolorosa, Magdalene, Angel of the 
Annunciation (Uffizi, Florence); Magdalene (Dresden). 

Van der Faes, known as Sir Peter Lely (the lily) (1617-1680, 
German), lived in England. Lely was of Dutch extraction but 
German born. Educated in the Netherlands, he became a fairly good 
technician, an indifferent draughtsman, but quite clever enough to 
obtain a footing in England (where art was an e.xotic) to secure royal 
patronage and make numberless affected portraits, not forgetting the 
nudes and other conceits which took the popular fancy. He was, at 
the court of the gay King Charles H., what Fragonard was at the 
court of Louis XV. 

Principal Works: Oliver Cromwell (Pitti Gallery, Florence), and many por- 
traits of the beauties of the Court of Charles II. 

Bartolome' Este'ban Murillo 

{1618-1682. Spa7iish.) 
Nineteen years younger than Velasquez, this artist ends the line 
for a long time. Spain had lost all claims to greatness. Murillo at 


first and the same man at the last are nearly two different artists, 
though the Spanish genius for nature observation never quite left him. 
The beggar boys, his most genuine works, were made when in his 
youth; he studied them because there were no nude life classes in 
Spain. Youth is genuine in sentiment, as these early pictures are. It 
is the art of Ribera, of Velasquez, some of the technique learned from 
the traveled imitator of Van Dyck and Moya. It is strong in light 
and shade, genuine in color, fine in action and altogether Spanish. 
Later, he submitted to the love of popularity or perhaps fell a willing 
victim to the wiles of that "School of Raphael" so often spoken of in 
this writing. His decorations in the churches of Seville, made after 
middle life, are so like the compositions of Raphael that the two seem 
the same only slightly varied. Saving grace is found in the remnant 
of the early and genuine Spanish fondness for actual facial expression. 
The beggar boys appear again in his latest works in the religious 
decorations, less genuine but with character enough to give flavor. 

After learning how to paint well (having felt Moya's influence), 
his good fortune in selling out his collection of pictures brought 
money and the desire to visit Italy. Reaching Madrid, Velasquez 
introduced him to the collections of the palace, examples of Ribera, 
Titian, some of Raphael, Carlo Dolci, and other Italian pictures, 
and much from Flanders (a Spanish province), and these occupied 
him with good study. The art of Carlo Dolci (who was his exact 
contemporary) had become popular and seduced the young artist. 
After this, his painting is that of the degenerate Italian school, 
though far more characterful. He was greater than Guido or Dolci. 

A marriage with one of the leading women of his native city 
(Seville) brought him commissions to paint in the churches there, 
because his wife had influence with the clergy. 

A "Holy Family" (Louvre) shows color that is luminous and ten- 
der, though weak as compared to Velasquez and other Spaniards. 
The tendency is toward pink flesh (which never occurs with the others, 
nor in his beggar boys) over-delicate blues, reds and yellows. The 
Madonna is a portrait, slightly idealized; the Almighty, a weak old 

MtraiLLo — The ImmactjiiAte Conception. 


man; the Christ and St. John, excellent portraits of children with 
much of his Spanish virtue of characterful expression. The cherubs 
are excellent babies and true to life. In the "Cuisine des Anges" 
(Louvre) all the figures are artificial, but there is a collection of 
kitchen utensils which could not be better done. 

He was nineteen years younger than Velasquez; thirty-one younger 
than Rubens; twelve younger than Rembrandt; one older than LeBrun, 
court painter to Louis XIV. of France; three younger than Salvator 
Rosa; two younger than Carlo Dolci. 

Principal Works: Madonna (Pitti Palace, Florence); Adoration of the Shep- 
herds, Marriage of St. Catherine, Return of the Prodigal (Vatican, Rome); Madonna 
and Child (Corsini Palace, Rome) ; The Immaculate Conception, The Death of St. 
Andrew, Annunciation, Adoration of the Shepherds, Conversion of St. Paul, Vision 
of St. Augustine (Madrid); Immaculate Conception, Holy Family, Peasant Boy; 
(Louvre) Peasant Boy, Divine Shepherd (National Gallery, London); Virgin and 
Child, Burial of Santa Clara, St. Rodrigue (Dresden); Beggar Boys, Girls with Fruit 
(Munich); St. Anthony of Padua (Berlin); Moses Striking the Rock, The Miracle of 
the Loaves and Fishes, The Charity of St. Juan de Dios, The Infant Saviour (Hos- 
pital of Charity of Seville); St. Elizabeth of Hungary (Academy of San Fernando, 
Madrid); St. Anthony of Padua, Guardian Angel (Cathedral, Seville); Conception, 
Nativity, St. Francis Embracing the Crucified Saviour, Saints Rufina and Justa, 
Charity of St. Thomas of Villanueva, Virgen de la Serviletta (Museum of Seville) ; 
Flower Girl (Dilwich Collection, England); Conceptions, Madonnas (St. Petersburg.) 

Charles Le Brun 

(i6iq-i6go. French. ) 

Court painter to Louis XIV., Le Brun was of much use to France, 
though by no means a remarkable painter. The array of enormous 
canvases, which still occupy good space in the French art galleries, is 
heavy, in the debased Italian manner and largely intended for transla- 
tion into tapestry. He it was who organized the Art Academy under 
royal patronage and began that war for the support of stilted classi- 
cism which still disturbs French art circles. The Grand Monarque 
had lofty ideas regarding the establishment of art workshops. "The 
Gobelins" still exist, much as Le Brun projected the schools and 
shops for the production of tapestries, marquetry and decorative 


design of all sorts. The tapestries there executed in Le Brun's time 
are better than the designs he made for them. 

Principal Works: Scenes from the Life of Alexander the Great, Battle of 
Arbela, Crucifixion, Magdalene, Benedicite, Portrait of Himself (Louvre, Paris); 
Jabach Family of Cologne (Berlin). 

Philip Wouvermans 

(ibig-i6b8. Dutch.') 

Wouvermans, a townsman of Hals, was an excellent painter who 
discovered nothing new but could paint a well-ordered picture in 
charming tones, rarely with positive colors, though lacking no refine- 
ments of color. Battle scenes, skirmishes with horsemen in violent 
action, abundant smoke and confusion, these made him popular. It 
is with fine painter qualities that he wins admiration. 

Principal Works: Stag Hunt, Six Equestrian or Battle Scenes (Munich); 
Hawking Party (Amsterdam) ; Milk Can (Dresden) ; Burning Mill, Stag Hunt (St. 
Petersburg) ; Hay Cart (The Hague). 

Nicholas Berghem 

{1624-1683. Dutch:) 

Berghem (or Berchem) was the son of a painter, the two making 
landscapes so much alike as to confuse collectors. His taste was for 
landscapes with cows and figures, or domestic animals, all admirably 
drawn and in good movement. As paintings they are remarkably 
loose and free, everything clear in tone and few black shadows, sky 
and distance in excellent atmosphere, and the best tree drawing of any 
Dutchman. The faces are not so good as others made them. Many of 
his landscapes are classical arrangements — far-off mountains and near 
rivers; absence of herbage suggests Italian landscape, but an artificial 
arrangement and color for tone's sake rather than exact nature. 
Nearly all these Dutch landscape painters composed an artificial 
arrangement. Berghem is one of the best of these minor geniuses. 

Principal Works: View of Nice, Port of Genoa, Crossing the Ford, Milking a 
Goat, Landscape with Cattle (Louvre, Paris); Boaz and Ruth (Amsterdam); A Turk 
Talking to a Woman (The Hague). 


Paul Potter 

{1625-1613. Dutch ) 

At the Museum in The Hague hangs the much-talked-of "Bull," 
not a great picture but fine in its fresh color and the natural lifelike 
attitude of the animals. Like many of these Dutch animal painters, 
his human figure is no more than fairly good. It is the simplicity of 
the whole effect which makes the picture impressive, and the remark- 
able manner in which the green grass has maintained its original 
color. Some pictures have grown very mellow with time and varnish, 
seeming, like Cuyp's, to be lighted through amber glass. All his 
compositions are simple, not arranged from complicated Italian 
mountain subjects, as others too often were. 

Principal Works: Two Portraits (Dresden); Young Bull (The Hague); Bear 
Hunt (Amsterdam) ; The Condemnation of Man by a Tribunal of Animals (Hermit- 
age, St. Petersburg). 

Nicholas Maes 

{i632-i6gj. Dutch.) 

There were several artists named Maes or Maas, the most impor- 
tant being Nicholas. He imitated Rembrandt for the most part. He 
painted portraits with much financial and considerable artistic success. 

Antoon Franz van der Meulen 

(i6j4-i6go. Flemish.) 

Van der Meulen was born in Brussels, but belongs with the French 
painters because a large part of his life was spent in the service of 
Louis XIV. as battle painter to the glory of the Grand Monarque. 

The contrast of conditions between Flanders and Holland appears 
very distinctly here. Semi-royal Flanders kept in touch with royal- 
ties. The only evidence of nationality in Van der Meulen's work is a 
sort of slavish attention to minute details. In French galleries 
(Louvre and Versailles) may be seen large pictures, the center occu- 
pied with the scarlet and gold coach of the king of elegant manners, 
surrounded by a crowd of courtiers who attend the king. This impor- 


tant group is so arranged that the landscape stretches away beyond it 
and shows a city on fire, or one which they would like to set fire to, 
could they approach it. This management prevails continually — 
always the red coach. He was a fairly good painter, but France had 
few be,tter at the time. The noted Le Brun was his father-in-law. 

Principal Works: Conquests of Louis XIV,, in twenty-three pictures (Louvre, 
Paris) ; Four others, similar in character (Munich). 

Jan Steen 

{i6j6-i68g. Dutch.) 

A painter of domestic interiors and tavern scenes, being himself a 
tavern-keeper, Steen is the true forerunner of the school of domestic 
genre painters which has manifested itself all over Europe during 
many generations. It was the rise of these popular painters which 
destroyed the taste for Rembrandt's greater art, toward the latter part 
of that leader's career. None of the Dutchmen equal him in the 
creation of a "story picture" in which individual temperaments are 
studiously set forth. What he accomplished has been as well done 
since, but he deserves limitless credit for his invention of a style or, 
at least, its full development, in the execution of which he has scarcely 
been surpassed by his numberless followers. The effort which he 
made to render all stuffs and textures stood in the way of the produc- 
tion of simple refinements of tone and unity of effect. Liveliness of 
colors rarely means refined color. Some of his compositions are 
arranged with wonderful skill from the point of view of balancing 
lines and masses. Not able to secure subtlety of expression, he was 
still a leader in that line of genre painting which delineates ordinary 
facial action. The Diisseldorf genre school, long popular, was based 
on painters like Steen. 

Principal Works: Mother Feeding Baby with a Spoon (Dresden); Inn Garden 
IBerlin); Fete, Flemish Festival (Louvre); Physician Visiting a Lady (Munich); 
Music Master (London); Alchemist (Private Gallery at Venice); Feast of St. 
Nicholas, Lady and Parrot (Amsterdam) ; Family Feast (Florence). 


Jacob van Ruysdael 

{/636-1681. Dutch. ) 

Ruysdael made landscapes like the others, classical compositions, 
artificial arrangements of color rather than an exact imitation of 
nature, but with refined sentiment and pleasing composition. All 
these were excellent painters whose works enrich European galleries, 
but they did nothing more than push along the development of art, 
push it in a good way and far along. Hundreds of good painters have 
imitated them or found here the source of their inspiration. 

Principal Works: Monastery, Chase, Jewish Cemetery (Dresden) ; Waterfall, 
View of Bentheim Castle (Amsterdam); Storm at Sea (Louvre); The Forest 

Kaspar (Caspar) Netscher 

(i6jg-i6S4. German; lived in Holland.') 

Technique without originality now commences to indicate the 
decline of Dutch art. It is another attempt to outdo Terburg and 
Gerard Douw, with all the technique but little of the spirit. Netscher's 
two sons were, like him, technicians. 

Principal Works: Material Instruction, Alchemist (London) ; Portrait of 
Madame de Montespan, Music Lesson, Young Man Writing a Letter (Dresden) ; Lady 
Who Is Singing (Munich). 

Too much technique killed Dutch art. It grew mannered and 
imitative, as has often happened in other countries. Fresh and orig- 
inal talent does not seem to continue for long periods anywhere, 
though from time to time a new genius comes up and sets the pace for 
many followers. 

Sir Godfrey Kneller 

(1648-1723 (?) German; lived in England.) 

Kneller studied with Rembrandt and then went to Italy. His life 
work consists of some good and numberless shockingly bad portraits 
of English royal and noble grandees, during the reigns of Charles II. 
and following kings to the accession of George I. During his career 


Hogarth, the actual father of English art, arrived. Reynolds was born 
the year that Kneller died. 

Hyacinthe Rigaud 

{i6^g-i'j4j. French. ) 

It is worth taking note of that Rigaud did not study in Italy but was 
shaped by the influence of Van Dyck (dead eighteen years at Rigaud's 
birth), which certainly causes a difference in his art from those just 
mentioned. He was a literalist, attempting the stately manner of the 
great Fleming without his refinement of conception. His full-length 
portrait of Louis XIV. in regal robes is a mass of velvet and gold 
draperies, very sumptuous but ridiculously over-loaded. It was this 
picture which incited Thackeray to make his famous caricature of, first 
the robes alone, then Louis lean and ugly, then Louis the king, which 
is the overdone work in question, suggesting that the clothes were the 
making of His Majesty. The picture bears out the thought. 

Principal Works: Portrait of Bossuet, Portrait of Louis XIV. (Louvre.) 

Antoine Watteau 

(1684-1721. French.) 

It is almost safe to say that national art in France begins with 
Watteau, though Rigaud used the Flemish influence, which gave him 
his training, in a decidedly French manner. But Watteau was so 
original and his art was so different from any other which the world 
had known, that we may declare his the product of true French influ- 
ence. He did not go to Italy, but studied the pictures of the Flemish 
masters found in Paris. Coming to Paris a poor boy, he managed to 
secure considerable training in the Academy and became a pretty good 
draughtsman, though never a severe classicist, as David (who came 
twenty-seven years after his death) would judge classicism. 

There is a strong flavor of the art of Carlo Dolci (died two years 
after Watteau' s birth) in his work — the sweet saints here becoming 
pretty sinners — and the attention to still life painting is the same. But 
this was a coming, not a dying movement. The reign of Louis XIV. 


ended in 1712, so that we find an art suited to the period of crooked- 
legged furniture, elegant gilding, sumptuous garments, increasing 
frivolity of manners, which culminated in the reign of Louis XV., the 
most frivolous in the history of any nation. Pastoral posturings, 
sheep and shepherdesses alike "genteel," cavalrymen who were made 
to wear pretty costumes rather than to fight, graceful groupings in 
park-like landscapes studded with statues of the elegant period as 
artificial in pose as the nymphs who went picnicing about them, love- 
makings -of the sweetly sentimental sort — this is the art of Watteau. 
All his swains and lassies are dressed in silks and satins, they pose in 
silken landscapes, amid trees which arrange themselves gracefully, 
and with color which corresponds with the subjects represented, suave, 
elegant and in tender artificial tones. It is by no means a second- 
rate art, though never roble either in pose or sentiment. 

The "Embarkation for the Island of Cythera," island of love where 
Venus was born (Louvre and Berlin), is one of his best works, the 
example in Berlin somewhat over-finished and containing several 
additional figures. Frederick the Great was a patron of this artist, 
many of his best works being at the San Souci palace. 

Though it is out of the sequence chronologically, I will mention 
here Lancret (1690-1743), Pater (1695-1743), Hilaire — and De Bar — who 
are all close imitators of Watteau, growing thinner and harder in the 
descent, though much patronized by Frederick. 

Hogarth was thirteen years younger than Watteau; Sir Joshua 
Reynolds was born two years after Watteau's death; Murillo died 
1682, two years before Watteau's birth; Teniers died when Watteau 
was ten years old; Ostade when Watteau was only a year old; Gerard 
Douw died four years before Watteau's coming. 

Iviportant Works: Embarking for Cythera, Portrait of Himself, Grace before 
Meat (Louvre.) 

Francois Le Moyne 

{i6SS-i'ys7- F) 
An artist four years younger than Watteau, of Italian education, 
who painted decorations with tender flesh and drapery, painting 


unusually "fat" color and excellence in all ways. What interests us 
most is that he had for a pupil a man less talented than himself but 
who is known all over the civilized world. The pupil was Boucher. 

Jean Marc Nattier 

{/68j -1766. French. ) 

A painter of fashionable portraits, Nattier has produced an art 
which maintains a certain popularity because an exponent of the times 
of the frivolous period at the close of the reign of Louis XIV. and the 
opening of that of Louis XV. His noble ladies in embroidered 
bodices are pink and pretty. 

Goya, the Spanish painter of brilliant talent, was born in 1748 — 
twenty-eight years before the death of Nattier, and five years after the 
death of Rigaud. In 1686, one year after Nattier's birth, Carlo Dolci 



England comes to her own in this chapter. France brings forth, 
besides some interesting little men, one of the most noted artists of 
any period. Spain sends up a rocket and harbors an artist polished by 
much hard work. America begins to take her place in the contest for 

William Hogarth 

(i6gy-iy64. English.) 

All prosperous peoples are self-satisfied and think that the world 
could not revolve but for them. The English are pugnaciously self- 
complacent. Not spontaneously artistic, they have always acted as if 
the arts would fare badly without their aid. No man knew less about 
the art of the rest of the world than Hogarth; but he was sure that he 
had all the secrets of it in his pocket. In his ignorance he railed at 
the idea of art schools and art knowledge, and looked upon a foreign 
art education as the embodiment of foolishness. Admitting that 
many a little genius has been injured by foreign study — if anything 
can injure a little man — one so talented as Hogarth might have made 
a wonderful mark in the world, had he been properly trained. Devoid 
of proper art education, Hogarth made of himself a superior caricatu- 
rist and a portrait painter who had few commissions, because his bad 
manners repulsed too many sitters. Somewhat embittered, he reveled 
in sarcastic delineations of the follies of his times, caricaturing people 
of importance whose enmity he thus cultivated. As there were no 
newspapers in those days for the circulation of caricatures, Hogarth 
sought to convince the public that he was a great painter (which he 
never attained skill enough to be) by making his satires on large can- 
vases with oil paints. 



Hogarth's pictures never sold readily, in fact they could scarcely 
be sold at all, even by means of ingeniously conceived raffles and other 
schemes to force the market. He lived by means of engravings made 
by himself which could be sold at moderate prices to people of the 
middle classes, who were delighted to see their aristocratic betters held 
up to ridicule. Narrow-mindedness was his birthright. I am not 
questioning the man's genius, as that is beyond dispute, but I am pic- 
turing the condition of art in England when the flame began to burn. 
In youth a silversmith's apprentice, he early found opportunity to 
study the works of Van Dyck, and with this training, in the absence 
of all art schools and life classes, he attained to considerable skill as 
a technician. Note that he is not a painter-genius, but one of literary 
bent, like almost all Englishmen. 

His "Marriage a la Mode" and "The Rake's Progress," "The 
Harlot's Progress," and similar serial story pictures, grow coarser as 
the years passed, .until even his own public refused to consider them 
seriously, while the aristocrats waxed frosty toward him. In no case 
do we find subtlety in his conceptions. Everything is brutally direct. 
In these days, we relegate these things to the newspapers. 

Principal Works: Marriage a la Mode, The Rake's Progress, The Harlot's 
Progress (London). 

Jean Baptist Chardin 

(_i6gg-iyjg. French.) 

If Watteau's art may be called classical-genre, that of Chardin is 
the first real domestic-genre we have met with in all this history, even 
more so than the Dutch. In the French picture galleries, amid the 
endless array of learned classics, we find our hearts touched by Char- 
din's subjects revealing the joys and sorrows of actual home life, as 
well as by the tender painting and real artistic merit. Most school- 
men thought that it was beneath their dignity to paint an humble 
interior with a mother and her girls at household duties. But Chardin 
did his work so well that the world has stood by him. Many still-life 
pictures occupied him. This is in itself a matter to invite condemna- 

Sir Joshua Reynolds — Penelope Boothby. 


tion, because mere texture painting is counted too easy for serious 
consideration. But his still life is wonderfully "large" and artistic in 
treatment, every picture a work of art because so dignified. It stands 
almost at the head of this sort of thing in any country or time. 

Francois Boucher 

(lyoj-ryyo. French.) 

Madame de Pompadour was the patron and supporter of Boucher. 
This was in the midst of that period of pretty art, less dignified than 
that of the old king, Louis XIV. The art was trifling, when not actu- 
ally immoral. Boucher's panels, made largely as designs for tape- 
stries, are never in the least improper, though composed of groups of 
nude nymphs and cherubs sporting amid flowers and piles of musical 
instruments. Are they not to be seen in countless numbers repro- 
duced in the magazines called "Lady's Book" and in the art journals 
made for young women's use, to provide copies for painted china? 
The designs are simply pretty. As paintings, they are dry, heartless, 
indifferently drawn and altogether the true exponent of the levity and 
shallowness of the rococo period. His portraits are jaunty and have 
carefully painted clothes. 

Charles Andre Van Loo, called " Carle " 

{tyo^-ijdj. French.) 

A Student in Italy, Van Loo decorated churches in the manner of 
the later Italians, but better. No romance was at one time complete 
without the description of an interior hung with a portrait by this 
artist, because his style kept sympathetic accord with scenes of tender 
experiences. He was not unlike Watteau in treatment of subject and 

Claude Joseph Vernet, called "Joseph" 

{11 1 2- IT 8g. French.) 

We must not overlook a man who appeared at this time painting 
numberless marines, dry, correct and carefully studied. His greatest 


work was the production of his son, who in turn gave us his grandson 
Horace Vernet, the painter of Napoleon's battles. None of them was 
a great artist, however. 

Principal Works: Harbors of France (Louvre); Landscapes and Marine 
Views (Munich). 

Allan Ramsay 

(i7ij-i'/84. English.) 

Allan Ramsay, Sr., the poet father of this artist, gave his son an 
excellent classical education and sent him to Italy where, strange as 
it may seem to relate of one of these Englishmen, he learned to draw. 
The king, George III., made him court painter, which post he held 
until the time of the founding of the Royal Academy, when Reynolds 
in a measure supplanted him. His portraits are well made, though he 
had no special genius, being a rather dry literalist. 

Richard Wilson 

{17/3-1782. English.) 

The first English landscape painter worthy of mention was Wilson, 
who also, at times, painted portraits. Had he remained in Italy 
where an art education and reputation were secured, the story had 
been pleasanter to relate. England had little use for a classical land- 
scape painter, leaving him to poverty. In the newly organized Royal 
Academy the little office of librarian, with a salary, was created for 
him, which sufficed for his needs. Reynolds had an unaccountable 
antipathy to this excellent man, doing him injury. 

Sir Joshua Reynolds 

{I72j-I7g2. English. ) 

It may be called the "School of Reynolds," the long line of artists 
which largely owes to him its style and its existence. Reynolds was a 
clergyman's son and a suave and polished gentleman. At eighteen 
years of age, an artist of indifferent ability, Hudson, taught him some 
things, but he learned most of his art in Italy. The primitiveness of 

SiK Joshua Reynolds — The Strawberry Girl. 


his ideas is well revealed by the fact that on going to Italy, at twenty- 
seven years of age, he thought little of the art schools and paid no 
attention to training himself in drawing and technique. Instead he 
became enamored of the rich coloring of Titian and other Venetians, 
going about the picture galleries with a note book, rather than a 
palette, attempting to discover by this means the secrets of these great 
masters. A limited amount of copying enabled him to catch some of 
the technique. In after life, when his pictures arrayed themselves 
against him as reproachful evidences of lost opportunities, he regretted 
this mistake and had the honesty to say so. With genius of a very 
high order, he labored to secure magnificent color, but with a touch 
so purposeless and amateurish that it detracts very largely from his 
rank among the world's artists. 

Heretofore, except for Ramsay, all the portraits of English 
notables had been painted by foreigners; he changed the current of 
events, claiming a place for himself and his following in the line of 
royal patronage. 

Like a physician, he manipulated his sitters' dispositions while 
attending to their cases, thus gaining immense sums for his services. 
All histories of the man bristle with statements of the prices paid for 
portraits at various dates in his career, as they would in these days 
give the quotations of prices in stocks. He had the wit to take advan- 
tage of the popular fad for classical learning, and to dress his sitters in 
the garb of the heroes and heroines of mythology. Had he painted 
people as they actually were, the portraits would have been more 
interesting, though probably less beautiful. Like nearly every one of 
the men of his school, he thought a certain amount of grand historical 
painting essential to one of his rank. Of course he executed this 
grand art very badly, having neither the essential talent nor the art 
education to accomplish it. With Dr. Johnson, he founded a literary 
circle which included Pope, Goldsmith, Garrick and many others of 
fame. Though very deaf, he delighted in the society of cultivated 
people and his table was well supplied with costly plate and with 
aristocratic guests. 


The Royal Academy was founded in 1768, Reynolds being elected 
its first president and knighted by the king, George III. It was to the 
students that he delivered his noted "Discourses," writings which 
have been translated into several languages, but which while full of 
good common sense reveal all too plainly the semi-amateurishness of 
their author. 

"The Snake in the Grass" shows Reynolds as he was, a painter of 
refined flesh tones, of pretty fancies, of superb color, but bad in drawing. 
Yet, the work is so fascinating that criticism becomes misplaced. 
No nation has raised up a portrait painter who did better justice to its 
peculiar tastes or, on the whole, was kindlier to its beauties and 
nobles. Early American art was influenced largely by the School of 
Reynolds. West, Copley, Stuart, Trumbull, Peale and Allston fol- 
lowed in its wake. 

Principal Works: The Banished Lord, Holy Family, The Three Graces, 
Infant Samuel, Snake in the Grass, Heads of Angels, Age of Innocence (London). 

Jean Baptiste Greuze 

{iy2j-i8o6. French.) 

While the English were learning the worth of their own talents, 
France continued to produce artists of merit. Greuze was not won- 
derful, except as a painter of delightful flesh tones. A better draughts- 
man, of course, than most of the English, he could render a young 
woman's figure in light drapery with more charm than almost any 
artist of that country. His innocent girl faces command universal- 
admiration and justly, as in the well-known "Cruche Casse" (Louvre), 
one of the most popular pictures in the gallery. His attempts at 
tragic-genre are absurd, though the flesh-painting is good. 

Principal Works: Broken Pitcher, Paternal Curse, Repentant Son, Marriage 
Contract (Louvre). 

Thomas Gainsborough 

{iT2'j-i'j88. English. ) 
Gainsborough was as frank and simple in his manner of brushing 
paint as Reynolds was uncertain and tentative. The older man 

Sir Joshua Reynolds — Miss Bowles. 


searched for forced color, the younger contented himself with tender 
grays lightly touched in. Reynolds accused him of making only 
sketches, but the painters nowadays approve of that simplicity of 
treatment. Gainsborough was more "clever" in portraiture than the 
president of the Academy, though possibly lacking in a measure his 
peculiar charm. His landscapes with figures are entirely poetical. 
The widely-know "Blue-boy" picture has created more talk than it 
called for. Gainsborough took up a challe'nge of Reynolds to the 
effect that no picture could be painted in which blue prevailed. This 
would be true from Reynolds' point of view, as he loved warm, rich 
tones. So Gainsborough painted the boy all in blue against a blue 
background, though there was not much pure blue pigment in it, tones 
of blue-gray rather. It was not a new trick, though possibly new to 
these provincials. 

Gainsborough's schooling was secured from nature. He was 
clever in all things, barely escaping the life of a musician because he 
turned, as a boy, to landscape, figure and portrait painting. Among 
other clever things in his life was the winning of a dowered wife. 

Principal Works: Market Cart, Rustic Children, Watering Place, Musidora, 
Portrait of Mrs. Siddons, Portrait of Ralph Schomberg (London). 

Raphael Mengs 

{i^38-iyyg. German, or more correctly Bohemian.) 

Mengs' father was a miniature painter who considered genius only 
another name for hard work. The effort of many critics to prove 
Mengs a genius shows only that genius is nothing less than genius and 
that he had none. Long years of toil in Italy made him a learned 
draughtsman, a wonderfully correct technician and a faultless imitator 
of the masters he studied. For many years he was court painter in 
Spain, and as such had charge of the desperate efforts which the king 
put forth to revive the decayed art of that country, establishing tapes- 
try works and art industries. In this connection it was his good for- 
tune to give a young artist his opportunity. This young man took the 
opportunity and ran away with it, much to the distress of the dry 


schoolman. The young man's name was Goya, and there was none to 
follow his brilliant example. Mengs worked much in Dresden, which 
accounts for the association of his name, with Germany, that country 
which had no artists of its own to brag of for two centuries, including 
this period. Mengs painted sweetly-sentimental, classically-draped 
portraits, or women decked with pretty costumes and strings of pearls. 
This was in the time of Louis XV., the frivolous French king. His 
costumes show the fashions of the times, as Paris, even then, set the 

Principal Works: Two Oil Paintings, Portrait of Himself, Portrait of His 
Father, Cupid Sharpening the Arrow (Dresden) ; Frescoes (Ceilings of the Pope's 
Apartments) ; Descent from the Cross, Nativity, Adoration of the Shepherds, Noli 
Me Tangere. 

Jean Honore Fragonard 

{iyj2-t8o6. French.) 

Fragonard was the pupil of Boucher but had many times more 
talent than his master. Watteau's painting seems more his inspira- 
tion, many pictures resembling the latter's. A superb brushman and 
colorist, his pictures have inspired many recent men. Especially his 
study heads are capital examples of dashing technique and fine color. 
Unfortunately he was painting for a corrupt public, that of the deca- 
dence which caused the French revolution, and existed during the 
abandoned Directory. Many of his pictures are kept in the store- 
rooms of public galleries because too erotic for the present genera- 

David was sixteen years younger than Fragonard, and became the 
power which did away with this pandering to the popular fancy, con- 
fining art to strict orderliness, though thereby enslaving it. 

George Romney 

(y 1^4.-1802. English. ) 

Lightly-draped or semi-nude nymphs made Romney's art a con- 
trast to that of his fellows. The notable picture of Lady Hamilton 

Geobge Romney — Mhs. M. Robinson. 


belongs to ttiis class. Of course he painted portraits. Indeed, the 
nymphs were generally only commencements. He rarely brought one 
of them to completion. A better painter of heads than Reynolds, he 
was an acknowledged rival and the president seriously disliked him. 
Probably this accounts for the fact that he never became a Royal 

Principal Works: Portrait of Lady Hamilton (London) ; Milton Dictating to 
His Daughter, Infant Shakespeare Surrounded by the Passions, and many portraits. 

John Singleton Copley 

(/7j>7-7i5'/jr. American born; lived hi England.) 

We have no claim to this man, beyond the fact that he was born in 
Boston (while the country was still a colony of Great Britain) and 
inherited a large amount of Yankee cleverness. When a very young 
man he went to England and exhibited in the Royal Academy the pic- 
ture "Boy and Tame Squirrel." Incited to picture-making when very 
young, he found no better instruction than to make copies of such 
"copies" of old masters as came in his way. 

Probably he could draw as well as the majority of the English pamt- 
ers and his color is pleasing. Like the others, he felt obliged to do his 
historicals, as the well-known "Death of Lord Chatham," as passable 
a work as the times called for. His family portraits reveal the ideas 
picked up during a brief stay in Italy and the study of Reynolds. 
They are very much like Reynolds' and some Dutch pictures in com- 
position, though he painted people in their own clothes. 

Principal Works: Death of Lord Chatham, Death of Major Pierson, Siege of 
Gibraltar, Charles I. Signing Strafford's Death Warrant, The Commons Arrested 
by Charles I., Offer of the Crown to Lady Jane Grey (London) ; Portraits (Museum 
of Fine Arts, Boston). 

Benjamin West 

(1738-1820. American born; lived in England.) 

West was clever, else as a boy he could not have painted his baby 
sister's portrait with the clippings from the cat's tail. His success 


with George III. proved his ability to do business. Not satisfied 
with portrait painting, he lost himself in the desire to imitate Michael 
Angelo and his grand art. Several hundred enormous canvases, with 
names like "Death on the Pale Horse," now at Philadelphia, occupied 
much of his professional life. Without refinement of imagination, 
ignorant of drawing, technique and good color, he did these pretty- 

His boyhood was passed in Philadelphia at a period when unspoiled 
Indians were often to be seen in the neighborhood. This circumstance 
is responsible for the one celebrated picture which came from his 
hand, "The Death of General Wolf." Instead of draping his soldiers, 
hunters and Indians in classical costume (as the custom was) in order 
to give them proper dignity, he painted that which was really dear to 
him — the picturesque costumes which these characters would actually 
wear. Enormous success naturally followed, despite the opposition of 
Reynolds, who had predicted a failure. After a brief visit to Italy (while 
still quite young) his fate took him to England en route homeward. 
Business ability did the rest. He never went home. When Reynolds, 
first president of the Royal Academy, died, West became his suc- 

Principal Works: Death of General Wolfe (Marquis of Westminster) ; Raising 
of Lazarus (City of Hartford) ; Christ Healing the Sick, Death on the Pale Horse 
(Philadelphia) ; Christ Rejected. 

Charles Wilson Peale 

{i74i-iS2g. American.) 

A Marylander, very clever, studied in England with West, returned 
to paint portraits in Philadelphia, where he established the Peale 
museum of natural history and helped found the Philadelphia Art 
Academy. His son, Rembrandt Peale (1778-1860), also studied with 
West and returned to follow in the footsteps of his father, adding to 
his portrait painting some historical works. 

Principal Works of Charles Peale: Fourteen Portraits of Washington. 
Principal Works of Rembrandt Peale: Portraits of celebrated men. 

Thomas Gainsborough — Mrs. Isabella Kinloch. 
(Reproduced by permission of the A. M. Byus Estate.) 

James Barry 

{1^4.1-1806. English, born in Cork.) 

Enthusiasm for art outbalanced his judgment. Education in Italy 
made him an unusually good draughtsman but also created the impres- 
sion that he was destined to be a wonderful painter of the "grand 
art." His historical pictures show limitless ingenuity, but are not 
great in conception. Elected professor of painting in the Academy, 
he lost his position and died neglected because of a bad temper. 

Principal Works: Elysium, Six Paintings Illustrating the Civilization of Man 
(Presented to the Society of Arts at the Adelphi) ; Adam and Eve, Venus Rising 
from the Sea. 

Marie Angelica Kauffman 

(i'/4i-i8o^. Swiss, possibly of German extraction.) 

This woman, of considerable talent and polished manners, won her 
position by virtue of feminine charm. Her portrait-painting father 
gave her the advantages of serious study in Italy. After extended 
travel, she found herself in England and a warm friend of Reynolds, 
whose style of painting she followed, though with better drawing and 
less charm. Wonderful to relate, she was made a Royal Academician. 
Portraits in classical costumes brought her much business. At forty 
years of age, she married Zucchi, a Venetian painter. 

Germany had no painters during all this period. 

Principal Works: Vestal Virgin, Sibyl (Dresden) ; Religion Attended by the 
Virtues (London); Portrait of Herself (Uffizi, Florence) ; Leonardo da Vinci Dying 
in the Arms of Francis I. 

Willen Jacob Herreyns (1743-1827) was director of the Belgian 
Academy and came under the influence of David, when the latter was 
exiled to Brussels. But he did not suffer as much from the man who, 
accustomed to rule, became a self-appointed dictator of the art of his 
retreat, as men like J. B. Duvivier (1762-1837), J. F. Ducq (1762-1829), 
J. Paelinck (1781-1839), J. D. Odevaere (1778-1830), and a long line of 
others who travestied the colorless statue-painting of the Frenchman. 


David's color was at least agreeable if lifeless and his drawing was 
sufificiently magnificent to excuse artificiality. But these unfortunates 
became flavorless artificers. 

Jacques Louis David 

{1748-184^. French.) 

Art is like religion. Some feel that religion is unworthily consid- 
ered unless worship surrounds itself with the monumental solemnities 
of the cathedral and its formalities. Others would give the yearning 
heart full liberty to meet its God in any surroundings, provided the 
feelings be allowed spontaneous action. Art worship is like that; 
some demand formal proprieties, some abhor them, denying that art is 
art unless spontaneous. This I can assert — that all art which has been 
enslaved by formalities has touched the sentiments less than that left 
to free expression. But fine technique does no injury to art unless 
the painter be its slave. 

David sold his soul to an ideal which once had vitality, but in his 
day had become a corpse. Strange event, that one who really had an 
artistic soul and revealed it always when taken off his guard, should 
wage war to defend his theories which were already dead! 

Already well trained in his classics, at twenty-seven years old he 
secured the prix de Rome., according to him several years of study in 
that art center. His measureless enthusiasm over the antiques of 
Greece and Rome led to a declaration of faith — that this was the only 
worthy art. This art tenet he maintained in his days of power in the 
art world. The art world was France. The two earliest presidents of 
the English Academy, Reynolds and West, were in full power when 
David was opening his art government, but the English school was not 
the controlling influence. 

Returning from Rome, David became court painter to Louis XVL 
and the leading influence in French art. Nevertheless he was elected 
later on to the "Convention" and cast his vote with the others for the 
execution of that king, but was in turn cast into prison for a time at 
the fall of Robespierre. Under the "Directorate," and later under 






Napoleon, David arranged the public festivals, designed classical 
furnishings and became art dictator, ruling the academy despotically 
in favor of classical purity. This meant that all figures must be mere 
revampings of antique statues, and pictures must be painted without 
any vulgar display of color. His figures, often nude, were no more 
than tinted statues — natural action had no place in his compositions, 
love of nature gave way to love of dry art laws. His "Rape of the 
Sabines" leaves the artist and the art lover alike cold. Nothing in it 
truly resembles the action of men and women enacting a tragedy. 
The immense "Coronation of Napoleon" shows us actual costumes but 
stilted postures and pale color. Portraits warmed his heart more, 
being nearly natural, exquisitely drawn and lovable as art work. 
Looseness of treatment and, to a certain extent, easy morals had crept 
into art and it was well that some one should play the dictator to 
restore dignity; but David went too far. Young men, who felt for 
art rather than for artificialities, revolted. The war was acrimonious, 
but the romanticists gained their point — Gericault and Delacroix 
demanded recognition for another sort of art and gained it. Thus 
again was waged the war that we learned about in the days of the 
Caracci and Caravaggio. 

At the restoration of the monarchy, David was exiled for the part 
he took during the revolution, and spent the remainder of his days in 
Brussels. Reynolds was born 1723; Turner, 1775; Goya, 1748; Horace 
Vernet, 1789; Ingres, 1781; Delacroix, 1899; Gilbert Stuart, 1756; 
Mengs, 1728; the Louvre was opened 1803. 

Principal Works: Coronation of Napoleon and Josephine, Napoleon crossing 
the Alps (Versailles) ; The Oath of the Horatii, Belisarius Asking Alms, The Sabine 
Women, Leonidas at Thermopylae (Louvre) ; Assassination of Marat. 

Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes 

(.1748 1828. Spanish.) 

The brilliant geniuses are so few! We gladly salute them, accept- 
ing their elements of character, their shortcomings, their vagaries and 
contradictions. It is incorrect to talk of the "vagaries" of genius as 


if that alone differentiated these men from others. Endowed with 
the ability to imagine new things, and conscious of their isolation, 
geniuses naturally become a law unto themselves, respecting but little 
the codes made by commonplace mortals. Yet, the majority of 
geniuses have made "good citizens," conservative in their lives and 
conduct, and well regulated in their works. But Goya was all that 
anyone could suggest by the term "eccentric genius. " In no sense 
was he law-abiding either in his art work or his conduct. 

In the north, we are liable to associate drunkenness with wildness; 
but this is not a Spanish vice. Wild escapades, reckless love-making, 
balcony climbing, duels and broils, nocturnal raidings of all sorts 
amuse Spanish youth whose animal spirits mount too high. 

Goya was notorious as a nocturnal roisterer whom nothing could 
suppress except his antagonist's dagger. This reached him one 
night, and to escape the consequences of an investigation he fled to 
Italy, remaining there until time healed his cuts — and his character 
somewhat, though it is said that he fled back to Spain in consequence 
of a nunnery escapade. 

Like most brilliant men, the days of irregular study in Spain had 
introduced him to his profession and this removal to Italy added to 
his training, worth more with all its lack of seriousness than careful 
drill to most men. 

Goya was thirty years old when he returned to Spain, fairly well 
equipped for his professional work. For a long time the conditions 
in his native country had been deplorably bad in art, as in many other 
respects. The king, Charles III., had called Raphael Mengs, the 
Bohemian-German artist, to labor with the nearly defunct art spirit, 
organizing some government institutions, manufacturing art enthusi- 
asm, tapestries and such trifles. As Mengs was a mild sort of classi- 
cal hen, this ugly duckling, insisting upon puddle sailing, gave him 
trouble. But geniuses were too scarce to be needlessly thrown out. 
Goya at once undertook a commission for church decoration. It was 
the first real work that ever tied him down to regular labor, but he 
went at it as at all else, recklessly breaking the accepted laws. 


Think of the sensation he must have created by spreading a series 
of pictures of popular life upon the walls of a church. A certain 
flavor of religious significance saved the situation, but the treatment 
was entirely naturalistic and very Spanish. If Mengs was shocked, 
the people were delighted and the young man found himself imme- 
diately within the threshold of the temple of fame, never to be thrust 
out of the edifice. Throughout a pretty long life he was kept busy, 
never asking what sort of pictures his patrons desired, but making 
them desire his startling individualities. As a portrait painter, his 
success was never disturbed by the fact that he always did the unex- 

Having been made court painter by Charles IV., he, as Spaniards 
do, rushed into intrigue and all sorts of pleasures, painting meanwhile 
all the pretty women and picturesque men. He favored the French 
revolutionists with the same violent ardor which he put into his paint- 
ings, but still the court endured his presence. 

This man of extraordinary courage and reckless impudence had 
one rare virtue — the physical strength and skill to make all men fear 
and respect his prowess. On a journey, in company with noble ladies, 
his inventiveness and courage saved their lives, but the severe weather 
brought total deafness to the artist. 

Matters were not going well at court; Joseph Bonaparte had been 
placed in charge and departed in due course of time, following the 
fate of his imperial brother. The new Spanish king, Ferdinand VII., 
disliked the artist, so the latter obtained permission to visit Paris, 
whence he retired to Bordeaux, where a colony of Spaniards made a 
home for him until his death at eighty-two years of age (1828). With 
such a fiery temperament, deafness did not improve his temper. 
Many great men sat to him for portraits and endured placidly his 
sharp scoldings and even his attacks. There is a story about his 
drawing a sword on the Duke of Wellington, his Grace's nimbleness 
alone saving him. Everything was forgiven Goya. 

It has been said that his painting suggests Velasquez, Rembrandt, 
Reynolds, Gainsborough, Watteau, Fragonard, and others, but be 


assured that most of all it suggested the impetuous, ill-balanced 
Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes. 

The English writer, Hamerton, who, like most of his countrymen, 
obstinately misunderstands the Latin race, has written an article 
(Portfolio, Vol. X., 1879) to tell us that Goya was overestimated. He 
strains a point to prove him a disreputable character with the lowest 
instincts, forgetting or blindly overlooking the fact that in an art 
journal the matter in hand is art, not morals. Yet, I cannot discover 
evidence of greater wickedness in his character than in that of every 
violent man. He certainly depicted some horrible scenes, but 
these are but the proof that he was first of all an artist who understood 
how to carry his art to its utmost conclusions. There is no evidence 
whatsoever that he was a man of degraded tastes. In the midst of the 
wildest and most repulsive presentations, the essential foil of sweet- 
ness and beauty is always introduced. The article says that he had a 
"demoniacal element in his character." This is exactly what he did 
not have, though he could paint demons as never man did before, and 
the list of demon painters is a pretty long one. 

The impulsive Delacroix admired him extremely; the well-regu- 
lated classicist Ingres thought him an abomination. Our own artist, 
Whistler, found in his extraordinary originality something to worship 
and from him learned one of his best lessons. I much prefer Whis- 
tler's estimate. Goya was above all else an artist. His work will not 
endure the criticism of the extreme classical schoolmen, but the 
fascination of it is irresistible. No classicist could give us those 
dainty Spanish women, could catch the peculiar coquetry of their 
pose and bearing, as this man did. The things that made Velasquez 
great were found again in Goya, though far less well regulated. Yet 
he could not go as far as his great forerunner. In my memorandum 
book written up in the Louvre, I find the following entries: "Full- 
length seated portrait of F. Guillemardet, French ambassador to 
Spain. Frankly brushed head; luminous shades; no dark in face; 
hair is fussy and does not sit into picture; coat is nearly as bad and tri- 
color sash the same; hard gray background; color and touch in hands 


and head superb." "Two-thirds length of woman seated, gray silk 
dress, lace mits to elbow; an inharmonious picture; flesh color fine; 
black hair is not well into the picture; edge of face cut out like card- 
board, but head finely constructed; details of things only hinted at, 
but the work of a man of so much genius that the impression is power- 
ful." "A little one, full length, black gown and mantilla, white slip- 
pers showing; face as big as a quarter, fine color; figure does not stand 
well; cold landscape; seems to be a pot-boiler, but remarkable all the 
same." No criticism could be more severe than this, but still the 
work drew me again and again to look at it. 

Goya was the product of the influence of Velasquez and had that 
same peculiarity of talent already noted in the Spanish painters of an 
earlier period. Probably it would be just to say that he was an out- 
come of Ribera. His following is to be found in France, and in our 
own country to-day in Whistler and many others. For instructors he 
had at first an obscure artist in Saragossa, and later, in Rome, he 
became the pupil of the Spanish painter, Bayeu, whose daughter he 
married when both artists had returned to their native country. His 
parents were small landowners, only a degree above peasants, and 
his education was not extensive, though he was too bright to betray 
any lack of it. Goya was an excellent etcher. 

Important Works: Equestrian Portraits of Charles IV. and of Queen Maria 
Luisa, Portrait of Charles IV., Portrait of Queen Maria Luisa, Charles IV. and his 
Family, Episode in French Invasion of 1808, Scenes of May 3, 1808 (Madrid); Eques- 
trian Portrait of Ferdinand VII., Portrait of Prince of the Peace (Godoy), Mad- 
house, BuU-fight, Gallant Dressed, Gallant Nude (Academia San Fernando); 
Crucifixion (Museo de Fomento) ; St. Francis Preaching (Madrid) ; Treason of Judas 
(Toledo); Sts. Justina and Rufina (Seville); St. Francis de Borja's Farewell to His 
Family, Portraits (2) (Valencia) ; Portraits (2) (Louvre ) 

It was the writing of Winckelman which caused A. J. Carstens 

(1754-1798, German) to pursue almost the same policy as David. He was 
a north German and studied in the Academy of Copenhagen, where his 
classical style was so formed that he went to Italy to live, and from 
there shaped largely the indifferent art of Germany in a manner more 
colorless than David's. 


Gilbert Stuart 

This son of Rhode Island was much the most talented painter of 
the early period. His master, West, was far beneath him in talent 
and Stuart wisely stuck to the art which he understood— portrait 

His brilliant color is as fresh, in most instances, to-day as when 
laid on the canvas. Suave in touch, able to catch admirably the char- 
acter of his subject and content to arrest his effort when enough had 
been rendered (one of the sure marks of genius), he has few equals in 
any country and none in Anglo-American portrait painting. Romney 
and Gainsborough were his contemporaries and not as good painters. 
Several portraits of Washington are celebrated. In the Boston Athe. 
naeum people studied his heads (without backgrounds) of Washington 
and Martha, his wife, for a great many years, with a sincere admira- 
tion, and artists do not tire of these beautiful works. He painted five 
full-length portraits of Washington, and portraits of John Adams, 
John Quincy Adams, Jefferson, Madison, Story, Ames, Astor, and 
many others. Celebrated, are portraits of Judge Steven Jones and 
F. S. Richards of Boston. 

Important IVorks: Portrait of Washington, Martha Washington, Washington 
at Dorchester Heights, Gen. Henry Knox, Josiah Quincy (Museum of Fine Arts, 
Boston); Portraits at Harvard University, Historical Society of New York; Penn- 
sylvania Academy, Philadelphia ; Corcoran Gallery, Washington ; and National Gal- 
lery, London. 

Madame Le Brun 

(^i'j$yi843. French.) 

Marie Louise Elizabeth Vigee married (at twenty-one years of age) 
M. Le Brun, a picture dealer and painter, with whom she was not 
happy. Louis XVI. was king and the talented young artist painted 
Marie Antoinette's portrait. With more ability as a painter than 
Angelica Kauffman, her charm was as great. Her portrait of herself 
and young daughter attracts attention in the Louvre equal to that 

Mme. Le Bhun — Mme. Le Brun and Daughter. 


bestowed upon the works of Greuze, whose pictures, and those of 
Rubens, formed her style. 

Principal Works: Portrait of Hersstf (Uffizi, Rome) ; Portrait of Herself and 
Daughter (Louvre). 

Jotiathan Trumbull 

{ijj6-i843. American.^ 

Trumbull was an historical painter of a sensible sort. Like West, 
he painted what really came within his powers. That is. West did it 
once and Trumbull all the time. He was West's pupil, after he had 
been an officer (colonel) in the army of Washington and had made 
sketches of all the distinguished characters connected with that 
important body of men. As a painter of scenes which he knew 
about, and which demanded no lofty imagination about saints and 
angels which he had never seen, he was a sincere worker. 

He was a Connecticut man. Yale University has many pictures 
which he gave away because no one would buy them. 

Principal Works: Decorations in the Capitol, Washington; Portrait of Ham- 
ilton (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston); Portraits (Yale College Art Gallery.) 

William Blake 

('757- 'S2S. English.) 

Blake was a half-crazy poet who wrote some extraordinary verses. 
He lived by means of illustrating books with engravings of his own 
execution and from his original designs. These appealed to the English 
love of the supernatural and mysterious, as did his poetry. Lacking 
all training in art, he painted shockingly bad pictures, but with a rich 
imagination he treated subjects which suggest what might have been, 
had the schooling sufficed. 

Peter Paul Prudhon (1758-1823, French) was, like David, but 
with a character of his own, an excellent picture maker. Having no 
such personality as the dictator, he still made his mark, painting 
delightfully cool flesh, not natural, but more vivid than David's. 
Critics who draw fine distinctions love him more. 

Principal Works: Justice and Vengeance Pursuing Crime (Louvre); Cruci- 
fixion, Assumption of the Virgin. 


Alexander Nasmyth (1758- 1840, English, born in Scotland) painted 
pleasing landscapes, conventional to a degree, gray and fresh in tone, 
very much sought after at the present time. His son, Patrick 
Nasmyth (1786-183 1, born in Edinburgh), and five sisters followed in 
his style, and the family has left much landscape art. 

Georges Michel (1763-1843, French) stood alone as a student of 
nature when the landscape painting of France was hedged about with 
classical arrangement and color made to order. He won no glory with 
this sincerity until the new sentiment for honest study was awakened 
by the political and artistic revolution of 1830. It was at the salon of 
1831 that the artists who afterward formed the "Barbizon School" 
gained recognition. After his death, Michel's art commanded great 
prices, for the reason just mentioned. It was the exhibition of several 
Englishmen's pictures which changed the current, especially Con- 

Ingres was the art dictator of France while these things were 
developing themselves, though he was never so absolutely in control 
as David. 

George Morland 

(^176,^-1804. English.) 

Morland is always associated with pigs, or else it is "drunken 
Morland" that we think of. He loved jolly company, provided no 
one present was a gentleman. There were many tavern signs in Eng- 
land, each representing the value of the drinks he took within. Most 
of these are pig pictures, the animals painted with delicate skins and 
truly aristocratic attributes. He was a talented fellow, who loved art 
almost as much as he did ale. Simple, honest, somewhat arranged 
landscapes have refined tones in grass, trees and sky, a figure or two of 
accessory character (one wearing a red coat probably), occupied him 
when sober enough to paint something besides pigs. But he was the 
Sir Joshua Reynolds of pigs' complexions. 

Principal Works: Interior of Stable, Quarry with Peasants (National Gal- 
lery); The Reckoning (South Kensington Museum); Dogs Fighting, Old English 
Sportsman (Historical Society, New York.) 


Joseph Koch (1768-1830, German) holds up the light in that land 
which had been sitting in darkness since Holbein went to England. 
It was the "grand art" rather than real landscapes doing background 
duty to classical and Biblical figures. At this time Reynolds was 
closing his career; David commencing his. 

Karl Rottmann (1798-1850, German) may as well be mentioned 
here, because he is like Koch, and he it was who painted the indiffer- 
ent, classical landscapes on the interior walls of the Pinakothek at 

Joseph Fiirich (1800-1876, German) was not original enough to 
demand a separate place. He belongs with these. 

Sir Thomas Lawrence 

{r';6g-iSso. English.') 

Lawrence was a wonder-child, an infantile reciter of classical 
poetry, a pet of Garrick, who sought to make an actor of him. People 
ordered crayon portraits of him; when at ten years of age he secured 
excellent likenesses. Always clever, his entire lack of schooling in 
books and art does not seem to have betrayed him. Idealizations of 
women's faces, and swan-like increase in the length of their necks, 
made him the most popular of the painters at the end of the Reynolds 
school. When he tried (as nearly all of these men did) to produce the 
"grand art," his lack of training made the work painfully ineffective, 
A great money getter and a great spendthrift, he lived a bachelor and 
died poor. 

Principal Works: Portrait of the Emperor Francis, Series of portraits known 
as "The Waterloo Gallery," headed by the Duke of Wellington (Windsor Castle). 

Raeburn (1756-1823), Hoppner (1759 1810), Opie (1761-1807), 
Harlow (1787-1819) were average portrait and figure painters, whom it 
is as well to keep in this connection. 

Francois Gerard (1770-1837, French) coming out of the studio of 
David, clung to his traditions, but leaned a trifle to an art more 
human and romantic. For Napoleon, he painted immense battle 


Principal Works of Francois Gkrard: Cupid and Psyche, Entry of Henry 
IV. into Paris (Louvre). 

Principal Works of Opie: Portrait of William Siddons (London) ; The Assas- 
sination of Rizzio. 

Principal Works of Raeburn: Portrait of a Lady (London) ; Portrait of Sir 
Walter Scott, Portrait of Dugald Stewart, Portrait of Francis Jeffrey. 

Antoine Jean Gros, " Baron Gros " (1771-1835, French), was the 
most amiable of men, and, though counted with Ingres, the best of 
David's pupils and followers, his largeness of soul made him the 
friend of rising men of the opposition, thus creating a healthier senti- 
ment in the Academy. Given by Napoleon a sort of commission in the 
army (Inspector of Reviews) the Emperor used him in many ways; 
sent him to Italy to select the artistic spoils of war. Swarms of 
young artists were his pupils during his nineteen years of service as 
professor at the Academy, and every one of them wept when the good 
man committed suicide, stung to death by criticism. 

Principal Works: Battle of Eylau, Napoleon Visiting the Plague Hospital at 
Joppa, General Fournier (Louvre). 

Martinus Verstappen (1773-1840, Belgian) pinned his faith to 
Italian art united to that of the Netherlands. He made rather 
grandiose landscape, in color and forms invented more than studied 
from nature. We may unite with him Francois de Marneffe (1793- 
1877, Belgian) without specially breaking our sequence. 

Alexander Orlovsky (1777-1832), Alexei Venezianov (1779-1845), 
Orest Kiprensky (1783-1836), Karl Brulov (1799-1852), Russian, are 
only interesting as suggestive of the appearance of painters in the 
country that is half Asiatic, half European. The first painted battle 
pieces; the second sincerely followed nature in reproducing the road- 
way with its common figures and people in the fields; the third is a 
portrait painter; the fourth, historical and rather sensational; none of 
them better than pretty good painters. 



Two of the world's great landscape painters arrive in England in 
this chapter, and a celebrated genre painter. The French show their 
lead, and America is beginning to do her part. Some other nations 
are still weaklings. 

Joseph William Mallord Turner 

{'773-1^5 '■ English.) 
Reynolds was three years dead when Turner arrived at manhood. 
West had recently been made president of the Academy and continued 
for more than a score of years to hold that office. Gainsborough had 
painted excellent landscapes, but they were always neatly conven- 
tional arrangements. He could not be said to represent any move- 
ment toward the creation of a new style. The element of agreeableness 
so conspicuous in Gainsborough does not seem to have entered into 
the calculations of Turner. It is difficult to trace the influences which 
made him. Study from nature is so different in its results as used by 
different men, who look at the forms of nature as simple material with 
which one man makes one thing and another something else, all 
depending upon temperament and force. It is easy to find Dutch pic- 
tures which might have formed Turner's early style, though no Dutch- 
man was his master nor do his landscapes look like the Hollanders' 
pictures. He studied nature very closely and then rendered his 
observations in his own manner. 

The picture "Frosty Morning" is nature exactly, but different 
from nature painted by others equally sincere. Turner and Constable 
(one year his junior) both went to nature and produced something 
new. The two men were very alike at first, and the "Frosty Morn- 
ing" is the result of the same keen observation of atmospheric effects 



that marks Constable's work. The latter kept at the direct study of 
nature longer than did Turner and went much farther with his render- 
ing of subtle effects of light on the surface of the earth. Turner 
turned aside from the exact rendering of nature to invent methods, 
combinations of color and, above all, superb poetic effects made for 
the sake of fine lines and majestic renderings. Ruskin to the contrary 
notwithstanding, I will assert that Turner was never (after his first 
earnest literalism) so truthful a painter as Constable. Had the latter 
had his literary promoter, we might have quite different ideas about 
him. Turner did, however, develop into the most poetic landscape 
painter which the world has ever seen. For this wonderful achieve- 
ment Ruskin gave him scant credit. Ruskin never understood Turner — 
could not, as he was a literalist who could write magnificent phrases 
but had almost no conception of the great truths of art. Ruskin was 
an observer of the phenomena of nature such as rarely has put his ideas 
in books, but this is not saying that he could comprehend a picture. 
This barber's son (Turner) had almost no instruction in painting and 
was a shocking example of the lack of technical training. His 
poetic temperament saved him. I recall one picture, painted in his 
mature years, which looks as if a bad boy had stolen palette and 
brushes to make mischief and by some accident secured a marvelous 
poetic effect. Many a painter essaying to do this has sadly come to 
disgrace. Genius is to be found but once or twice in a century. 

Turner's search for effects of light and color finally took him into 
seeming chaotic confusions. However, there is no reason in the idea 
that he was crazy. Abstractions these were, and such abstractions are 
the glory of art, when the maker of them really arrives at a result. 
Abandoning his literalism, this artist placed a spot of red somewhere 
and a spot or mass of playing yellows to sustain it, thus leading up to 
scales of browns; all these being warm tones. Against this he set a 
certain array of cool tones, culminating in blue and accented with a 
white spot. His lines were similarly artificial and always wonderfully 
manipulated. His further development of this principle was not at 
all understood by the people or artists of Turner's time. The wild 


pictures were simply carried a little too far. "Mt. St. Michael, Corn- 
wall" is an example of his arranged compositions not carried very far; 
the "Blue Lights and Rockets" is later and more purely poetic. The 
"Fighting Temeraire" represents a more literal imaginative effect. 

Turner's representations of actual scenes were never true render- 
ings of the places whose names they bore. He did much artistic 
prevarication, which disgusted his matter-of-fact patrons. The 
"Heidelberg" is magnificently poetic, the scene traceable but by no 
means reliable as a truthful portrait of the place. 

Turner had no "three periods." That is "a literary man's" classi- 
fication. The large-minded artist sees only the normal gliding from 
youthful literalism to over-ripe idealization. 

His "Rain, Steam and Speed" is one of the wonderful pic- 
tures of the world. A railway train rushes straight at the foreground 
over a stone bridge. The spectator looks down directly over the 
parapet on the water of a navigable river, where a slow-going barge 
makes contrast with the speed of the moving train, and on the other 
side a plowman helps on the contrast. Over this wide-spreading 
landscape rises a lofty sky filled with one of the best representations 
of swirling rain that I have ever seen. This is a correct expression of 
carefully-studied nature, and the strange element in the painting is 
that the handling is utterly unlike anything previously attempted. It 
is in the manner which one of the reckless young artists of the present 
time would use to show how impertinent he dared to be. The loco- 
motive is not very correctly drawn, and the effort at representing the 
effect of glowing fire in the machine is another impertinence, because 
hardly to be accounted for. Yet, it conveys wonderfully the im- 
pression of an on-rushing fiery monster. Just in front of the loco- 
motive there is a streak of something which we guess may be a scared 
rabbit, trying to escape across the bridge before the monster catches 
him. In the painting it is a mere streak, quite undefined. The 
engravers sought to aid the work by translating it into a veritable rab- 
bit—to please the purchasers, no doubt. All the lower part of the 
picture is in brownish tones and the other half in silver, an artificial 


color scheme borrowed from the Dutch pictures then in fashion. 
Turner used this a great deal in middle life. 

The "Fighting T^meraire" shows us a large expanse of sky and 
reaching sea (not far from shore) behind which the sun is setting in 
horizontal lines of cloud breaking higher up into the fleckings of 
cirrus clouds. Thus we have a series of long, quiet and dignified 
horizontal lines, with much clear sunset color — quiet departing day — 
and in the midst of this display of fading glory, the grand old warship 
goes down to her death. Her glory is departing amid fireworks, but 
she has lost her power of independent movement and depends upon a 
little black, smoking imp of a steam tug to drag her to the grave. 
Oh, the pathos of it all! Grand old hulk, the embodiment of dignity 
and force, led by the nose, dragged off to oblivion by the little black 
devil of modern invention, which suggests anything but knightly 
stateliness. This picture was painted in the latter half of his life at 
about the time when many of his extravagant experiments were com- 
menced. "The Snow Storm at Sea" is purely poetic; really not quite 
to be accounted for. But it does give marvelously the impression of 
a ship engulfed in almost opaque swirlings of snow, and this snow 
mingling with the raging waters. In this the little helpless steamer 
struggles to maintain itself like a tired fox in the loneliness of the 
blinding, all-enveloping snowstorms of the wild country. 

Principal Works: Calais Pier, Death of Nelson, Dido and .iEneas, Decline 
of Carthage, Venice Bridge of Sighs, Snow Storm ; Rain, Steam and Speed, The 
Fighting Tem6raire, Sunrise Through the Mist, and many others (National Gallery, 
London). Slave Ship (Boston) ; Moonlight View on the Thames, ^aLneas with the 
Sibyl, Jason in Search of the Golden Fleece, Tenth Plague of Egfypt, Search of 
Apuleia, Lake Avernus, Garden of Boccaccio, Landing of Agrippina. 

John Constable 

{iT/6-iSjj. English.) 

Ruskin becomes very tiresome when he writes about men like 
Constable. Did he know the magnificent influence that this painter 
exerted and that it was he who caused the wonderful coterie of 


painters called the Barbizon School to develop itself? I suspect that he 
was (Englishman-like) quite unappreciative of it. There are so many 
strange evidences of ignorance in Ruskin's writings, that he stands 
to-day entirely discredited as an art critic, though loved as a writer 
about nature. 

Constable had the ability to see the real light of day coquetting 
with the local colors of trees and grass, and the courage to paint this 
boldly, although many tried to convince him that pictures should be 
formulated affairs, made according to certain rules. His technique 
must have appeared brutal to those artists accustomed to smoothed 
vaporings. So many artists in this day are much more summary than 
he in touch that we wonder at the complaints. That sort of handling 
is admired now. He went to France and there learned more about 
using paint than Turner ever knew, and he carried his close observa- 
tion of nature's true aspects farther than Turner ever dreamed of. 

In 1824, when French landscapes were dry and classical, a number 
of Englishmen, among them Constable, Bonnington, Fielding and 
Prout, held an exhibition of pictures in Paris, astonishing the suscep- 
tible Frenchmen. Only Constable and Bonnington, however, left a 
lasting impression. The effect of it is frankly recognized by French 
artists, who are astonished that England failed to understand so great 
a genius. But England does understand now. At last Constable has 
his own glory. 

He was the son of a miller on the Staur. and, excepting during his 
pretty long stay in France, he lived the life of one entirely devoted 
to art, in his country retreat. For many years his pictures went 
regularly to the Salon of Paris, and some of them are now in the 

Turner was a poet; Constable a literalist with a strong artistic tem- 
perament. If Turner could not handle paint prettily, his extraor- 
dinary ability to arrange lines and secure atmosphere imbue his 
work with sentiment; these excuse such trifling accidents as bad tech- 

Constable was a technician such as the previous landscapists had 


never known, as he added to his native ability the training of study in 
France. He took his originality over there with him and added 
training to it. His ability to see correctly, to make gray the grass 
which most people thought should always be green, to show the glim- 
mer of frost or dew on the surface of things, such matters as these 
executed with consummate simplicity of touch, called down upon him 
the thunderings of the critics and the condemnation of the steady and 
ox-like conventional painters. The supercilious criticism cast at him 
in those days furnishes amusing reading, providing one can keep his 
temper. Hundreds of painters to-day use the technique which Con- 
stable invented. 

Important Works: Cornfield, Valley Farm, Barnes Common (National Gal- 
lery) ; Weymouth Bay, Cottage, Rainbow, Landscape (Louvre) ; Salisbury Cathedral, 
Dedham Mill, Hampstead Heath, Boat Building, Water Meadows (S. Kensingfton 

Washington AUston 

(i72g-iS4S- American.) 

The strangest feature in human nature is a tendency of talented 
men to follow a line of painting not in accord with their evident birth- 
right. Men born with the right to paint beautiful textures (still life) 
insist upon undertaking lofty themes which only a peculiar genius can 
accomplish. Raphael's birthright was the ability to produce the 
"grand art"; to invent it even. The same was true of Angelo. 
Titian and his followers had .for birthright the ability to make magni- 
ficent color schemes; to invent them. His contemporary, Benjamin 
West, was a genre painter whose ambition ran away with his judg- 
ment. So Allston, in turn, was bitten by the ambition to rival the 
great masters, while he possessed a talent for portrait painting and 
decided ability as a still-life painter. As we compare him with West, 
it is only just to say that his talent was possibly greater than that of 
the American-born president of the Royal Academy. Certain pas- 
sages in his works suggest dimly that he was not entirely self-deceived. 
There were several lofty flights. 


When he invited his neighbors to inspect one of his historical 
efforts, every one admired some brass jars in the corner, oblivious of 
the mighty portent of the heroic subject. So Allston paintedout the 
offending jars, destroying the only thing in the huge work which had 
been painted with real sincerity and from native talent. "I charge 
thee, fling away ambition," said the man whom King Henry had 
turned out of office. Artists as well as politicians sometimes need 
this advice. "Belshazzar's Feast," for many years in the Athenaeum 
at Boston and unfinished, reveals ability to compose and draw fairly 
well, but the characterization is of the sort on sale in the book and 
print-seller's shop. 

Allston was a South Carolinian and revealed in his character the 
best elements of southern enthusiasm and tenacious courage. He was 
serious in purpose and expected to do the impossible by virtue of 
determination. A stay in Italy and later in England was an injury, 
because it turned his head while not giving him sufficient education. 
West was doing in England what almost all the English-born artists 
of the seventeenth century did, painting an art much over his head. 
So Allston did it too. He makes an admirable martyr figure there in 
Boston, the friend of the writers of the early part of the last century — 
solemn, dignified and of polished manners. But these qualities did 
not make great art for him. In the insane asylum at Worcester 
hangs his "Angel Liberating St. Peter," the principal figure decid- 
edly good because it is almost a direct copy of a figure by Raphael. 
Probably this is his best work. As a portrait painter he did well, 
though he was less successful than Copley and Stuart. 

Ddvid, in France, died just as he arrived at mature years and was 
followed by the influence of Ingres and Delaroche, but these men had 
no effect on any early American painter. The Barbizon School com- 
menced as his career was closing, but he did not know anything 
about it. 

Principal Works: Urial in the Sun, Jacob's Dream, Prophet Jeremiah, 
Belshazzar's Feast, St. Peter Liberated by the Angel ; Spalatro or the Bloody Hand, 
Beatrice, Rosalie. 


Jean Dominique Augustin Ingres 

{i^8o-i86y. French.) 

As David ruled the art of France, so did his successor, Ingres. Of 
David's three hundred pupils, he was, of those who cherished the 
master's precepts, by far the finest man. It is not remarkable that 
large numbers of these followers were decorated, and many of them 
became members of the Institute, because nothing more was necessary 
than to learn to draw elegantly and be classical. Any man doing 
these things had to be decorated to keep up the fashion of classicism; 
the style could not survive without honors and decorations. Ingres' 
was a tenderer soul than David's, and it is safe to assert that he was 
the greatest artist among the classicists whom France has raised. 

David contended that art was most perfect in the Greek statues. 
Ingres based his art on that of Raphael, which was one shade more 
human. He is the link which binds all the recent classicists (Cabanel, 
Bouguereau and others of that type) to the School of Raphael, as 
represented by Guido Reni, Carlo Dolci and a long line of Italian 
painters of lesser talent. The sole aim of Ingres and his school 
(which was not altogether true of Raphael), was beauty of line and 
that sort of loftiness in the ideality of pose which lifted the art so high 
that Millet of Barbizon could never walk on such stilts. In justice to 
Ingres it must be allowed that his practice was more human than his 
principles, as he could not help making the people he painted some- 
what human, though many of his followers avoided this idiosyncrasy 
effectively. So much humanity crept into the figures of this great 
man that even the extreme naturalists love his work sincerely. It is 
very easy to feel that the picture painted at seventy-six years of age 
and called "La Source," a nude girlish woman who stands holding a 
classical jar from which water flows, might represent the source from 
which should flow a magnificent race of perfect human beings. The 
young girl is so real, so beautiful, so tender in flesh and so entirely 
earthly in her heavenliness that she could well win the love of man- 
kind and become the ideal mother of nations. The young "Oedipus 
Inquiring of the Sphinx" is not alone classical; he is a real man, one 


who might have anxious moments and hope to receive wisdom from 
the lips of the experienced but ever silent symbol of the enigmatic. 

Ingres' religious picture, "The Virgin with the Host," reveals 
plainly the study and imitation of Raphael which was the artist's pride. 
It is still prettier than Raphael's Madonnas, less plainly a copy from 
an antique than the same character of picture by Carlo Dolci, but it has 
no sincere originality. We may well glorify Raphael the inventor of all 
this, but what are we to say of these men whose greatest ambition was 
to weakly resemble the master. The human element appears in his 
"Apotheosis of Homer." Compare the portrait heads in the fore- 
ground with similar figures in the great cartoons by Kaulbach, idealities 
which almost could not exist. The contempt which these classicists 
felt for genre painting shows plainly in the Sistine Chapel picture, 
where stately ecclesiastics gather about the papal throne. They are 
real up to a certain point only. It is no wonder that Ingres, who thus 
exalted his personages, should look upon the picture by Gericault, 
"The Raft of the Medusa," as altogether revolutionary because the 
latter created real men and women wet and bedraggled in the agony 
of shipwreck. "The Raft" was "only genre, " and unworthy the name 
of "art." 

David was so set in his Greek-god worship that he also looked upon 
Ingres as a revolutionist because he dared to be just a trifle romantic. 
What a picture of the tyranny of schoolmen! 

Ingres' real nature asserted itself when he painted portraits and 
could give play to his sincere, though suppressed, love of true nature. 
It is not much to boast of, as we see in the "Portrait of Madame 
Riviere" that the whole figure, drapery and all, is like marble and the 
hair reminds one more than all else of the bronze imitations of hair 
which the ancients placed on their statues. It never by any chance 
grew on the scalp. 

The war between Ingres and Delacroix (both pupils of David) is 
the opening of the campaign which has lasted until to-day, and will 
ever be waged. Delacroix gave his love of violent action and sump- 
tuous color full play. Such things were sinful in the eyes of the 


classicists who never allowed themselves to break loose. Ingres looked 
upon refulgent color as a vulgarity and much action was a sign of 
decadence. Only idealities of a specific sort could keep art alive and 
elevated. How strange this appears to us, who believe that true art is 
the expression of a bursting heart and is born of love — its father 

Ingres strove hard, against odds, to obtain the Prix de Rome. 
Not a brilliant man, his winning of it was the payment for incessant 
toil. In the course of time he became the successor of the popular 
battle painter, Horace Vernet, as Rector of the French Academy at 
Rome. Probably the most coveted honor accorded him was member- 
ship in the Institute, but he was loaded with honors in every land. 
It is interesting to note that the Museum of the Louvre was a new 
institution in his younger days. 

Principal Works: Apotheosis of Homer, Christ Delivering the Keys to Peter, 
Stratonice, The Spring, Portraits of M. Riviere and Mme. Riviere (Louvre); La 
Source, Oedipus and the Sphinx, The Virgin with the Host, Napoleon on His 

Thomas Sully 

(lySj-f American.) 

Sully is so identified with American art that he belongs to us more 
than Copley and almost more than West. Born in England, his par- 
ents brought him to this country at nine years of age, making their 
home in South Carolina, where he was educated and began to paint 
portraits. Having had no opportunities for art education, he proved 
himself a talented man and commanded tender col-or and excellent 
likeness. Very many faces of the celebrities of the southern and 
middle states have come down to us because of his art, and they look 
well as he painted them. His influence was very considerable on the 
art of the day. In historical painting he undertook only that which 
he could manage readily, as the "Washington Crossing the Delaware." 

Peter von Cornelius (1783-1867, German) is a name very familiar 
to students of the Dusseldorf and Munich schools. A classicist with 


ideas about form and the belief that color injured the purity of form, 
he executed endless mural decorations in Munich and Berlin, which 
we are forced to respect because of their evident sincerity but cannot 
admire because of our memor}' of the Italian classicists whom he imi- 

Principal Works: Mural Painting in "Hall'of the Gods" and "Hall of the 
Heroes,'' (Munich Museum of Statuary) ; History of Painting (Pinakothek, Munich) ; 
Frescoes' (Ludwig-Kirche, Munich); Frescoes (Royal Mausoleum and Campo Santo, 

Eckersberg (1783-1853, Danish) studied with David in Paris, then 
went to Rome. His style was classical, but from this his native taste 
saved him later and the nature before his eyes touched his heart. 
All the early Danish painters felt, like the writers, the mysticism of 
the north and painted in subject and treatment vaporings of landscapes 
and interiors that were low-toned and mysterious in treatment and 
subject. There was national sentiment in the work. 

Sir David Wilkie 

(iy8s-i84r. English, borti in Scotland.) 

The old-fashioned methods of common-school teaching could not 
quicken Wilkie's mentality, but love of drawing did. In his teens he 
was already an artist. At the art school, and later at the Royal Acad- 
emy, he did well enough (even gaining a prize for some classical 
drawing), but his chief delight was sketching figures in the county 
fairs. Everyone knows his pictures, "The Blind Fiddler," "Blind 
Man's Buff" and "The Rabbit on the Wall," so frequently reproduced. 
When he began, this kind of art was new to the British public and the 
old academical painters, steeped in superstition about "the grand 
art," predicted disaster for the young innovator. Yet nothing could 
have been more to the taste of the English picture buyers, then as 
now, lovers of anecdotic art. 

When he visited the Louvre, Dutch art impressed him greatly, but 
the magnificent works of Veronese did not. As long as he continued 
to follow the manner of the Dutch genre painters the public paid him 


enormous sums for his work, but a lengthy journey in Italy and Spain 
led to the adoption of the "grand style" and he made no impression 
with this manner foreign to his nature and temperament. Few of the 
English painters escaped from this microbe of High Art. He died 
on shipboard, near Malta. 

At the death of Lawrence, he was made court painter. Ingres was 
four years his senior, Delacroix fourteen years his junior. He lived 
eleven years after Benjamin West's death. 

Principal Works: Jonn Knox, Blind Fiddler, Village Festival (London); 
Reading o£ the Will (Munich) ; Pittessie Fair, Village Politician, Rent Day, Blind- 
man's Buff, Distraining for Rent, Parish Beadle, Chelsea Pensioners, Preaching of 
John Knox, Wellington the Night Before Waterloo, Benvenuto 'Cellini and the 

Benjamin Robert Haydon (1786-1846, English) studied at the 
Royal Academy. England loves literature more than art and Haydon 
declared that art was unworthy unless dedicated to religious subjects, 
a doctrine which he put in practice pretty strictly. A painting of 
Napoleon musing at St. Helena was an exception. Getting into an 
acrimonious controversy with the academicians, they refused him 
membership, so he started an academy of his own, which had the 
Landseers for pupils. Many people admire his lectures on painting 
more than his art work, probably justly. Financial troubles drove 
him to suicide. 

Principal Works: Murder of Dentatus, Entry of Christ into Jerusalem, Rais- 
ing of Lazarus, Alfred the Great and the First English Jury. 

William Etty (1787-1849, English) made many historical paint- 
ings, but is best known as a painter of nude women. These were 
fairly well drawn and so pleasingly painted that his reputation was 
sufficient to insure an excellent income. 

Principal Works: Youth on the Prow and Pleasure at the Helm, Female 
Bathers (London); Joan of Arc, Ulysses and the Sirens, The Combat, Benaiah, 
Judith and Holofernes (Most of these in the Royal Scottish Academy). 

Johan C. C. Dahl (1788-1857, Norwegian) was original and realistic 
as a landscape painter. His career was largely in Germany. This is 


not Hans Dahl now living, whose humorous pastoral genre pictures 
are frequently reproduced. 

Wilhelm Schadow (1789-1862, German) built up the Diisseldorf 
Academy. With great talent, but no originality, he painted religious 
pictures inspired by real piety. 

Frederick Overbeck (1789-1869) and Philip Veit (1793-1877), Ger- 
man, were two friends with ideals. They looked upon French art of 
their period (the Rococo) as very wicked and that of Raphael as 
elegant rather than religious. It was that of Fra Angelico which 
showed forth the true religious temperament, they thought, so they 
imitated him. But even those early men indulged in a coloring too 
pagan and lacked purity of purpose. Misguided fanatics! The cold- 
ness of all that effort to be holy was painful. 

Principal Works of Overbeck: Holy Gospels, Boy Christ among the Doctors ; 
Christ Entering Jerusalem (I^iibeck), Triumph of Religion (Frankfort). 

Emile Jean Horace Vernet (1789-1863, French) is the third artist 
of this name and the grandson of Joseph, the marine painter Vernet 
was brought up amid camps and never in all his life heard the tap of a 
drum without emotion and enthusiasm. Large canvases representing 
the battles of Napoleon in a literal manner, the most painstaking 
attention given to every detail of equipment and uniform, made him 
popular with the military and the people. It cannot be said that he 
was a great painter. His execution was hasty and by no means with 
fine technique or noble color. For a considerable period (1827-39) he 
was the director of the French Academy at Rome, a position given 
him by favor rather than because of any special fitness. 

From 1836 to 1842 he painted battle pictures for the gallery of 
Versailles. It was after 1836 that most of his Arab subjects were 

Principal Works: The Defense of Clichy, Massacre of the Mamelukes, The 
Meeting of Michael Angelo and Raphael (Louvre); Dog of the Regiment, Horse 
with the Trumpet. 



While the Hudson River School andportraitpainting were develop- 
ing in America, the most important landscape movement of recent 
times came into existence, and neither knew of the other. England 
continued in her own independent way with one famous painter, and 
was also ignorant of the art movements in other countries. The 
isolation of the artist is more complete at this period than before or 

The Hudson River School 

There seems to be no connection between the group of portrait 
painters which came out of the colonial period and another distinct 
group of landscapists, commonly known as the Hudson River 
School. The list of them begins with Thomas Cole, who lived on 
the banks of the Hudson at Catskill, and studied many of his pictures 
in the neighboring mountains. It happened that all the land- 
scape painters penetrated every nook and corner of the picturesque 
country on either bank of the Hudson, going as far as Lake George 
and Lake Champlain (the Adirondacks being little known at the 
time), finally turning aside to the White Mountains. It was specifi- 
cally a landscape school, strangely avoiding marines at the beginning. 
Later, the coast of Maine attracted these painters and marines 
appeared from time to time. Some of them finally visited the moun- 
tains of Pennsylvania and North Carolina, and hungering for scenery, 
explored the Rocky Mountains. 

One of these old landscape painters, a man of taient but unedu- 
cated in art, who looked with undisguised disgust at the work of cer- 
tain young men just returned from long continued and severe training 
in European art schools, and with apprehension at the prospect of a 


revolution, said to me, "This new style is not American art, we are 
the true American artists." He was mistaken; his art was not Amer- 
ican, but something based on the study of engravings of Italian pic- 
tures, or of English pictures which were imitations of Italian art, and 
upon brief training in Diisseldorf. I make this statement because of a 
considerable acquaintance with these men acquired in their studios, 
where they talked freely of the principles which influenced them and 
passed them down for m}' benefit. 

Most of them managed, sooner or later, to do "the European tour," 
and boast of it on returning. Some of them boasted that they were 
untainted with European ideas, never having crossed the sea. Others 
spent many months in Italy, where they gazed and wondered but did 
no serious study. Claude and Salvator Rosa were flung at my young 
and susceptible intelligence, but rarely a word about French art. The 
French were looked upon as an artificial and frivolous people, 
unworthy of consideration. Only dead men counted in the scale of 
their puritanical estimation. 

As they had but undeveloped appreciation of art for the sake of 
tone, line and atmospheric effect, and as the public knew absolutely 
nothing about these elements, they sought scenery and painted por- 
traits of places in the wonderfully picturesque Hudson River environs, 
selling these easily because they were portraits of famous views. Thus 
they fondly imagined that theirs was really an American art. They 
revolted against the pictures brought from Munich and Parisian 
studios because the subjects were not American. Also, they feared 
the influence of this well-trained art upon their own, so evidently less 
learned. They were sincere and honest in their work and lovable in 
their lives, but the art they produced is evanescent. 

Yet they were fortunately men of talent, and they made admirable 
pictures, weak often, never of massive dignity, rarely well drawn, 
revealing utter ignorance of the use of color for the sake of color com- 
binations and avoiding figures totally, except as slight indications of 
the presence of humanity in their landscapes. It was word painting, 
not art for the sake of being artistic. Those who had much talent 


painted charming pictures, but they painted, naturally enough, exactly 
what the public was willing to purchase, and that was scenery. 
Americans knew little about art in those days. 

Asher Brown Durand 

{1779-1 ^77- American.) 

Durand was for many years president of the National Academy, a 
man beloved and respected (as he deserved to be) by artists and public. 

His birthplace was in New Jersey, and most of his life was spent 
in the vicinity of New York City. A peculiar Yankee cleverness 
served well in making him an engraver that no country could be 
ashamed of, and the picture reproductions found ready sale. By the 
year 1835 portrait and landscape painting occupied all his attention. 

A large number of his studies from nature have passed under my 
eye — excellent transcripts of the scenes, literal, vigorously touched and 
revealing his true sentiment. When these were manufactured into 
pictures, it seemed to him necessary to create an artificiality, some- 
thing less sincere, more an imitation of the compositions of the Euro- 
pean painters as he saw them in engravings. Engravings from old 
masters were the early American artist's picture gallery. 

Durand is known as a pupil of Cole, said to be the father of the 
school, who doubtless taught him much, but his handling and color 
differ from the former's. He was more of a literalist, never painting 
allegory or attempting pictorial literature, as all his aim was to pre- 
sent the poetry of nature. He never crossed the Atlantic. 

Principal Works .- In the Woods, Thanatopsis, Lake George, Franconia Notch 
(New York.) 

Louis Andre Theodore Gericault (1791-1824, French) died at 
thirty-three years of age, but this short life was sufficient to make him 
the hero of a revolution. A fellow pupil of Delacroix in the studio 
of a follower of David, his originality forced upon him other senti- 
ment than the coldly calculated formalisms of the classicists. His 
only large picture is "The Raft of the Medusa," a company of ship- 


wrecked people on a raft in mid-ocean. To work it up he took a 
studio near a hospital, and studied the dead and dying. The carpen- 
ter of the ship (who was saved) built for him an accurate reproduction 
of the raft. In all ways, he attempted to reproduce the vitality of the 
scene. Many times since has this been done, but at that moment it 
was looked upon as sacrilege to so degrade art, so vulgarize it. He 
did not live to fight the battle of vitality against mannerism, but left 
his vigorous impression upon a host of fellow students, among them 

Principal Works: The Raft of the Medusa, Officer of the Imperial Guard 
Charging, Wounded Cuirassier Retreating, The Derby at Epsom, A Carbineer, The 
Plaster Kiln, Turkish Horse in a Stable, Spanish Horse in a Stable, Five Horses in 
a Stable (Louvre) ; Wreck of the Medusa (Historical Society, New York) ; Cavalry 
Charge (Providence); Village Smithy. 

Chester Hardiiig 

{iyg3-iS66. American. ) 

During the winter following the close of the war of secession I was 
working in the studio of A. J. Conant, then the leading portrait painter 
of St. Louis. One day a man of advanced years entered who was 
quickly discovered to be an artist of ability. With a massive form 
and considerable height, he took possession of our hearts and almost of 
our bodies. Healthy, cheerful, full of fun and wisdom, few such men 
had then crossed my path. He was painting a portrait of General 
Sherman, then the war hero of the period. It was an admirable work, 
the flesh clear and pulpy, the coat, epaulettes and accessories tender in 
tone and treatment. One matter troubled him — some mountains 
which appeared in the distance to suggest the battle of Lookout 
Mountain, would not shape themselves into better form than a couple 
of gigantic ash heaps. Like many another, he had picked up his art 
from an itinerant portrait painter, and could not manage landscape. 
Conant put the mountains fairly right and the picture was finished. 

A replica of his portrait of Daniel Webster and the likeness of his 
granddaughter followed, and this was the last season of his successful 


career. He had made some fine portraits of Daniel Boone, Chief 
Justice Marshall and a long line of aristocrats, south and north. 

Brought up on a farm, this Yankee was trader, tavern-keeper, 
chair-maker and peddler, anything that wits could command; his giant 
form and never-failing good humor being his passport then as during 
all his life. So alert was his intellect, that he at once became an 
itinerant "portraitist" and executed twenty-five-dollar likenesses with- 
out any lapses until he returned to his home with more hard cash than 
the farmers had ever seen. Yet his honest uncle urged him "to drop 
this swindling business, buy a farm and become respectable." 

This was early art in America. But all aspiring geniuses are not 
as brilliant, masterful and amiable giants as that delightful old man. 

He classes with that long line of English portrait painters of the 
seventeenth century, who had little instruction in art but fine feeling 
and much talent. None of them knew his profession technically, but 
most of them painted pleasing portraits. 

Thomas Doughty (1793-1856, American) is said to be the first 
landscape painter of America. Brought up to trade in leather, he 
abandoned business for art and made a success, not alone in his own 
country but also in England where landscape painting was at the time 
in high favor. 

Sir Charles Lock Eastlake (1793- 1865, English) was another 
literary man who studied art in the Academy and became its president. 
Writing well and painting pleasingly his influence was extensive and 
for the good. Eastlake did much to change the taste of the average 
British and American observer. 

Principal Works: Christ Lamenting over Jerusalem, Escape of an Italian 
Family, Haidee, Christ Blessing Little Children (London); Christ Raising the 
Daughter of Jairus, Brutus Exhorting the Romans to Avenge the Death of Lucretia, 

Charles Robert Leslie 

{iyg4-iS^g. English.') 
Leslie spent ten years, when a boy, in Philadelphia, which certainly 
did not make an American of him. Being a very good painter and 


producing illustrations of Shakespearean and other dramas — usually 
transcripts of actual stage arrangements — the English people (always 
lovers of realism) held him in high esteem. 

Principal Works: Uncle Toby and the Widow (London); Illustrations for 
Washington Irving's "Sketch Book," Sir Roger de Coverley Going to Church, May 
Day in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, Merry Wives of Windsor, Dinner at Page's 
House, Sancho Panza, Coronation of the Queen. 

Julius S. von Carolsfeld (1794-1872, German) belongs to the group 
of Biblical painters. He was director at Munich and at Dresden. 

Ary Scheffer (1795-1858, Dutch, of German extraction) painted 
in a romantic classical style which excites the admiration of many 
people. His works have been much engraved and the prints are found 
in numberless homes. With long lines and simple, dignified poses, 
the subjects are impressive. There is very little rich color to recom- 
mend them, but a certain dryness causes the black-and-white reproduc- 
tions to please more than the paintings. At Dortrecht, his birthplace, 
there is a statue erected to his memory and in the museum an entire 
wall is devoted to his pictures. 

Scheffer was educated in France, the influence of Ingres predomi- 
nating, and he received the rank of Officer of the Legion of Honor in 
1825. Tender episodes of Biblical history, scenes from Faust and 
Wilhelm Meister were his favorite subjects, and to these he gave a 
melancholy cast. 

Principal Works: Eberhard, the Weeper (Louvre) ; Faust in the Study, 
Margaret at the Spinning Wheel (Baroness Rothschild) ; Margaret at Church, St. 
Augustine and St. Monica (National Gallery, London) ; Ruth and Naomi, Tempta- 
tion of Christ, Dante and Beatrice, Christus Consolator, Christus Remunerator, The 
GroaningfS, Shades of Francesco da Rimini and Her Lover Appearing to Dante and 

Jean Baptiste Camille Corot 

(i^g6-i8fs- French.) 
One of the most original and poetic of painters, Corot induced his 
prosperous shop-keeping father to allow him four hundred dollars per 


year that he might make an artist of himself. The allowance was 
increased to six hundred dollars after many years had elapsed. But this 
always amiable genius made all the artists love him (even the classi- 
cists who doubted the tendencies of his art), so that "Pere Corot" is 
enshrined in many hearts. His father's shop faced on the quay over the 
Seine, opposite the Louvre, and the youth left the counter to paint the 
scene in front of the domicile. Thus he found his motives in ordinary 
places, painting not things but artistic effects. Departing from the 
absolute statement of facts, his purpose was to reveal the essence of 
landscape, its luminosity, its poetic suggestion and its silvery color. 
The oldest of the Barbizon group, he taught the world (always slow to 
learn) that nature was an essence. Looking into some of his pictures 
one is astonished to observe how much color his gray tones conceal. 
He loved to paint the dawn, when nature was cool and scarcely 
defined. After many years the world discovered his worth, and gave 
him a reward in money and glory. Lovable Corot, the greatest land- 
scapist of France, perhaps of the world! Having been to Italy when 
young, the ideas of classical composition formulated by Claude, and 
the little classical figures introduced, caught his fancy. Like Claude's 
are his compositions, but not his colors. At the age of forty he sold 
his first picture. Never living in Barbizon (the village near Fontaine- 
bleau where Rousseau and Mil'fet resided), he is called a Barbizonite 
for convenience of listing him with certain revolutionary painters. 
Ingres, Delacroix, Decamps and Meisonnier were his contemporaries; 
Rousseau and Millet his warm friends; Gerome, Cabanel and Bou- 
guereau, younger contemporaries. He lived a long and happy life, 
though denied the highest official honors and without a wife to console 

Important Works.- Danse des Nymphs, Roman Forum, Coliseum (Luxem- 
bourg); JVIartyrdom of St. Sebastian, Evening Star (Baltimore); Morning, Evening, 
Sunset, Darite and Virgil (Boston Museum); Orpheus (Chicago); Nymphs Dancing 
(New York); Gust of Wind, Morning at Ville d'Arvay. 

Paul Delaroche (1797-1856, French) maybe called a classicist or 
a genre painter, being both these. His painting was somewhat dry, 


but he rendered scenes from history as if the life were real, which 
classed him as a genre painter. With the others, he did a very 
important part in breaking down the barriers which confined free 
expression. His "Princes in the Tower," the story of the two who 
were smothered by Richard HI., is a literal rendering, not classically 
treated, but with the grouping carefully arranged. 

From the studio of Delaroche went out a small army of young 
painters, among them Jean Francois Millet, Gerome and Israels. 

Principal Works: Moses in the Bulrushes (Baron Rothschild); Hemicycle 
(School of Fine Arts, Paris) ; Joas Rescued by Josabeth, Young Princes in the Tower, 
Cromwell Looking upon Charles I. in His Coffin, Execution of Lady Jane Grey, 
Death of Queen Elizabeth, Virgin Led Home by St. John after the Crucifixion, 
Christ in Gethsemane, Series on the Events of Good Friday. 

Eugene Verboeckhoven (1798-1881, Belgian) is something of a toy 
artist. His immense popularity arose from the love of small-minded 
people for pretty things. His artificial, silken sheep had none of the 
dignity which the most foolish lamb can claim and his landscapes 
were too bad in their mechanics to deserve all this space, except for 
the benefit of his misguided admirers. 

De Caisne (1799-1887), De Beifve (1809-1882), Gallait (1810-1887) 
and Slingeneyer (1823- ) — all Belgian — may as well be disposed 
of here as their huge pictures of ladies and gentlemen and battles were 
artistic inversely to their size. But they had admirers nevertheless. 

Eugbne Delacroix 

{i'jjg-1863. French.) 

The story of the contest between Caravaggio and the Caracci 
repeats itself with Gericault and Delaroche against the schoolman 
Ingres. Both these men were pupils of GueVin (1783-1855) of the 
school of David, learning to draw in the classical manner, but refusing 
to stick to the mannerisms. His picture, "Dante and Vergil Ferried 
over the Acheron," was imbued with human despair. In the "IVIas- 
sacre of Chios" there is the horror of realism. This was the art of 


Rubens in a measure, but with the strong individuality of this young 
painter. The lifeless color of David and the ivory tints of Ingres gave 
way to color which Rubens might have envied. Deeper toned and far 
more serious than Rubens, though not so brilliant in technique, such 
work carried the younger painters off their feet. The classicists were 
shocked and alarmed, predicting the ruin of art. But out of this 
movement, which required so much courage and the fighting of a life- 
time, grew some of the best art of France and of the whole world. 
Perhaps the "Entry of the Crusaders into Jerusalem" is his best exam- 
ple of fine color and dignified design. With the ending of Napoleon's 
rule, the art dictatorship was less absolute; the supporters of this new 
sentiment demanded its recognition, and Delacroix finally was 
admitted to the Institute and given public work to execute. Like a 
true artist, he painted every sort of subject which stirred his enthusi- 
asm—animals, bits of the sea, fighting and horrors and tender senti- 
ment, but always with force and the display of genius. To the end of 
his life he was blamed and embarrassed by harsh criticism. 

Principal Works: Dante and Vergil, Massacre of Scio, Twenty-eighth of July_ 
1830, Algerian Women, Portrait of Himself, Jewish Wedding in Morocco, Shipwreck 
of Don Juan (Louvre) ; Entry of Crusaders into Constantinople (Versailles) ; Death 
of Sardanapalus, Death of Marino Faliero, Faust and Mephistopheles (London); 
Two Foscari (Chantilly) ; The Lion Hunt (Philadelphia) ; The Combat (Baltimore.) 

Thomas Cole 

{1801-1848. American.) 

Thomas Cole was ten years younger than his contemporary, 
Durand, but the elder was the follower because not a landscape painter 
until later in life. 

It happened that Cole's American parents were in England when 
he was born, but his boyhood was spent in Ohio and there he met the 
proverbial itinerant portrait painter, who did for him what that name- 
less individual has accomplished for so many of our self-taught early 
artists — awakened his enthusiasm and showed him how to use colors. 
In early manhood he actually sustained the family (left without sup- 


port) by means of picture making. When he was twenty-seven years 
old and the National Academy was founded (1828) he was the leader 
in landscape painting; no great thing, at that period, but historically 

His knowledge of art was too limited for a proper appreciation of 
Turner and Constable (then conspicuous), so that his visit to England 
was fruitless, but in Italy he felt strongly the influence of Claude, Sal- 
vator and Poussin, whose works became his art models. 

In the "Dream of Arcadia," one of the best works from his hand, 
the literary-poetry is conspicuous, though painter-poetry scarcely 
exists. By this statement I mean that there is little appreciation of 
the beauty of Line combinations or color combinations for their own 
sake, while of scenic story there is abundance. From a garden-like 
valley the eye roams over mountain heights to distant peaks in a way 
that nature never invented. The trees have ranged themselves by 
literary methods, as one might say, and across the plain under atmos- 
phere and sky of Claude's invention the ideal beings come and go as 
if Pope's Essay on Man had come to earth. On the right, the moun- 
tain opens in a kindly way to allow one of the old Dutch masters to 
introduce a well-composed waterfall, such as we can see in any of the 
engravings. It reminds me of one of my monitors (of this school) 
who said, "put plenty of things in your picture; people like them 
well furnished." Cole's Arcadian nymphs wore clothes and bedecked 
themselves with garlands, minute figures, the wreathes of flowers as 
small as possible but carefully detailed. Strange to say, all this nig- 
gling did not utterly spoil the work, as he had genuine talent. But 
it revealed the naive uneducatedness, unavoidable in a self-made 
artist. The lesson of simplicity and largeness of effect. Cole never 
learned. Indeed, it is a hard lesson acquired by much scolding from 
an exacting master. Each one uses the instruction in his own way, 
but it differentiates the educated painter, whatever may be his nation- 
ality, school or epoch. 

In many of Cole's ideal landscapes it is easy to discover some 
scene in the Catskill country which served him as model, and some of 


the studies from nature show as much of painter talent as the finished 
work indicates of the literary leanings of the public which purchased 

He understood well his patrons when he composed the widely- 
known allegorical series called "The Voyage of Life," or the larger 
compositions known as the "Course of Empire." Forty years ago 
engravings of these stilted lessons hung in every respectable home in 
New England. Cole was himself an engraver and a very good one. 

Principal Works: Dream of Arcadia, Departure, Return, Garden of Eden, 
Expulsion from Paradise (Lenox Library, New York); Moonlight, Conway Peak, 
Catskill Creek, Summer Sunset (Historical Society, New York). 

Burkel (1802-1869) was a German painter who promised nothing as 
an academy student, but, working in the. style of the old Dutchmen, 
painted all the life of the people much to the popular joy. 

Koekkoek (1802-1862, Dutch) painted nature as he saw it, pretty 
and much like popular china work. Collectors buy his pictures, as 
they do anything old and pretty. 

Ludwig Richter (1803- 1884, German) was landscape professor at 
Dresden, but is widely loved for his joyous presentations of domestic 
life in numberless published drawings. 

Sir Edwin Landseer (1803-1873, English) is so widely known that 
the numberless engravings and reproductions of his paintings talk 
more about him than my words can. As a lover of animals all the 
world has learned to love him. His painting was exactly suited to 
the taste of Englishmen, both because he loved dogs, because of the 
human expression given to them, and because of the too smooth finish 
from his brush. The English love a story-picture, and his satisfied 
their longing. As painter, he was not a wonderful technician from 
the artist's point of view. A clever draughtsman at five years of age, 
he remained just that to the end. His father was a noted engraver 
and reproduced much of his son's work. 

Principal Works: The Hunted Stag, Dignity and Impudence, Alexander and 
Diogenes, Low Life and High Life (National Gallery, London) ; The Old Shepherd's 

wrp.jtju.'iffi.?/-' WJ,,, 









Chief Mourner, Seeking Sanctuary, The Monarch of the Glen, Children of the Mist, 
Night, Morning, Bolton Abbey in the Olden Time, Return from Hunting. 

Joseph W. Allen (1803-1852, English) began as a scene painter 
and secured a reputation for landscape (pastoral subjects) which he 
somewhat injured by indulging in extravagant experiments with 
fanciful effects of color and light, not altogether praiseworthy. 

Gustav Wappers (1803-1874, Belgian) was a good deal of a man 
and an artist who could use color superbly. He knew how to paint a 
picture that would rouse all Belgium to enthusiasm because of its 
intense action and the story of liberty which it portrayed. This was 
the semi-allegorical story of the revolution of 1830 which set Belgium 

Bonaventura Genelli (1803-1868, German) may be mentioned as 
the last classicist of the old order in Germany who is worthy of men- 
tion. His mural paintings are in Leipzig, but many etchings are scat- 
tered about. 

Robert Scott Lauder (1803-1869, English, born in Scotland), having 
been influenced by the art of Delacroix, introduced a new feeling at 
the Edinburgh Art Academy, where he was professor, correcting the 
continuous inclination toward classicism. He made figure subjects, a 
sort of elevated genre painting. 

Preller (1804-1878, German) went to Italy and bethought him to do 
the Odyssey in paint. So he retired to Norway, made studies and 
spent his life in the work. It was an advance toward good landscape 
painting. The series is now at Weimar. 

Ferdinand Theodore Hildebrandt (1804-1874, German) painted 
the poetic aspect of the Crusaders and Hussites, and Moritz von 
Schwind (1804-1871) delighted the people of Germany with fairy tales 
in paint. He seems to be the last of the Munich men in this line. 

Wilhelm von Kaulbach (1805-1874, German) keeps up the tradi- 
tional grandeur of subject with his cartoons of allegorical character. 


which we all know so well. It was the art of Raphael applied in a new 
way. The paintings on the stairway of the museum at Berlin are sorry 
affairs, and the big drawings awe people with faces which never lived. 
"Stilted" is a mild term to describe this art. 

Principal Works: Frescoes (Odeon, Munich); Frescoes (Throne Room and 
Palace Rooms, Munich); Frescoes (Berhn Museum). 

Morgenstern (1805-1867, German) traveled in Norway and did his 
part to reproduce its scenery. He loved the quieter aspect of land- 

Carl Sohn (1805-1867, German) was a Diisseldorfer who followed 
the teachings of Schadow, and painted romance with academical cor- 
rectness and formalism. The writings of Goethe furnished him with 
motives, which were carried out in a style little tending to promote 
any serious observation of nature or any real advancement in art. The 
dawn had not yet come to Germany. 

Jean Baptiste Kindermans (1805-1876, Belgian) departed from 
the line of imitative landscape painters (such as Verstappen, b. 1773, 
and Marneffe, b. 1793), having in the course of time felt the influence 
of the Barbizon School. 

Anton Wiertz (1806-1865, Belgian) would scarcely be worth talk- 
ing about were it not that every traveler is expected to visit the 
Wierfz Museum, at Brussels, where the peep holes in the wall dis- 
close abnormal horrors. His head became inflated because his eccen- 
tricity caused people (who did not know) to call him a genius. He 
was sent to Rome and attempted to outdo Michael Angelo. An 
occasional work indicated that he came pretty near being a good 

Jean Francois Gigout (1806-1894, French) made an impression 
upon many young men, his pupils, because of his realism of a healthy 
sort, coming as it did when Ingres was ruling the Academy with 



Horatio MacCulloch (1806-1867, English, born in Glasgow) painted 
in a rather extravagant light and shade, but his influence upon the 
Scotch painters was better than his own product. 

Narcisse Virgilio Diaz de la Pena, called Diaz (1807-1876, French, 
of Spanish extraction). This member of the Barbizon coterie was 
crippled and poor, working in a porcelain factory, where his abilities 
commanded promotion but his plainness of speech produced his dis- 
charge. To make a painter of himself was a desperate struggle, but 
his talent was manifest. Admiration for Delacroix and inspiration 
from Rousseau (five years younger, but more advanced) supplied the 
essential impulse. His landscapes of ripe color, figures in gor- 
geously-tinted draperies, or the richly-toned flesh of nudes, contrasted 
strangely with all that array of pale correctness which Ingres insisted 
upon. The artists of the Academy had reason to find fault with it, as 
the drawing was scarcely passable. But a painter of great sentiment, 
as he proved himself, can defy all laws and take many liberties. This 
was live art and the pale classics were too frosty to compete with it. 
He loved to abandon himself to the sensation of painting, and that is 
a kind of exuberance that always wins. It is in strange contrast to 
the reserved propriety of many contemporary Germans. Living at 
Barbizon, with Millet and Rousseau, he revelled in the autumnal for- 
est and peopled it with nymphs. Some honors, grudgingly bestowed, 
and considerable wealth came to him, but the simple Diaz remained 

Principal Works : The Storm, Edge of the Forest, Forest of Fontainebleau 
(Baltimore) ; Close of Fine Day, Last Tears, The Rival, Pond with Vipers, Galatea, 
The Smyrniotes, The Pyrenees, Bohemians, The Fairy with the Pearls (Luxem- 
bourg) ; and manj' works in France and the United States. 

Carl Spitzweg (1808-1885, German) turned from business in early 
middle life to be a painter. Visiting France, England and Belgium, 
copying pictures as he tarried, but attending no art school, he formed 
a style of his own. In the art schools at this moment nothing 
but classicism was tolerated. So it was well that he escaped them. 


Without telling any studied anecdote, he pictured peopie who were of 
the world about him, and landscape settings innocent of artifice. This 
was indeed an approach to that sincerity which at present is consid- 
ered essential to good art. 

Carl Friederich Lessing (1808-1880, German) studied in Diissel- 
dorf, painting landscapes with figures. One of them is a wide, open 
country with wheat fields and indications of peaceful prosperity, 
through which an attacking party forced its way to capture the redoubt 
visible in the foreground where some patriots lay on the defensive. 
Such subjects occupied him until nature in her simplicity appealed to 
his artistic sense and developed an original landscapist of considerable 
force. German art was getting away from artificial trammels. 

Hermann Kaufmann (1808-1889, German) was a weak painter 
but made drawings of the life about him without artificiality. Meyer- 
heim (1808-1879), of the same nationality, represented the pleasing 
side of peasant life. 

Wilhelm Marstrand (1810-1873, Danish) was an exception, having 
a sense of humor, a fondness for light story-picture making. He trav- 
eled much and, possibly, caught his style from foreigners. On return- 
ing to Denmark the national soberness fell upon him. 

Hansenclever (1810-1853, German) was satirical. Jordan (1810- 
1887) was a Diisseldorf story-painter. 

Constant Troyon (1810-1865, French), the most poetic domestic 
animal painter of the world, began in a porcelain factory, but found 
that this pretty painting was dwarfing his talent. Imitating the Dutch 
at first, he soon "found himself" and produced powerful and rich 
effects unlike anything that had yet been done. An originator is a 
rarity in any line of conduct. The massive simplicity of the two pic- 
tures — one of cattle looming up against the lighted sky in dignified 
movement, the other of sheep in landscape (Louvre) — is monumental 
and impressive, tender in powerful coloring, and it will forever mark 
this as a turning point of the art of the world. Though seemingly 


real, his cattle are strangely idealized like structures erected for im- 

It is incorrect to call Troyon an animal painter, though groups of 
cattle and sheep are the centering objects in his pictures. He is, 
properly speaking, a landscape painter, because his animals are intro- 
duced as a part of the atmospheric effect which is his chief study. 
Many painters of animals expend their energies upon portraits of the 
beasts, using landscapes as mere backgrounds. The true landscape 
painter is one who studies light and reduces everything in sight as an 
object bathed in light or atmosphere. So Troyon was a true land- 
scape painter, treating animals as he did trees, rocks and earth — objects 
to catch and reflect light. 

Principal Works: Oxen Going to Work (Louvre) ; Going'to Market (Amiens) ; 
The Return from Market (Art Institute, Chicago), and many landscapes with cattle 
in Prance and America. 

William Page (1811-1885, American) figured extensively as a por- 
trait painter, and even attempted nude Venus effects. His color was 
an effort at tonal painting, decidedly interesting at the time, as this 
was when the Hudson River School still flourished and there was a 
tendency toward realistic and timid imitations of the tints of nature as 
the artists thought that they saw it. "Moses and Aaron on Mount 
Horeb" and "The Flight into Egypt" indicate the extent of his ambi- 
tion to be a great historical painter. 

Gurlitt (1812- ), a Diisseldorf landscapist creating fine tone, had 
good influence on the new generation. Flugen (1811-1860) was 
pathetic and amusing with genre pictures. De Keyser (1813-1887, 
Belgian), was an exact painter of history. Tidemand (1814-1876, 
Norwegian), whose studio was in Diisseldorf, reproduced the life of his 
native peasantry. Hiibner (1814-1879), a German genre painter of 
Diisseldorf, made his little mark with great success; and these things 
were happening while the men of the Barbizon School were coming 
into notice. 


Jules Dupre (1812-1889, French), another of the Barbizon 
School, went to England when a young man and placed himself 
beside Constable for inspiration, at the source of the new movement 
in landscape, bringing back to France pictures which indicated the 
sort of painter he was to become. Gradually a semi-artificial treat- 
ment of nature crept into his work — strong contrasts of light and shade 
and dramatic effects, but always it was in the character of the Bar- 
bizon effort, colorful, graphic, and at the same time nearer to nature 
than anything from the old formalists. He loved an unostentatious 
life in the country and deserved the abundant financial reward which 
finally came to him. 

''Principal Works : Many landscapes and marines in the Luxembourg and in 
American collections. 

Theodore Rousseau (1812-1867, French), like all innovators and 
men of independence of character had a long battle with narrow- 
minded art critics, as well as the autocrats of the salon. A success at 
twenty-two years, and at once commanding admiration from a circle 
which recognized his genius, the salon refused his work, so that for a 
decade and a half nothing appeared in the annual exhibitions from 
his hand. There is evidence of the influence of Hobbema and Con- 
stable in his manner of treating nature, but never was there a more 
sincere experimenter, searcher after manners of expression, fresh and 
enthusiastic inventor of new combinations, than Rousseau. While all 
his works are recognizable as from his hand, he had fewer mannerisms 
than any one else. A profound colorist, a dignified classicist at one 
time and almost an impressionist at others, he stands alone in his 
period as an inspiration to all who would paint for the love of art and 
nature as seen through the eyes of an enthusiast. His temperament 
was sensitive, which led to unfortunate enmities; but during all the 
years that he lived in Barbizon (studying in the forest) he and Millet 
were warm friends. A change in the administration of the salon 
brought him a prize and medal of the first class and soon his honors 
multiplied, and his poverty became a memory. 



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Rousseau and Dupre were twelve or fourteen years old when Con- 
stable made his influence felt in France. Meisonnier was one year 
older than the two French landscape painters. 

Principal Works: Forest of Fontainebleau, Marsh in the Landes (Louvre), and 
many others in the Louvre and in American collections. 

Charles Emile Jacque (1813-1894, French) is sometimes listed 
with the Barbizon group. His art is in the same sentiment as that of 
those remarkable men, though it is simply as a painter of fine tone 
and a delineator of sheep that he commands a high place in art. 

Antoine Chintreuil (1814-1873) and Francois Louis Fran9ais 

(1814- ), French, both pupils of Corot, may be counted of the Bar- 
bizon group, though little known outside of France. The former 
painted like his master, the latter invented a style of his own and is 
counted one of the tenderest painters of the period 

Jean Francois Millet 

(18 1 4-1 87s. French.) 

Millet may be considered the most characterful man of this group. 
A Normandy peasant boy, who learns Latin from the village priest 
while drudging on the farm, has claims to attention, as most of his 
kind do nothing of this sort. Millet was a profound thinker and an 
artist who painted not alone from sincere artistic conviction, but from 
the depths of his heart as an observer of the life about him. Given the 
problem of representing the peasant in his heaviness and his thankless 
toil, he entered into the treatment of it as if life and work were one 
and the same heart throb. Millet did not paint to preach, as Holman 
Hunt declares his aim to be. Out of the fullness of his artistic nature 
he painted that which appealed to his artistic sense. Every artist of 
genuine fiber looks about him for material, something which will move 
him to make pictures. The peasants furnished him pathos, pictur- 
esqueness, incident and poetical suggestion. So he painted for him- 
self and let the world look on as it would or could. The sociological 
sermons are read into his works without his volition. 


After studying in the provinces, he came to Paris and entered the 
studio of Paul Delaroche, but was not a very good pupil, chafing under 
restraint. Following the fashion, he painted nudes in order to find 
purchasers. Some of these are delightfully original, literal renderings 
of the truths of effects of light on skin. We wish that his sensitive- 
ness had not been offended by a careless remark, and had allowed him 
to continue. Retreating to the little village of Barbizon to escape the 
confusion and expense of the metropolis, he painted peasants because 
there was nothing else to paint and because they interested him. 

In telling the story of this heart-rending drudgery, mingled with 
the pathos of human sentiment, he never lost sight of the ultimate 
purpose, which was to make us feel what he felt. He did not delight 
us with clever rendering of stuff textures or any elaborations of the 
details of landscape, that we might be interested in his dexterity. All 
that he had to convey was the simple, somewhat rudely-expressed 
idea and that had to sufifice. Brought up a classicist, he never quite 
abandoned the formulas of classicism, but concealed them in rudeness, 
directness of statement and abrupt technique. 

Long years of poverty and official neglect did not sour his temper, 
and finally the tide turned, honors came with the attendant financial 

Principal Works: The Gleaners, Death and the Woodcutters, Sheep Shearers, 
Man with the Hoe, Goose Girl, Potato Planters (Luxembourg) ; Wool-carder, The 
Sower (New York); Potato Harvest (Baltimore); Bringing Home the New-born 
Calf (Art Institute, Chicago); The Angelus. 

Jean Charles Cazin (1814-1901, French) will be popular for a long 
time. What history will say of his work, it is too soon to determine. 
Pleasing pictures he painted in enormous numbers, sometimes too 
hastily. All the actual colors of nature (local colors) he reduced to a 
tonality, a sort of mouse-color, delightful to see. Not a strong char- 
acter, he was thoroughly artistic in his temperament, and he understood 
composition perfectly, though breaking all the conventional rules. He 
never failed in his effectiveness or luminosity. I think that his repu- 
tation is permanent. Though an outcome of the Barbizon School, he 

Cazin — The Windmill. 


is not commonly classed with it. The "Hagar and Ishmael" (Louvre) 
was painted amid the seaside sand dunes near Boulogne-sur-mer, 
where his home was and where he owned a line of these desert tracts, 
the scene of most of his pictures. 

Principal Works.- Dock Yards, Pl^ht into Egypt, Art, Ishmael, Tobias, 
Souvenir de F&te, Judith. 

Thomas Couture (1815-1879, French) is the man of one picture, 
the "Decadence of the Romans." It made an enormous sensation 
and the artist secured numberless pupils upon whom his influence was 
on the whole good and enduring. The rest of his life was spent in 
planning what he wanted to do next. This picture represents an 
orgie, half nude figures reveling. A cross between the art of Dela- 
roche and that of Rubens, it has excellent color and fine semi-classical 
movement, but "great" is not the adjective to use in connection 
with it. 

Principal Works: Day Dreams (Metropolitan Museum, New York) ; Romans 
of the Decadence. 

Hendrik Leys, "Baron Leys" (1815-1869, Belgian), has not much 
claim to our attention except as the master who shaped Alma Tadema. 
The influence is plainly visible even to-day. Attempting to enter into 
the spirit of the Gothic painters, like Quentin Matsys, he only echoed 
that which with them was vital. His pictures are well done and still 
evidently imitative. History at first and then genre, of a higher order 
of subject, occupied him. 

Principal Works: Frescoes (Hotel-de-Ville, Antwerp) ; Luther Singing in the 
Streets of Eisenach, Bertal de Haye, The Golden Fleece, Margaret of Austria 
Receiving the Homage of the Archers of Antwerp. 

Andreas Achenbach (b. 1815, German) lives in Diisseldorf, where 
his life has been spent in painting landscapes which have had an 
extended influence upon the young students, an influence now departed, 
as has the movement which he represents. His industry in studying 
nature gave him facility in rendering all the details of the old mills and 


waterfalls of the highlands of Germany. Rather elaborate composi- 
tions, much made-out and very full of parts, they had excellent color, 
but he will be counted an imitator of Hobbema. 

Fedotof (1815-1852, Russian) painted genre pictures; Russian art 
being somewhat in its infancy, though there had been portrait paint- 
ers, as Kiprenski (b. 1783) and Orlovsky(b. 1777), who also undertook 
battle pieces. 

John Phillip (1815-1867, English, Scotch born) spent most of his 
time in London, but visited Spain in middle life, learning from the 
pictures of Velasquez the secrets of a stronger technique. He was a 
genre painter of the story-telling type, but painted for the sake of 
color as much as for the sake of story. His influence, with that of 
Lauder (1803) had much to do with a certain brilliancy of color in the 
painting of the next generation. 



France in this chapter produces the great Meissonier and the last 
of the Barbizon School, also the remarkable woman who paints 
domestic animals. To Germany comes a real genius, after the long 
line of lesser men. In America the talented men still paint scenery, 
quite oblivious of the better art of France, though the French pictures 
were beginning to invade America. England shows the opening of 
some worthy careers and the noble Watts arrives. 

Jean Louis Ernest Meissonier 

{iSiS-iSgi- French.') 

After attempting to find a place for each artist and discover his 
relation to the rest of the art world, where can we place this master? 
Nowhere; he stands alone, has no competitors, no predecessors. 
Many men have painted genre, history, military pictures and scenes 
in the desert, but none has done it like Meissonier. Those who 
essayed to become his competitors have done no more than reveal his 
greatness. He seems to have been inimitable. This is much to say 
of any artist. All along the pathway of his life, critics have cried out 
that his was not great art. Quite possibly it was not, but it was 
inimitable. His conception of the representation of nature was not 
of a high order. Possibly his only claim is the extraordinary 
technique which no man has excelled, and to that we may add 
remarkable drawing. 

Meissonier was a miniaturist. The one picture which may be 
denominated "large" is his "1807," which was painted for our mil- 
lionaire countryman, A. T. Stewart, and now hangs in the Metropoli- 
tan Museum, New York. Stewart paid him the sum of S6o,ooo, the 
work having been done to his order. If we add to this the import 
duty, the purchaser was subject to an expenditure of Sgo,ooo, the great- 



est sum ever paid for a painting up to that time, not alone in America 
but perhaps in the world. Large is a relative word. I think that this 
picture is not as long as four feet. He painted numberless miniature 
pictures, not above three inches in size. In every one of these the 
subject is endlessly elaborated. Minute detail is common enough, 
but it is not Meissonier's specialty to be minute alone. It was a mas- 
terly minuteness. Some of these little pictures contained figures no 
larger than one inch high, but still admirable in pose, astonishingly 
complete in feature and costume, and perfectly modeled. Figures two 
inches high are very common, and no example of one over five inches 
comes to mind. This in itself is not matter for astonishment, because 
his imitators are legion. But on careful inspection, it is discovered 
that Meissonier never revealed the labor bestowed — his work seems 
spontaneous, easy, most of all, firmly touched. In the efforts of his 
followers the labor is revealed. The leader could plant his brush with 
one learned, square touch and, presto, it was a perfect drawing of the 
flat spot on the face which he had to represent. If Frans Hals' 
heads, with all their wonderful "flats," laid with marvelous accuracy, 
could be reduced to the dimensions of a small pea, that would be a Meis- 
sonier. Every coat and buckled shoe was kept to this standard of 
excellence. Infinite painstaking did not bring this about, but the 
artist took infinite pains. His habit was to draw figures from the nude 
model and life-sized, reducing them to these minute dimensions. 
But others tried this scheme, only to fall below the standard. 

Meissonier was the pet of army officers, who loaned him cannon 
and horses, had them marched through the snow or mud to simulate 
tracks which some historical battery left in Russia in Napoleon's cam- 
paign. These he painted as only the one artist could. If any picture 
is his best, it may be "La Rixe," a tavern misunderstanding in which 
velvet-coated swashbucklers draw swords with vigorous action. Move- 
ments were never better studied nor coats better rendered. Every 
object keeps its place perfectly and all is tender. When the minute- 
ness of the objects is considered, it is superb work. In the large 
painting called "1807," showing the great emperor on horseback 

Jdlbs Dupre — Morning, 


silently watching his impetuous cavalry charging past, all the horses 
are in violent movement and the gesticulating troopers are screaming 
in exultation. Each horse and his rider are wonderfully drawn, as no 
other artist could do it. There is a certain impressiveness in the 
ensemble, but it reveals Meissonier's great weakness as an artist as 
much as his triumph as a technician. No great impression of terror 
and excitement can be expected when we are forced to admire those 
knuckles and buckles and helmets, not to speak of the over-detailed 
herbage. He failed in landscape because he painted it so carefully. 
Landscapes represent outdoors. All Meissonier's landscapes are cata- 
logues of articles which nature provided for the light of heaven to 
shine on. There is no heaven light in any landscape by this tech- 

Just here is the limitation in his art. It had no soul, no large 
sense of the all-pervading oneness of nature. The triumph of Edouard 
Manet was the measure of Meissonier's failure. The world in years to 
come will be filled with wondering admiration for this work, but no 
one will laugh or weep over it. 

Meissonier rarely painted women and accepted but few portrait 
commissions. His portrait of the late William H. Vanderbilt was 
painfully accurate, — the wrinkles as hard as if cut in stone, the some- 
what offensive lips of the man made so brutally correct that nature 
was outdone in her work. 

Meissonier received extraordinary prices for his work. His home 
was a palace, his friends were princes and money kings. It was the 
payment for enormous energy, limitless power to work for long hours 
and an inexplicable talent. The struggling young Meissonier making 
black-and-white illustrations for publications was the forerunner of the 
most princely of painters. Though short in stature, he was an impres- 
sive figure from youth to old age. 

Principal Works: Napoleon I. in the Campaign o£ France (London); 
Napoleon I. in 1814, Lecture chez Diderot (Paris); La Rixe (Buckingham Palace); 
Napoleon IIL at Solferino (Luxembourg) ; Ordonnance, Marshal Saxe and Staff (New 
York) ; Friedland or 1807 (Metropolitan Museum, New York) ; Stirrup Cup. 


Adolph Menzel 

{iSis — . German.) 

Menzel, of Berlin, is almost as unique a figure as the Frenchman 
Degas. Both men have had great influence upon the art of the latter 
half of the nineteenth century, though neither can be said to have a 
following — no man has a following whose art is dependent upon real 
genius unaccompanied by some specific technique. These men were 
not distinctly technicians, so their admirers had nothing material to 
imitate, as their talent of itself is inimitable. 

A little anecdote from real life illustrates well why the art of Ger- 
many has for so many years failed to take its proper place in the 
world and why Menzel has broken through the crust. The art has 
been crusted over with that element in German character which 
makes for superb bureaucracy, army equipment, and well-regulated 
government, but which is the death of spontaneity. There can be no 
fresh art which is bureaucratic. All German art has been cursed by 

It happened one day, in Dusseldorf, that several of us were in the 
studio of an artist of talent who made excellent landscapes of a certain 
formal character, good enough to be in demand at the dealer's. Here 
we saw four studies from nature made by this artist in his garden. In 
the springtime of tender leafage, he had been seduced by the poetry 
of the season and painted from nature, inspired by love. We were as 
charmed with the results of this escape from formalism as he had been. 
"Oh, fine! Of course you will exhibit these." "No, no, I can't do 
that. They are not pictures, not properly regulated," or words to 
that effect. ' Just here he uttered the condemnatory sentence on a vast 
amount of German art. It must not be the outpouring of a soul full 
of passion — it must be proper, calculated, within the measure of the 
rule. The people who cherish this folly are at fault. Had he sent 
these co-called "studies" to France or to America, his success would 
have been immediate. But he was a German, in love with German 
precepts. So he sold his soul to his principles, as many another has 
done. I have forgotten his name, as, I fear, every one else has. He 





plodded away, sometimes letting his soul have its revel, but never 
thinking it possible to delight the world with this sincerity, like a 
woman who thinks it unseemly to let the world see her tenderest and 
best moments. 

Menzel escaped all this formalism. His father was a lithographer, 
and the boy learned his art in the shop, learned it thoroughly, as ail 
Germans do. In making small and unimportant lithographs, it was 
possible to be less formal. No one thought it worth while to criticize 
so insignificant a matter. Little by little the world discovered that he 
had talent, that he was erratic and out of bounds, but these so-called 
faults were not serious matters. Many years went by before he under- 
took oil paintings, and when he did so, his style was formed and his 
reputation sufficient to oblige attention. It was as an illustrator that 
Menzel secured a place in art; the series relating to the history of 
Frederick the Great being his first notable work. Untrammelled by 
masters as he was, it was easier for him to break loose than for many 
others. Brilliant perceptive faculties enabled him to catch the fleet- 
ing expression and movement of people and to imagine his hero as he 
might have been, as he imagined Frederick the Great, alert, severe, 
foxy, hurnan, while so unlike other men. There is a certain slight 
lithograph representing the sly old man walking in his garden, 
peering around as if a quizzical idea had struck his mind. It is a 
masterpiece, and not ruined by any formal arrangement which might 
have tamed the freshness of a first impression. 

Another represents a servant scurrying through a passage between 
the dining-room and the scullery with a pile of soiled dishes, heedless, 
laughing to herself over the memory of some old pleasantry, dropping 
scraps of food, knives and spoons. The absent mindedness! The 
heedlessness expressed in every muscle and line! The human animal 
that doesn't care! It was only an illustration — what could it matter if 
no academical formula guided the artist's hand? Another is a coffee- 
garden, where a man in a hammock takes his ease as men do when 
not on parade; somewhat unseemly in attitude, but life, real life. 
"The Tabacks Collegium" shows us the king at the head of an infor- 


mal party of generals at a smoker, all sitting around a table while 
some savant entertains the august assemblage with a learned paper 
(very dry, no doubt) until young Prince Frederick, moved by love of 
mischief, seizes a pet bear cub and claps its scratching claws on the 
wig of the absorbed dispenser of learning. Some laugh, while the 
king makes an effort to look severe, and the well-behaved waiter, who 
would not laugh for his life's sake, is nearly undone. The pipes, the 
rings of smoke, the wet circles made by overflowing glasses, all the 
incidents are faithfully given with few lines; best of all, with genius 
which nothing has tarnished. Watercolors were thought quite 
unworthy of serious consideration in Germany until very recently. 
But Menzel was allowed to use them for designing for chromo-litho- 
graphic reproduction. See what he did with them ! What opportunities 
he found to express his untamed imaginings in designs for bookcovers, 
for music, for titlepages, for all kinds of brief statements of fancies 
and bursts of talent! And he was not at all particular as to the man- 
ner of applying the paint. Paint was mere material, if it served his 
purpose, the manner of using it was a mere incident. This use of 
pigments in odd ways has widely influenced recent watercolor paint- 
ing in many localities. 

The exposition of 1867 took him to Paris, where he painted the 
portraits of several artists, including Meissonier and Alfred Stevens, 
who admired his talent and became his warm friends. Yet nothing 
seems to have turned him from his own way. 

In 1878 he was again represented at a Paris exposition, this time 
with his strongest picture in oils, "The Rolling Mill," an interior 
crowded with figures in action and glowing with the firelight of 
forges. This is the most graphic picture of the sort in the entire line 
of art effort. It has been criticized for not being "a picture," but it 
is a masterly study of life. 

Though the German Emperor is attempting to force classicism 
on the country (exactly as Napoleon did), this man has far too 
much talent to be ignored. Accordingly, Menzel is not lacking in 

RiCHTEE — Portrait of Queen Louise. 


Kaulbach was slightly his senior; Piloty eleven years younger; 
Lenbach twenty-one years younger; Gerome only nine years; Meis- 
sonier four years older; Millet one year older; Rossetti thirteen years 

Principal Works: Cyclops, Ride of Frederic the Great, Ball Supper at Sans 
Souci, Round Table of Frederick the Great at Sans Souci, Flute Concert at Sans Souci, 
Coronation of King William at Konigsberg (National Gallery, Berlin); Thirty-three 
pictures of soldiers of Frederick the Great, Uniform studies of Frederick's Army, 
Frederick the Great Traveling (Ravene Gallery, Berlin). 

Nils Johan Bloramer (1816-1858, Swedish) still clung to the art of 
a former style, the new movements not having penetrated his country. 
But his fine poetic temperament enabled his renderings of the folk- 
lore of his people to appeal to their hearts. 

Emanuel Leutze 

{1816-1868, American, born in Germany.') 

It is just as well that we can escape in American art from the line of 
so-called "historical painters," whose infatuation for classical mythol- 
ogy or Greek legends led them such a foolish chase after the glories of 
Michael Angelo, and find sensible effort to accomplish the possible. 
American history was not so far off that the moths had consumed all 
the heroic old garments. A model could at least be made to pose in a 
suit like Washington's, whether the artist had genius or not. It may 
be said that history is depicted in attitudes of body and expressions 
of face rather than in costumes, and that the followers of the English- 
Italian school were right in attitudinizing their characters to make 
them expressive of lofty ideals. True, provided the artists had suffi- 
cient genius — but they had not. However, Leutze was a man who 
could place costumes on a model and label him George Washington, 
making with such means a pretty good picture, because he understood 
technique. That is pretty nearly all the story; except that he was a 
German and secured an excellent education in Diisseldorf, to which 
American students flocked in small numbers. Those who staid at 


home imitated the more fortunate travelers. The Diisseldorf Gal- 
lery (a movement to improve the art, originated by some well-mean- 
ing people) had been established in New York (1853) and it turned the 
attention from the English manner. It was as artificial in its way as 
the old one, but it did attempt to reproduce the features of the life of 
the hour. 

When Leutze was established in Diisseldorf, his studio was within 
a few rods of. the River Rhine, the garden extending close to the 
stream's bank. Here he watched the floating ice filling the stream 
as the winter season broke up, and made faithful studies; supposing 
that all ice was ice. But he did not reckon on the greater cold in 
America, which made a difference in ice. Out of this observation 
grew his "Washington Crossing the Delaware." The ice never looked 
just right to one who knew the historic river involved in the story, but 
that did not prevent quite a popular success. General Washington 
stood up in the bow of the overloaded boat (as no man ever does when 
the ice is dangerous) looking heroic, and the flag was picturesque; so 
the essentials were introduced according to the fashion for such 
things. The only matter lacking was greatness of expression — the 
element of genius. 

"Westward Ho," the large panel in the Capitol at Washington (at 
the head of the grand stair) suggests the prophetic enthusiasrri of an 
emigrant party which has reached the top of the divide separating the 
Atlantic from the Pacific. He made the studies of mountains, quite 
faithfully, in Colorado. As mountains, the scene is correct enough 
and like the place, but it was a pretty long look of faith which could 
discover the Pacific from that divide. The advance wagon is just on 
the verge and others are ingeniously arranged struggling up the 
rugged and tortuous trail. Too much action marks the move- 
ment of the excited wanderers; it lacks dignity and impressive- 
ness. The artist had no inconsiderable success in his long career, but 
he added nothing to American art, as the coming men were still better 
equipped in technique and some of them had more talent. He died 
three years after the close of the war of secession. The new move- 







ment toward European study was just beginning. The new men went 
to Munich and Paris. 

Principal Works: Storming of the Teocalli, Washington Crossing the Dela- 
ware (Bremen Gallery); Star of Empire (Capitol, Washington). 

Johannes Bosboom (1817-1891, Dutch) leads chronologically in 
the movement which restored to Holland a worthy art all her own. It 
is founded on the impulse given by the Barbizon School, though not 
an imitation at all. 

Charles Francois Daubigny (1817-1878, French) properly com- 
pletes the coterie of the Barbizon painters, being the youngest of the 
group. His abiding place was not in the village of Barbizon but his 
purpose kept step with the movement. Paying no attention to 
details, his renderings were of the essence, the large appearance, of 
the scene. At his home (Auvers) the ruins of a sort of houseboat, 
on which he floated about on the River Oise and sought for motives, 
is still shown. Though almost always working directly from nature, 
he had unusual ability to reduce it to the essential parts, with remark- 
able rich greens and luminous gray skies. Counted a colorist, he 
rarely produced brilliant color. It was the remarkable gray tone 
which won favor. Long, simple lines and quiet effects pleased his 
taste, a few well-placed spots satisfied his requirements. This art will 
live through the ages. He is one of the greatest of his school. He 
made his debut at Salon of 1838 with a view of Notre Dame, Paris. 

Daubigny may be called the naturalist of the Barbizon group. 
None of them gave too much attention to details or minute and unim- 
portant incidentals, but others were inclined to render nature in some, 
what artificial arrangements. All seasons were alike attractive to 
him. The unaffected manner in which he jotted down the quiet lines 
of the banks of the river Oise, or any corner of his garden, in the 
simplest tones of nature's greens or grays, marks him a genius; the 
more so as so few can do this simple thing in an easy manner and 
make an impression on all the artists of the world. 


Principal Works: Sluice in the Valley of Optevoz, The Vintage (Luxembourg); 
Banks of the Seine (Nantes); Morning (Metropolitan Museum, New York); Fruit 
Garden in Normandy, Moonrise, View of Dieppe, and many landscapes in France 
and America. 

Bocklund (1817-1880, Swedish) brought the teaching of Piloty from 
Munich and impressed it on the young artists at the Swedish Academy. 

George Mason (1818-1872, English) makes us wonder that any 
man so long ago could have painted in the sentiment of the present 
day. It may be called genre painting, but not story-telling, though 
there was always much incident from English farm life woven into it. 
His pictures would make superb mural decorations, and are in the 
arrangement and treatment most approved by the recent mural dec- 
orators — something strange to find at that period. He lived a hermit's 
life in an English village, producing a noble, serious, low-toned art, 
which we know well from many examples of the reproductions hung 
in our homes, as the "Harvest Moon" and the "Return from Plough- 
ing." His influence was excellent and has continued to this day. 

John Frederick Kensett 

{i8i8-i8j2. Atnerican.) 

No one of the painters of the Hudson River School had more tal- 
ent or better opportunities than Kensett. Though his technique 
always revealed the lack of solid schooling, there was more suave 
treatment and indication of pictorial conception than usually obtained 
at the time. Cole and Durand were "painty" by comparison. Admit- 
ting that surfaces were somewhat glassy and lacked substance, the 
tender grays were unusual, colors did not clash; there was tonality for 
its own sake rather than blind imitation of nature with its colors liter- 
ally given. Very few great artists paint nature just as she is, but 
rather use her for the production of artistic effect. This it is which 
marks Kensett as a superior artist. 

Kensett remained some years in England, and seems to have under- 
stood very well what there came under his observation. At the Royal 


.- " I |lr " -, ■I i ' I 







Academy of 1845, having painted a view of Windsor Castle, he exhib- 
ited the picture with success and obtained favor with English patrons. 
Rome attracted him sufificiently to retain his presence and occupy his 

All his renderings of nature were poetic, not the artificial poetry 
produced by labored arrangements, but that of tender treatment while 
holding fairly closely to the truth as he actually saw it. 

Certain prejudices of the public influenced all these artists in an 
amusing way; they found the scenery-eaters very hungry and it must 
be scenery or no business. Also, it must be startling scenery, and 
each year something unexpected. A few people went to Europe, 
returning with glowing accounts of the Alps. Our poor little moun- 
tains seemed tame affairs compared with that old country where real 
peaks had found time enough to grow. The painters caught the 
infection, shooting up the dull heads of our noble and dignified hills, 
producing bastard Alps to order. In Kensett's "Conway Valley," a 
long-drawn-out intervale between rounded heights leading up, moun- 
tain upon mountain, to the huge majestic head of Mount Washington, 
he felt obliged to grow an Alpine spike as a fitting climax to that 
accumulation of heights. Without this the young country would have 
been shamed by the old. All this added nothing to the effect except 
frivolity. But it added much to the price of the picture. Yet with 
all the foolishness, it was pretty good work and a credit to the artist 
and the country. 

Another trick was the habit of placing a "pusher" directly in the 
foreground, something to drive back the distance; as if the distance 
would not take care of itself should values be accurate. These men 
knew nothing about "values" however, hence the trick. The 
"pusher" was usually a striking protuberance of rock, partly light and 
partly dark, or perhaps two of them, one light and one dark. These 
occupied a position directly in the center of the foreground. Scarcely 
a landscape of this school escapes this petty trick, as anyone may see 
who takes the trouble to examine the engravings of them. 

Foregrounds had to be excessively elaborated, filled with scratchy 


plants and weeds, much attention given to species and leafage. None 
of the artists understood the virtues of simplicity or knew that, should 
the subject-matter be in the distance, the picture gained character by 
keeping the foreground as quiet as possible. The laws of due sacrifice 
of one part of the picture to the other had never been taught them. 

Turner was exhibiting in every Academy annual when Kensett was 
in England, but this was too difficult and extreme an art to follow, 
especially by a painter of the new world. Constable's fullness of 
brush and ability to see nature's peculiarities does not find any echo 
in American work. Sir Joshua Reynolds had been dead sixty years 
when Kensett exhibited in England, and Lawrence fifteen years. He 
does not seem to have paid any attention to French art, though the 
Barbizon School was in full action, fighting for its due recognition. 

Principal Works: High Bank in Genesee River, October Afternoon (Corcoran 
Gallery, Washington) ; Lake George. 

Jean Paul Clays (1819-, Belgian) has caught the spirit of the alive 
French painters we have been considering. Marines, full of brilliant 
sparkle and vital color have come from his easel, rarely refined work. 

Gustave Courbet (1819-1877, French) is called a brute by people 
who cannot understand. No man of his originality and refinement of 
perception is a brute. He was rough in manner, indifferent to the 
polite usages of a society which he despised, revolutionary in his tem- 
perament, and disposed to do just as he pleased whatever the conse- 
quences. In politics he was a violent protestor, because he hated 
social conditions as he found them. A leader in the Commune, by his 
orders the Vendome Column was cast to earth, an amusement which 
cost him his property while he was in exile to pay the price of setting 
it up again. 

Calling himself frankly a realist, he rendered nature without details 
but with marvelous correctness of observation and boldness of touch. 
There were no "impressionists" in those days, but Courbet was the 
most exact painter of impressions whom the world had seen. Natu- 


rally such a man loved to shock the sensibilities of artificially conven- 
tional people and he did so, but did it superbly as far as the art was 

Courbet's painting is unlike that of any other artist in handling, 
color, manner of viewing nature and vigorous treatment. In a pic- 
ture of some insignificant Alpine valley, he has given more severe 
ruggedness to the cliffs and a greater sense of the awful severity of 
nature's bald upheavals than anything I can recall. This is done with 
the fewest possible brush strokes and a liberal use of blackish grays. 
It is difficult to give in words a description of something which 
depends for its influence upon the subtle touch of a genius. There is 
a picture of cattle, under the trees which for keen observation of the 
effects of light on the animals' hides stands almost unsurpassed. His 
unlovable, but startingly truthful renderings of the surf dashing on a 
strand are wonderfully powerful. The "Burial Party" shows us many 
large figures, people whom we would not select as daily companions, 
but true individuals, as anyone may see them if awake to the realities 
of humble life. In his "Interior of the Studio" there are many men 
and women gathered while the nude model stands among them, not 

Principal Works: A Burial at Ornans, Stone Breakers (Louvre) ; The Quarry, 
Doe Run Down in the Snow (Boston Museum of Fine Arts) ; The Siesta, Deer Call- 
ing, The Stormy Sea (Luxembourg); Village Ladies, Return from Conference, 

Henri Harpignies (1819-, French), a powerful landscape painter, 
trained in his art to an intense appreciation of the solids of the earth's 
surface and rendering everything as if materiality rather than senti- 
ment, and solidity rather than detail were the essentials. Not lovable 
but majestic and imbued with style, he is counted great. 

Principal Works: Evening on the Campagna, Twilight. 

Jongkind (1819-1891, Dutch) is another who introduced the 
Barbizon sentiment into Holland by means of the work sent home, 
though none of them failed to reveal his personality. He lived mostly 
in France. 


Eugene Fromentin (1820-1876, French) kept well within the 
bounds set by the classicists and escaped trouble. His was a regulated 
genre — scenes from the Orient, horsemen, hawking parties and as 
much movement as the story required. In color he was reserved but 
not at all lifeless. 

John Faed (1820-, English, born in Scotland) painted domestic 
scenes with much story of real life. His brother Thomas did like- 

George Frederick Watts (1820-, English) is as individual a per- 
sonage as it is possible to find in all the course of art history. While 
others have sought to interpret the poets, he has been one unto him- 
self. Without attending any art school, he studied the noble exam- 
ples of the art of Phidias which are collected in the British Museum, 
and then went to Italy to be influenced by the color and technique of 
the great Venetians. Naturally, his technique is not of the best, but 
his success in imbuing his noble conceptions with a certain power has 
secured for him a lofty place in the ranks of artists. Unlike many 
fine technicians, he never distracts the attention from his serious 
motive by amusing the eye with pretty painting of parts. He was 
made a Royal Academician in 1868. More than any other English 
artist (almost every one of them having the ambition to execute the 
"grand art") Watts has a real "call" to paint history or allegory. 

Principal Works: Fresco, St. George and the Dragon (Parliament House); 
Fresco, The School of Legislature (Dining Hall of Lincoln's Inn) ; Fata- Morgana, 
Love and Death, Love and Life, Paola and Francesca, The Riders of the Apoca- 
lyptic Vision, Hope, Many Portraits, Echo, Alfred the Great, Cartoon "Caractacus." 

The Harts 

William Hart (1820-1894) and James M. Hart (1828-), American, 
born in Scotland, were brought to Albany when quite young, and car- 
ried their racial characteristics with them, the elder even his rich 
brogue. Anyone would trust him after the first few words were spoken. 

Geokge F Watts — Sir Galahad 


Positive, stubborn, somewhat irascible but always intensely sincere, 
these two played an important part in the history of forty years ago. 
William had obtained a foothold in the metropolis while James 
still remained in Albany picking up the trade of artist. Nearly all 
these men commenced by decorating sleighs, omnibuses and shop 
signs, and it is no small credit to them that talent produced such good 
art under these conditions. William never could forget that James 
was the younger brother and had no right to elbow his elder in 
the race for fame; there was some amusing side play in this con- 
nection which made everyone smile but in no case did the good 
brothers allow the rivalry to embitter them. I was myself a witness 
of these little brushes, being a frequenter of their studios. William 
would open the door a crack and seeing his brother would cry out, 
"Ah, it's you! You can naa coom in, you can naa coom in. I'm 
puttin' in a skee. " It was a big sky that was in hand. But at the 
next visit his smiling face and genial manner made up for the previous 
rude reception. When some one suggested that his brother had done 
something pretty good, he hastened to make it understood that there 
was really but one Hart. I have never seen either of these men paint 
a tree and a sky at the same moment and with the same palette, as if 
these were two tones in one atmosphere. The sky had to be finished 
and allowed to dry and the tree placed on it as trees are supposed to 
grow this side of the sky. But they were too witty to find no way 
out of the consequent hardness, and there are all sorts of ways to 
paint pictures. William loved glowing autumnal and sunset effects, 
finding his colors too weak and inefficient for his ardor, and conse- 
quently his pictures tended toward hotness. James leaned to the 
opposite extreme (probably in order to be different), painting cool 
gray and green midsummer, wood interiors and far-reaching meadows 
with a stream and fine tree groups. When he attempted full autumn, 
it was kept cool and reserved. Perhaps his was the finer artistic 
nature. Later in life, both became cattle painters, but the drawing 
always revealed the lack of schooling, and the painting became 
unpleasantly mannered as compared with their middle-life work. 


James went to Diisseldorf for a considerable period of study, but 
declared that he got no good from the experience. He did not remain 
long enough. William was ever sneering at his brother because of 
this surrender to foreign influence. So intense was the chauvanism in 
those early days. Both were men of decided talent and their pictures, 
when seen at this time, prove that art is a very large and wide thing, 
not to be measured by rules. William was made a National Academi- 
cian in 1858, and James in 1859. 

Many men, now gray-haired, remember with tender feelings the 
kind aid extended by these plain-spoken Scotchmen, when their locks 
were curly and dark. 

Principal Works of William Hart: Close of Day, Mt. Desert, Lake in the 
Hills, White Mountain, Morning in the Mountains, Keene Valley. 

Principal Works of James M. Hart: Drove at the Ford (Corcoran Gallery, 
Washington); Adirondacks (Baltimore); At the Watering Trough. 

Ford Madox Brown (1821-1893, English) was seven years older 
than Rossetti and had already established some reputation when the 
Preraphaelite movement manifested itself. His sincere realism and 
the trouble which he gave himself in order to paint nature as correctly 
as possible (a rare circumstance in those days when English art was 
not at its best) made him quite ready to join in the movement which 
had for its leading principle the exact copying of nature's truths. 
However mistaken this principle may have been (as art is not the 
exact and literal truth), Brown entered into the agitation enthusias- 

Principal Works: Wickliff Reading His Bible, Work, The Last of England, 
King Lear, Chaucer Reciting His Poetry at the Court of King Edward III., Christ 
Washing Peter's Feet. 

Felix Ziem (1821-, French) paints much "commercial" art, though 
when younger his pictures were sufficiently sincere. Scenes on the 
waters of Venice and Constantinople, with the picturesque sails and 
intensely blue sky, furnish subject-matter for the display of pretty but 
often crude color. 

Principal Works: View of Antwerp, View of Constantinople. 




Marie Rosa Bonheur (1822-1899, French). So widely known an 
artist needs no explanatory introduction. Her strongest claim to 
greatness lies in the original note struck (while she was still young) in 
painting animals as a realist, with an artistic treatment unlike any 
previous examples. Her view of nature was original, as in the 
"Ploughing in Nivernais, " wnere white oxen are set against each 
other and against a light sky, the whole in full sunlight. White upon 
white has been much practiced since, but she was one of the originators 
of the effect. The stories of her masculine dress (worn for con- 
venience and not as a defense against harmless and good-natured 
drovers) indicates the independence of character which has served her 
well. Largeness of heart and nobility of character set her apart from 
the multitude of humankind. During the latter part of a long life of 
art work, the early strength was not maintained. No woman has, 
however, been so highly honored officially. She was given the cross 
of the Legion of Honor. 

Principal Works: Horse Fair (Metropolitan Museum, New York) ; Plowing in 
the Nivernais (Luxembourg); The Old Monarch (New York); Lion at Home, 
Monarch of the Glen. 

Johannes Hendrick Weissenbruch (1822-1903, Dutch) painted 
landscapes of wonderful tone and simplicity, abstractions in which no 
details annoy the lover of suggestiveness. He is one of the forerun- 
ners of the remarkable modern Dutch school. 

Gustave Richter (1823-, German) painted beautiful women, which 
were good, but his efforts to become great by executing history 
revealed his weakness. 

Principal Work: Queen Louisa of Prussia. 

Vermehren (1823-, Danish) followed the lead of the simple nat- 
uralists who sincerely painted what they saw in nature without bowing 
down to prejudices regarding preconceived arrangements. Dalsgaard 
(1824-) and Exner (1825-, Danish) did the same. Larson (1825-, 
Swedish) was a brilliant painter but rather raw in color. 



In America is born one of the most charming painters of the Hud- 
son River School, and a man of entirely opposite tendencies, whose 
inspiration came from Barbizon. Thus the reaction begins in America. 
Holland raises up the tenderest and most national of her contempo- 
raneous artists. France gives us three artists of remarkable talent in 
their way, whose pictures become distributed all over the world, 
especially in America, thus breaking in upon the previous conditions. 
Also, France produces her most remarkable mural painter. 

Sanford R. Gifford 

(/8zj-j88o. American.) 

It was on the mountain-top of a bold spur of the Catskills, little 
frequented at that time by the summer boarder, that in company with 
a fellow art student, I wandered about in the autumn admiring the 
far-reaching view toward the Berkshire Hills away beyond the thread 
of the Hudson River gleaming in the intervale. Suddenly we discov- 
ered an artist who had set up his field easel, planted one spot of yel- 
low on the naked canvas and was walking about to work up his ideas 
for the reproduction of all that glory of color. His niglig^ costume 
revealed a long lean neck, and under a little felt hat a thin face with 
gleaming eyes looked all the handsomer for the rude setting. It was 
Sanford Gifford. The following winter I was allowed to visit the 
celebrated man's studio frequently. He was one of the men at the 
top in art circles. Always a literalist, his idealizations were no more 
than a glamour of refinement thrown over the scene, which always was 
an actual view of some place; though possibly the hills or mountains 
were somewhat exaggerated in size for effect's sake. Quite commonly 
he worked on a very smooth canvas, so that it could be covered with a 



thin coat of tone and the multitudinous forms of tree-clad mountains 
lifted out with a stiff brush, letting the white canvas show through, as 
the paper does in watercolors, the whole result being very thin and 
glassy, though delightfully tender and pleasing. Long reaches of the 
Hudson River, with many idle sails basking in the evening glow 
and enveloped in the haze which hid the far-away shore, particularly 
pleased his fancy for tender effects. One of the boasts of these 
painters was to render the suspended haze in which a mountain floated, 
and I have never seen it better done by any school. Could they have 
escaped the weakness always going with little schooling, these had 
been great artists. 

Once when Gifford was wandering on the hills of Staten Island, he 
sought shelter from a shower in a little hut and watched the storm 
pass away toward the eastward, letting in the setting sun's rays upon 
a large group of becalmed sail down in the bay. These glowed 
through the wetness, and the sense of an intervening veil of rain was 
superbly given. From a point close at hand, a line of telegraph poles 
staggered down and still down the shore until lost in this veiling of 
rain. At the top of each pole the glass insulator glimmered like a 
newborn star. These sparks of light led away into the mistiness, 
glimmering, glimmering, long after the poles had ceased to be visible, 
still leading the eye into the falling rain, seemingly without supports. 
Though the financial conditions at the time were at a very low ebb, so 
that nothing was selling, he found a purchaser for the picture which 
resulted, before the paint was dry. It was painted at one sitting and 
on a pretty large canvas. All the world wondered. He was elected 
National Academician in 1854, and served with the celebrated 
"Seventh Regiment" in the Civil War. 

Principal Works : Golden Horn ; Ruins of the Parthenon (Corcoran Gallery^ 

Alexander Cabanel 

{iS23-i88g. French.) 
One of the advantages of the position of "professor" among the 
artists of Paris, is the intense loyalty of a succession of students. As a 


winner of hearts the instructor is frequently a phenomenal success. 
The rivalry between ateliers is often very keen. In my own student 
days, the number of followers of Cabanel was still very large, but with 
waning enthusiasm. Setting aside all his indifferent works, it remains 
true that Cabanel was a man of unusual talent with occasional gleam- 
ings of genius. Most of all, it can be claimed for him that he never 
sought to make "little Cabanels" of his students. All of them who 
had any originality easily broke loose from his leading strings, as did 
Gervex, Benjamin-Constant and Bastien-Lepage. Nothing approach- 
ing this liberality was true of David, whose iron will demanded Greek 
statues or nothing. Ingres was scarcely less imperious. 

Cabanel was the direct sequence of Ingres' rule, and another 
avowed imitator of Raphael. "He who follows is always behind," 
and so is he who imitates; sometimes a long way. But there were 
expressions of face in Cabanel's pictures, glimmerings of originality not 
to be overlooked. In the "Birth of Venus" (Luxembourg) the drowsy 
eyes, just opening to the light of life, the coy face peering out from 
under the shadowing hand and that sense of relaxation in the entire 
figure, are pretty nearly evidences of genius. The figure lies lightly 
on the wave and, of course, is graceful. It is more than graceful, it is 
"sweet." To be graceful in all things is a Frenchman's birthright, 
especially if he be of the school of Raphael. The mark of genius is 
found when a painter can be graceful and still noble. This Cabanel 
never was. He was a painter by preference, a master by industry. 
His birth was in the academical atmosphere of Montpellier, where 
education and polish gave tone to the oxygen. As physician or bishop 
his success would have been equally remarkable. This picture 
of the just-discovered Venus and the excited sea-roving cupids, is 
spoiled by the effort to imitate Raphael in the cherub faces. The 
uppermost one is particularly bad-Raphaelisrh; none is at all worthy. 
This would be evident at once if we should secure a good example of 
Raphael and compare the two painters. 

Ingres painted severely defined statues, according-to-Raphael; 
Cabanel produced languid imitations of these imitations. Many of 


his large compositions are of no value except as examples of highly- 
polished technique; his figures are no more than elegantly painted 
idealizations of models. The students used to stand before his 
"Thamar," then in the Luxembourg gallery, and, with bated breath, 
tell how a certain skilled model held out his draped arm for a full hour 
without flinching and then fainted from exhaustion. Oh, noble art! 
No one faints because of the simulation of a tragedy enacted by these 

Cabanel was a model portrait painter, able to reproduce a sufficient 
number of his sitter's characteristics to make the likeness pass muster, 
while at the same time softening all defects. His superb command of 
paint and brushes could not fail to render something agreeable, to be 
looked at while seated in a silken armchair, yourself elegantly 
dressed. It is related of him that his habit was to place his sitter and 
his easel exactly side by side and walk off thirty feet, his palette in 
hand, study carefully a minute and then walk up to apply one or two 
accurate touches. This promenade continued during the entire sit- 
ting. The touches were rarely altered, so well did he know his trade. 
But sometimes the sitter had to endure ninety of these inquisitorial 

In the Metropolitan Museum (New York) hangs a portrait of the 
late Catharine Lorillard Wolfe (full-length figure) which is very popular. 
She was a woman of plain features but great character. Her por- 
trait has some character with idealized features, and the workmanship 
is irreproachable. Can we wonder at the popularity? 

From earliest youth until old age he had honors thrust upon him, 
until absolutely nothing remained to conquer. The firm establishm^ent 
of the French republic resulted in a retrenchment of the power of any 
one man in the Salon, but Cabanel, in connection with others live- 
minded, had great power until near the end of his life. 

Naturally an art academy (as in the old universities) teaches 
classics, that fixed and perfected thing which can be doled out by 
measure and has long since been reduced to rule. Cabanel was for 
years a leading professor in the Ecole des Beaux Arts. It is an old 


saying, "Did you ever know of a Prix de Rome man who amounted to 
anything?" This sentiment is justly based on the fact that the prize 
is given to those who draw well; never for original genius. Good 
drawing never proved a man a genius. Cabanel was a noted "Prix de 
Rome," 1845. 

Principal Works: Death of Francesca and Paolo, Birth of Venus, Thamar 
(Luxembourg); Shulamite, Portrait of Miss Wolfe (Metropolitan Museum, New York); 
Ruth and Boaz (New York) ; Christ before Pilate. 

Jean Leon Ger&me 

(1824-igo^. French) 
The glory of French art has always been magnificent technique. 
To handle the crayon and paint-brush seems as natural to this people 
as swimming to a Sandwich Islander. If we add to this native ability 
the habit of almost endless practice under exacting masters in the 
schools, it ceases to be a wonder that they have controlled the art 
market for so many years. They are all heirs to the art of Michael 
Angelo and Raphael, who counted correct line as something precious 
above all else. Art talent is common among the French; genius not 
uncommon. The former has produced an output of "articles de 
Paris" and pretty pictures which brought wealth out of every less 
favored country to them. Where are we to draw the line between 
genius and talent? Was Gerome only a man of superior talent who 
made "articles de Paris"? Artists whose orthodoxy differs from his 
think this, but they forget the noble "Death of Caesar," made in the 
years of his greatest strength. A large study for the principal figure 
in this work is at the Corcoran Gallery in Washington. Though 
highly finished, it is so "large" in treatment that only the bloody foot 
prints and the prostrate Caesar attract attention, and the shouting 
group of conspirators isolates itself impressively. That fallen hero 
lying at the feet of his great competitor, who stands there in bronze 
serenely unconscious of his prostrate rival, is a powerful conception 
worthy of any artist. This work alone proves Gerome a genius, but 
he also painted "Forty Centuries Look Down upon Him," a diminu- 


tive Napoleon on horseback standing alone in the vast desert contem- 
plating the colossal Sphinx, which does indeed look down upon this 
upstart invader of the civilization of four thousand years. The con- 
ception is intensely poetic and had the artist been content to treat this 
as he did the Caesar, in a broad and simple manner, another work had 
established his claim to greatness. But all that vast desolation is dis- 
turbed by trifling details of gravel stones and useless minutiae in the 
landscape which suggests space but is too trifling. He was witty 
enough to leave out the group of officers composing the attendant 
staff, suggesting their presence by means of shadows thrown athwart 
the figure which alone takes the responsibility of facing all that 
ancient solemnity. Herein we see GerSme's weakness; enamored of 
his ability to paint things, he throws away his soul for technique's 

This betrayed him again in the picture of Moliere breakfasting with 
Louis XIV. The king and the actor sit together at table, both hatted, 
while the scowling nobles stand uncovered in the royal presence of the 
king and this prince of actors. It was a superb opportunity to create 
an impression, but thrown away again for the love of painting silken 
coats and lace jabots, stiff ribbons on elegant shoes and all the para- 
phernalia of the palace furnishings. Dramatic force drowned in a sea 
of frippery; that is the impression. It must be admitted that the 
articles of still life were well painted and the heads masterpieces of 
superb drawing and construction. 

"Son Eminence Grise" is still more painful because a still greater 
sacrifice; as the subject is finer. The subtle confidential adviser and 
secret executive of Richelieu, "Pere Joseph," stands, clothed in hum- 
ble monkish garb, at the turn in the palace stairway, while many ele- 
gantly-dressed nobles and church dignitaries ascend. He pays no 
attention to them, appearing to be absorbed in noting pious thoughts 
in his prayer-book, while in reality it is the names of those who bow 
less humbly which fill the sacred margins. Coats again, more silks 
and high-heeled shoes; but for the relentless "fine painting" this had 
been an extraordinary work. Made in the freshness of his first 


strength, the "Bal Masque" very nearly saves him for great art, the 
treatment is so simple and effective. In the luminous night we see 
two figures from the carnival, two fools, so the clothes suggest, gone 
to the park to attempt each other's lives for some trivial insult's sake 
or for some still more trivial love. There is abundant fine painting 
but not much detail. 

A long line of subjects studied in the Orient, picturesque buildings, 
gaily-dressed horsemen, with animals beautifully drawn; interiors, of 
gorgeous bath-rooms where the nude women of that hot climate dis- 
port themselves — all subjects giving opportunity to show his skill in 
drawing, occupied the artist for many years and have brought him an 
enormous amount of money. 

Personally, Gerome is a noble specimen of humanity. On one 
occasion when a superb Russian grand duke was being conducted 
through the ateliers where his numerous pupils (among them many 
Americans) were at work, the fellows nudged one another, remarking 
that the "patron" was the finer man of the two. 

Not long since, Gerome, having filled the world with pictures, 
turned his hand to sculpture. A highly-educated artist has command 
over all mediums of expression. A number of his important painted 
figures were rendered in bronze, as the gladiator in his arena scene. It 
would be unjust to deny that he did this work very beautifully; still, 
•his faults show forth more conspicuously in sculpture, in that reserved 
art which admits of so much dignity and suggestiveness. When he 
attempts to display his technique simply to make it conspicuous, the 
effect is far from agreeable or noble. At the Exposition of 1900, at 
Paris, he exhibited gilded bronze equestrian figures of Washington and 
Napoleon which made no impression except that of beautiful repre- 
sentations of saddles, buckles, straps and fringes, all as hard as bronze 
of course. The horses were admirable. 

Gerome obtained his first training in the studio of Paul Delaroche 
(where Millet of Barbizon studied), but his greatest impression was 
received from Gleyre, who came of the stock of Ingres, that favorite 
pupil of the great classicist David. These men ruled the Salons 


during two, generations so that no man could expect any considerable 
attention or honors unless he adhered strictly to the elegant classic 
forms in drawing and treatment. Because of this training, Ger6me 
became a classicist, a lover of elegant line and hard finish, allowing 
himself no enthusiasm, no fresh outpouring of spirit. He has been 
one of the leading instructors in the Ecole des Beaux Arts for many 
years, he has had honors and medals of the highest possible order 
bestowed upon him, and he has become rich. 

Extreme classicists rarely have a free command of color, simply 
because color will not abide with labored manipulation and polished 
surfaces. In order to make his gray tones, Ger6me mixed his paints 
on the palette instead of laying them on the canvas quite fresh, leav- 
ing them somewhat rough and mixing as little as possible. The latter 
method does not admit of the same smoothness, but the color remains 
fresher. In the already mentioned picture, "Son Eminence Grise," 
the grays are so colorless as to almost appear cold and lifeless. To 
save himself, Ger6me indulged freely in all manner of red, yellow and 
blue coats, gay-stained glass windows and any positive objects which 
promised relief. All these could not counteract the effect of the 
dull grays. All his work reveals this same effort with color, even 
the oriental scenes rely upon gay tiles and costumes for the color 
scheme. Titian, on the contrary, while not altogether neglecting 
the bright clothes, subdued them to a series of superb vibrating 
grays. Very few of Gerome's pupils follow his methods of painting, 
though his severe criticism in drawing has produced its effect all over 
the world. 

Ger6me's first success was the "Cock Fight" (which brought to him 
a medal at twenty-three years of age), 1847. 

Principal Works: Death of Caesar, The Cock Fight, The Age of Augustus, 
King Candaules, Leaving the Masked Ball, Son Eminence Grise, Gladiator before 
Caesar, Napoleon before the Sphinx, The Hour of Prayer in a Mosque in Cairo, 
View of Paestum, Phyrne before the Tribunal, Cleopatra and Caesar, Women at the 
Bath, Turkish Bath, Moliere Breakfasting with Louis XIV., Guard of Louis XIV., 
Louis XIV. and the Grand Conde, Gladiator. 


Gustave Rodolphe Clarence Boulanger (1824-1888, French) is 
known everywhere as the "alter ego" of Gerome, as he was born the 
same year, exhibited for the first time at the salon in the same year, 
went to the Orient with Gerome and painted the same sort of pictures, 
with the same affection for smoothness and minute detail — nudes 
in the harem, the revivification of the life of Pompeii and Rome, and 
eastern cafes. Because his work resembles that of the more important 
man, it has been said that it came nearly up to it in excellence. 
This is not true. It fell short in nearly all respects and there is no 
such evidence of greatness as was manifested in Ger6me's "Death of 
Caesar" and many other works. 

Principal Work: The Appian Way in the Time of Augustus 

Pierre Puvis de Chavannes 

{1824-/ 8g8. French. ) 

In one of the Salo'ns of the later '70's was "The Poor Fisherman" 
by Puvis de Chavannes. I recall well the remarks of a fellow stu- 
dent, who declared that it was too ugly to exist. Certainly there is 
nothing "pretty" in this artist's work. It must claim something else. 
This fisherman stood in his boat, moored near shore, watching his net 
with an attitude of patient dejection. He is evidently excessively poor. 
The expression suggests that he believes that he will certainly starve 
unless the Lord sends a fish, and that he trusts, while doubting. On 
the shore, his youthful daughter gathers flowers for the baby, which is 
nearly naked. Nothing is in view but a forlorn reach of water and 
this barren bit of flat land, bearing some flowers in spite of its barren- 
ness. It is a magnificent lesson in life; the embodiment of the 
philosopher's conclusions, of the religionist's commingling of despair 
and hope, of some rays of light amid the darkest doubt. The color 
was sober but tender, laid in flat masses and not at all prettily brushed. 
No one could describe the color — pearly and nearly all in one rather 
pale quality, no strong darks or lights. The "flatness" of the tones is 
most important to remember. M. de Chavannes was a mural painter 


who covered the wall with flat tones so that the wall might retain its 

This flatness of wall treatment and this manner of telling his truths 
in suggestions rather than in dry and positive statements, made him 
the greatest poet in paint and the best mural decorator that France 
had seen in long years. He did not tell facts but awakened chords 
of feeling. He did not attempt tricks of chiaroscura on the walls but 
reduced everything to the wall's use as a wall. Both treatment and 
color were good for the wall; went well with the architecture. "He 
does not paint Mars, Vulcan and Minerva, but war, work and peace," 
says Miither. 

M. de Chavannes had an influence upon all the younger generation of 
workers that is hard to measure. He revolutionized all mural decora- 
tion and all sorts of decoration of flat surfaces. The older men could 
not, or would not change, as we see at the Pantheon, in Paris, where 
nearly all the great painters of the classical and classical-genre 
schools have covered the walls with confusions (for the most part) 
which torment us, while Puvis, as he is usually called in the studios, 
made simple tender panels. The subject is "The Girlhood of St. 
Genevieve," that is, of the patron saint of old Paris. The work is in 
three panels, divided by stout pillars. A simple landscape in quiet, 
slightly broken tones, many long, horizontal lines and flat tree forms, 
contains figures likewise managed for the effect mentioned. St. Gen- 
evieve is marked with the divine seal, and the various characters act 
their parts quietly, with dignity and force. 

This decoration is one of the art sights of Paris, justly celebrated. 
Puvis also decorated the Museum of Amiens, letting weeping women 
and a few horsemen tell the story usually represented by classical 
figures of the Genius of War and his cohorts. 

For the Lyons Museum he made "The Grove Sacred to the Arts 
and Muses," "Vision of Antiquity" and "Christian Inspiration"; for 
Rouen, "Inter Artes et Naturum"; for the Sorbonne, Paris, subjects 
relating to education. 

His family was of old Burgundian stock; his father was an 


engineer, and to his profession the future artist was brought up. His 
early training was in the atelier Couture, where drawing was taught of 
course, but the method of painting received more attention. This 
method he speedily abandoned, as did nearly all his fellow students. 
As a draughtsman he never came up to the standards of those classi- 
cists who considered correct classical line as next to godliness; that is, 
next before it. It is a wonderful thing to find an original genius, or, 
more properly, all geniuses are original and they are few and won- 

Principal Work: Historic Decorations in the Pantheon, Sorbonne, and H6tel 
de Ville, Paris, and in the museums at Amiens and Lyons; Nine Panels in Public 
Library (Boston). 

Auguste Bonheur (1824-1884, French, the brother of Rosa) painted 
domestic animals, but never with originality or force. 

William M. Hunt (1824-1874, American, born in New England) 
was one who saw early the greatness of Millet and did much to pro- 
mote his welfare. Returning to Boston, he made figure and landscape 
pictures in the manner of the great Frenchman and had an immense 
influence upon the youth of America. His was a suicide's end. 

Principal Works: Mural Allegorical Decoration in the Capitol of the State of 
New York ; The Diver, The Farmer's Return, The Fortune Teller, The Drummer 
Boy, The Bugle Call, and many portraits. 

Josef Israels (1824-, Dutch) is the most remarkable character in 
the line of the new Dutch artists. Having obtained some knowledge 
of his technique, he went to Paris to the studio of Delaroche (where 
Millet studied) and then returned to Holland to paint historical pic- 
tures in the style of his master. Going to a Dutch fishing village (very 
much as Millet went to Barbizon) he sympathized with the life about him 
and struck, an original line of motives which has made its impression 
on the art of Holland. Beginning in the academical manner, he soon 
created a style of his own — rich tone but few positive colors, mystery, 
tenderness of sentiment and treatment, pathetic feeling for the sad 
life about him, masterful ability to. tell his story without disturbing 

Josef Israels — :The Little Seamstress. 


the spectator with useless attention to pretty texture-painting-. He is 
the father o£ the present art of Holland. It can not be said that any 
one man creates a revolution, though there are those who stand as 
known leaders. Israels and Puvis, each in his own country, more than 
others opened the eyes of picture lovers to the fact that elaborate 
finish and over attention to details militate seriously against the 
expression of sentiment. What I have said regarding Gerome and 
the loss of greater expression, through the insistence upon the elabora- 
tion of cravats and shoe heels, should be kept in mind when studying 
the pictures of Israels and Puvis. Neither of these men in bestowing 
less attention to drawing has offended the majority of mankind 
because of slovenly delineation of the human figure. Quite possibly 
they have offended the classicists, as Titian offended Michael Angelo. 
In place of wonderfully drawn lines and abundant details they have 
given us their higher sentiments so unhampered that the observer could 
think of nothing else. In Gerome's pictures we think of the pretty 
painting first and then seek for the human or the poetic elements after 
having satisfied our thirst for fine workmanship. 

In Israels' picture "Alone in the World," the handling is rude 
and there are no details at all — nothing but that one thought of the 
old man who sits in the mysterious gloom of his forlorn cottage and 
slowly realizes the truth that he has lost his one faithful friend, his 
wife, and that all the sweetness has gone out of life. Why need the 
handling be rude? That sort of brushing produces the effect of 
mystery and forbids attention to the prettiness of the painted surface. 
The handling should not be so rough as to call attention to its affecta- 
tion of rudeness, as that would defeat the object in view. Probably 
Israels managed his paint just about right. In France the Barbizon 
School did its part in landscape painting, and Puvis worked in the 
same direction in mural painting. Israels and Puvis were born the 
same year. 

Principal Works: William of Orange Defying the Decrees of the King of 
Spain, Village Scene, Preparation for the Future, Walk Along Cemetery, Children 
of the Sea, Age and Infancy, Anxious Family, Alone in the World. 


Charles Chaplin (1825-, French) reveals feminine charm in a most 
delightfully elegant way, with exquisite color and arrangement. 

Charles de Groux (1825-1870, Belgian) did more than any other to 
bring the people of his country to an appreciation of the worth of 
literalism artistically manipulated, and break down the enslavement of 
conventionality. Humble people in their wretchedness, the poetry of 
sad lives, told with truth, this made his art 

William Adolphe Bouguereau 

{iSej- French.) 

Pupil of Picot; Prix de Rome, 1850; member of Institute, 1876. 
Both Bouguereau and Cabanel have often been elected president of 
the Salon and had extended influence. It will be thus for generations 
doubtless, a classicist in power. Bouguereau is another little Raphael, 
possibly one grade higher in the scale of imitators than Cabanel. I 
recall with amusement the remark of one of his students, who had 
been enthusiastically congratulated upon his opportunity to be near 
such an important man: "Yes, it is good to be well launched, but I 
am distressingly tired of all that wax." Just here is to be found 
Bouguereau' s weak point. His pictures are collections of pink wax 
figures. Had he real greatness, this would matter little, but with few 
exceptions, greatness fails him. 

The "Vierge Consolatrice" is impressive, decorative in a refined 
way, and comes very near to greatness. It was painted on the occa- 
sion of the death of his infant child and represents the sorrowing Vir- 
gin consoling a kneeling mother, while the naked infant, in an 
attitude plainly suggesting lifelessness, lies prone on the pavement at 
the foot of the group. In color, the entire work is refined to paleness, 
almost robbing the corpse of its appropriate whiteness. All the flesh- 
painting suggests wax. 

Bouguereau is never by any chance the victim of accidental enthu- 
siasm. Every touch is studied and laid with sureness. The joke used 
to go around, that if he stopped to blow his nose, it cost him twenty 
francs, so precious was each fore-ordained instant. Beginning in the 



morning at the appointed moment, he lays in a part (well learned as 
to amount that may be undertaken with safety) working swiftly and 
frankly. This accomplished, his lunch occupies an exact measure of 
time, after which the brushes are again applied to the "licking 
together" of the now sticky paint. On the morrow he knows exactly 
how to join this part to another then taken in hand. Nothing may be 
altered, for fear of disastrous effects upon the pink wax. Of course 
this is a studio yarn, but probably not much exaggerated. It was in 
1879 that the "Birth of Venus'' (Luxembourg) appeared in the Salon — 
Venus standing on the sea, an attendant group of nymphs and tritons 
with cherubs posed about the principal figure. It was no light matter 
to unite in one atmosphere so many life-sized nudes. The shocking 
rumor circulated in the studios and cafes that Bouguereau had caught 
himself in a false harmony and actually had glazed one of his figures 
to the proper tone. Horrible thought! On varnishing day, we all 
ran to see the iniquity, and found no difficulty in identifying the sin- 
ning figure. More than anything else, this illustrates the man who 
never can feel the joy of exaltation. Tasteless good taste is his sin, 
wonderful accuracy in drawing his glory. Study in the atelier of 
Picot connected him directly with David's influence and more work in 
the Ecole des Beaux Arts did not decrease the tendency toward clas- 
sicism, which became absolute during his stay in Italy when he 
became a "Prix de Rome" (to use the studio phrase). 

Besides his purely academical compositions, he has sent all over 
the world (especially to America where nudes have until recently been 
in disfavor) a great number of peasant-girl subjects. More wax, the 
clothes colored somewhat like the rude garments of the children of the 
cottager. They were made to sell; made for polite folk who did not 
relish the presence of his nude nymphs. These are about as sincere 
as the society smile with which they were intended to associate. In 
them he confines the nude flesh to the innocuous babes too young to 
wear clothes, which the artificial girls carried about for ladies to 
look at. 

One of his best pictures is "The Satyr and Nymphs," which for 


many years hung in the Hoffman House in New York. It represents 
a well-rendered woodland dell where several nymphs struggle to drag 
a satyr into a pool. They grasp at arms, ears and hair, shouting in 
glee and assuming superb attitudes. In tones of flesh it excells his 
other works. Cabanel never equalled this picture in all his painting. 
Principal Works: Body of St. Cecilia Brought into the Catacombs.'La Vierge 
Consolatrice (Luxembourg) ; The Angel of Death, The Saytr and Nymphs. 

Adolphe MonticelH (1824-1886, French) was a native of the south- 
east of France and, like all sons of Provence, intensely poetic. His 
was the sense of rhythm, pure and simple, not that of insight which 
leads to analysis of humanity. The ability to create harmony in 
sounds is a portion of the poet's gift, but by no means all that we have 
a right to demand. Harmony of lines and exquisite blendings of 
sparkling colors are a part of the painter's mission, and these are 
indications of a genius sufficiently rare in the world, but they are not 
all. As far as he attempted to go, MonticelH was an artist. In early 
life, his line work rhymed with Raphael. Later, the influence of Dela- 
croix caused him to abandon the search for rhythmic lines and to load 
on colors until they alone claimed attention. He felt much, but never 
thought profoundly. 

George Fuller (1822- 1884, American) was an artist not altogether 
unlike MonticelH, in that feeling rather than science predominated. 
Having but a limited capacity for drawing, he gave himself up to 
expression by means of color. Fuller was poetic, but went little 
beyond the grade of refined versification. Many rustic figures and 
portraits of personages came from his easel, but painted for the sake 
of rhythm in color or line — being very badly drawn, as art students 
judge drawing. In a landscape or a face he saw only the suggestion 
of form, enough to cary his poetic scheme of color. 

George Inness (1825- 1874, American) stands high in esteem as one 
who paid no attention to external materiality, but sought to cause us 
to dream of the rich beauties of landscape. A peculiar temperament 
separated him from other Americans and from his numerous imitators. 


In the mid-sixties, Inness was a spare man with thin face and very 
sharp eyes, his remarkable brows overhung by quantities of dark hair. 
The Hudson River School was then in full favor in New York, giving 
the people faithful representations of scenery but little affected with 
the impression of light on the surface of things or the painting of 
masses of forms for their own sake or the greater poetic aspects of 
nature's suggestiveness. Inness had already been abroad and fallen 
under the influence of the Barbizon group. He is the first one of our 
landscape painters to feel this influence. The others knew absolutely 
nothing about it. I often heard them say that Inness was a really 
talented man who had gone wrong in allowing himself to be led astray 
,by those Frenchmen. The Hudson River men had a great contempt 
for anything French, largely because they knew nothing about it. 
Inness was greatly impressed by the beauty of the immensity of out- 
doors, its vastness of extent rather than the details which composed it. 
It was almost a forlorn hope, but there were art lovers who believed in 
him and in the doctrines which he maintained. The effect of the 
French school was already making the older American painters trem- 
ble for their position, and very soon the young men commenced to 
return from serious study abroad, and the merry war between the old 
and the new began. 

Poets were scarce among American landscapists, and Inness was a 
poet, seeking to render the essence of landscape rather than its exte- 
rior aspects. It is needless to say that he won, that his position at the 
time of his death left his early detractors far below, and that his was 
the coming and the better art. 

Principal Works: Joy After the Storm, Twilight, The Afterglow, Spring, 
Day in June, Sunset ; Gray Lowery Day, Pompton, N. J. ; Winter Morning, Envi- 
rons of Montclair ; Sunburst, Greene County ; Sunset, Montclair, N. J. ; Twilight, 
Medfield, Mass. 



In France, Van Marcke, Baudry, Dore do their popular work and 
are followed by the impressionists with Manet. Rossetti, Burne- 
Jones and Millais form the Preraphaelite Brotherhood in England. 
Germany presents three widely-known men, Kaulbach, Boecklin and 
Knaus. America still produces the Hudson River School men, 
Church, Bierstadt and McEntee. Italy comes out of the darkness, as 
Morelli is born. 

Frederick Edwin Church 

(iSsd-igoo. American.) 

That "old saw" about the prophet and his own country is by no 
means true in all cases. This Connecticut Yankee never visited 
Europe and boasted lustily of the fact, and that his art was purely 
American. Never was artist more popular. Considering the period 
in which he lived, his financial success rivals that of Alma Tadema 
and the late Sir John Everett Millais. A pupil of Cole, he abandoned 
his master's allegory, caught the popular spirit, understood the love 
of wonderful pictures, of scenes from strange and marvelous countries, 
the effect of bright colors and superabundant minutiae of forms on 
minds hungry for art but uneducated in art matters. His facts were 
stated with a positivism which admitted of no discussion as to his 

Immediate success brought him the means to visit what lands he 
liked in search of scenery, so that in 1853 he traveled to South Amer- 
ica, going to a point where he could see the Andes Mountains in all 
their grandeur. His most famous picture, "The Heart of the Andes" 
(owned by Mr. David Dows, of New York), was the result of this 
visit, and its success was a matter for wonder. It was a composition 












of several views. Through the packed masses of tropical verdure he 
opened a way for the eye to enter by introducing a little stream bor- 
dered by carefully studied tree trunks and all manner of vegetable 
growth that his ingenuity could find a place for. Over this forest the 
eye wandered to peak on peak of far-off mountains losing themselves 
in the sky far up in the heavens. It was an insufferably hard paint- 
ing as to textures, and still talent maintained her place in it. 

In Mexico he secured the studies for his "Cotopaxi," and all the 
people ran to see what a volcano really was like. In the Corcoran 
Art Gallery, Washington, every visitor may study his "Niagara," the 
most popular rendering of that much-painted phenomenon. The fore 
part of this is a wide sweep of disturbed water, every wavelet drawn 
with absolute hardness and correctness and very metallic in texture. 
This ends in the edge of the nearer fall and the eye gains the face of 
the cascade beyond. From the edge of the fall rises a great toss of 
spray. Not satisfied with drawing this mighty wisp of water in correct 
shape, he packed its surface with numberless tiny dots of the particles 
of water. And so the people wondered! And so we all wonder that 
a picture so painted can still be effective and even impressive. Once 
upon a time, his artistic sense got the better of his theories. He 
astonished people by painting a swiftly-moving horse and buggy, the 
wheels glistening in the dust of the road. It was worthy of a French 
realist, and upset the ideas of people who imagined "picture" and 
"scenery" to be synonymous words. All these painters tried to out- 
Claude their great exemplar in placing the sun in the heavens. It was 
said of Church that his suns blinded the eyes. I used to hear heated 
discussions as to whether the sun should be represented by a pure 
white button of paint or a yellowish button. Of course the white was 
lighter but the yellowish gave greater glow. Weighty question! 
They all astonished the country visitors with their suns, and some 
city ones too. If those men had been better educated this would 
have been a great art period. Church ceased to paint before his style 
had become obsolete, which is more than can be said of Bierstadt. 

Principal W(frks: Niagara (Washington) ; Cotopaxi, Heart of the Andes. 


Domenico Morelli (1826-, Italian) shows us again life in Italian 
art. Best known is his strikingly original "Temptation of St. 
Anthony," in which the poor man is having a hard time, sitting in a 
hovel of despair because he cannot escape temptation. From under 
the matting which forms his bed, bulging from the wall and concealed 
in every corner, he sees seductive faces smiling at him. Superb touch 
and exquisite coloring do not make this the equal of the old masters, 
but it is wonderfully clever. 

Carl von Piloty (1826-1886, German) followed Kaulbach at Munich 
and made an extensive impression upon pupils from many lands. His 
drawing was fine and arrangement rather artificial according to the 
rules, but there was a certain nobility in the pictures, especially in his 
"Seni before the Corpse of Wallenstein." The picture commonly 
known as "The Triumph of Germanicus" shows us the victor seated 
upon a throne while the captives march past; the principal figure, 
Thusnelda, a superb German woman with noble bearing, occupying 
the center of interest. In the corner lie bound captives and with them 
a picturesque pile of trophies. All the main portion of the canvas is 
kept in cool light, but beyond in the background a blast of golden 
light envelopes everything, forming the pictorial contrast of colors. 
The entire arrangement is an imitation, almost a copy, of the operatic 
stage, lighting and all. There is an artificial theatrical arrangement 
of the grouping and the posturing is the same. This is Piloty's weak- 
est point, indicating a lack of originality and real artistic sincerity. 
His finish resembles that of Ger&me. 

Principal Works: Triumph of Germanicus, Nero Walking among the Ruins 
of Rome, Mary Queen of Scots Receiving Her Sentence, The Death of Wallenstein, 
Galileo in Prison. 

Hoeckert (1826-1866, Swedish) opened to Swedish art the render- 
ing of native life without anecdote more than natural events. He 
wisely avoided the temptation to paint history. 

Arnold Boecklin (1827-1866, German), a painter of many dainty 
conceits, the subjects sometimes drawn from mythology and some- 


times entirely original, made a great impression upon the German 
public. He was a powerful colorist, going to the depths of his 
palette, loving profound darks but always set off with a due allowance 
of light. It would be almost safe to call him a landscape painter, so 
important was this feature. But the scenes were rather fanciful than 
literal, though always based on a true interpretation of nature. Mass- 
ive cliffs, castle-crowned, beside waters of the ocean; fanciful castles 
hidden away amid groves of trees and near by the mythical person- 
ages supposed to inhabit the retreat; beautiful spring meadows with 
flowers in bloom and over the green herbage a swarm of doves flutter- 
ing. His skies were painted in full note, perhaps an expanse of fleecy 
clouds with peepings of the pure blue between. A pair of mermaids, 
in peculiar colors, sport with the gorgeously-arrayed sea serpent on 
the rocks by the bluest and most attractive of seas. There was the 
note of originality in all this which marks a strange and rare charac- 
ter. With all his fancies, he never departed from the probability as 
to literal truth. In no way was he a classicist. In fact, the entire 
doctrine of artificial reserve as taught by the classicists, was opposed 
to Boecklin's character. He was a literalist of high order, who 
wrought poetical ideas into his realism. 

Emile Van Marcke (1827-1890, French), an imitator of Troyon, 
but a fine tonal painter. His cows are exactly like those invented by 
his master and he has but three or four of them. Frans Verhas 
(1827-) and Jan Verhas (1834-), Belgian, show the progress of art in 
their country and the abandonment of the old conventionalisms, 
painting children with simple incident in excellent gray colors. 

Jules Breton (1827-, French), is a painter of peasants in processions 
of a religious nature and other matters, naturalistic though with fine 
style. Style is the most notable element in the painting of Breton, as 
it is in the painting of Piloty. Style is an artificiality, supposedly a 
valuable element in any art. Of course the value of this artificiality, 
with each critic, depends upon the taste and point of view. The 
over-operatic dramatics of Piloty are an offense to some. Breton is 


certainly quieter and more dignified. He is much nearer the exact 
attitudes of nature and his efforts to secure style are subtle and refined, 
which Piloty's were not. 

The large picture in the Luxembourg, "Blessing the Harvest," is 
seemingly a reproduction of the exact appearance of the peasants in 
procession through the ripening wheat-fields, the village priest and 
his attendants, the kneeling spectators and the surrounding landscape 
just as they are in nature. Still there is that something we call 
"style" permeating all of it. He has painted many effects of the 
early evening with harvesters returning from the fields; each picture 
bathed in the subdued and rich color of the twilight. 

Single figures of peasants, natural while each is a goddess — these 
are manifestations of his sense of style. His "Song of the Lark" 
(Art Institute of Chicago) shows a single figure. She is rude but 
dignified, and marches like a Greek statue as with head erect she listens 
to the skylark, herself a ponderous but elastic bird. This is a high 
order of art. 

Principal Works: Song of the Skylark (Art Institute, Chicago) ; Blessing the 
Harvest, Last Sunbeam, Les Glaneuses, The Pardon. 

Adolf Schreyer (1828-, German) was a pupil of the art school in 
his native town, Frankfort. Though his constant success has tended 
to make him careless in picture-making, some of the representations 
of Arab horsemen and wild horses in exciting conditions have been 
remarkable. In subject he is inclined toward too much melodramatic 
action, but he has an unusual command of grave, rich tone. 

Principal Works: Artillery Attacked by Prussian Hussars, Battle Near Wag- 
hausel, Cossack Horses, Charge of Artillery, Cuirassiers' Attack, Lunisian Cavalry, 
Arabs Resting, Arabs Retreating, Watering Place, Wallachian Teamsters, Danger, 
Arabs on the March, Arab Scout. The last seven and a number of others are in the 
United States. 

Albert Bierstadt 

(iS28-igo2. American.) 
Diisseldorf was full of reminiscences of Bierstadt thirty years ago. 
Up on the hill, perhaps two miles away, may be seen the little village 


of Solingen, where knives are made and marked as genuine "Shef- 
field" for the American market, and there the painter saw the light. 
Diisseldorf was nearly all art academy in those days and its inhabit- 
ants rented lodgings to art students. The boy Albert was taken to 
America, but in the course of time he returned to become an art stu- 
dent in the city near his birthplace. Judging by the anecdotes, he was 
too far along in his painting to enter the academy as a beginner, and 
thus failed of the severe drill which would have been good for him. 

If his touch had been firmer and his knowledge of form more sure, 
Bierstadt might have maintained himself until now. On the other 
hand, his prosperity turned to his downfall because the enormous 
prices given him startled the public into alertness, which revealed to 
it that there was greater art to be had for less money. It was the sale 
of the "Domes of the Yosemite, " for ^35,000, at that time an unheard- 
of figure, which marked the beginning of the end. 

The young men of America were forming the habit of serious study 
in Europe and after some years they began to return with a better-sus- 
tained manner of working, because they actually studied instead of 
looking about aimlessly. Church had already ceased to exhibit, and 
it had been better for Bierstadt had he followed his example. The 
public relegated him to obscurity. Perhaps another development 
hastened his decline — the importation of much European art by the 
picture dealers. This was not all excellent, but some of it was of the best. 

Not satisfied with scenery in the mountains of the Atlantic coast, 
and knowing well his patrons' tastes, Bierstadt accompanied General 
Lander to the Rocky Mountains on an exploring expedition. With 
the studies then gathered he painted, in 1863, the large "Lander's 
Peak" (six by ten feet) and exhibited it in many of the cities in the 
eastern states with success. Later came "The Storm in the Rocky 
Mountains," an equally large work. The motive for this was found 
not far from the location of the present city of Georgetown, Col. I 
have been on the spot and know well how much he idealized the 
locality. His picture was geologically an impossibility. People dis- 
covered this, and resented the liberties he had taken with nature, so 


much so that scandal said that "his faith was of the kind which moved 
mountains." His last huge canvas was the "Domes of the Yosemite," 
a weak work considering its size, the foreground overloaded with min- 
ute details to the injury of the feeling of immensity in the lofty cliffs. 
Still, the critics spoke in warm praise of his "sincerity" in the fore- 
ground manipulation. 

While Bierstadt was in Europe (1853-7) Millet and Rousseau were 
building up the fame of the Barbizon School; but the German-Ameri- 
can did not know anything about that. However, the Boston artist, 
Wm. M. Hunt, left Diisseldorf and went to Barbizon to study with 
Millet just at this time, and such men as he pulled Bierstadt from his 
high pedestial. Turner died the year before Bierstadt went to study 
in Diisseldorf, and this was the period of the growth of Preraphaeli- 
tism. In Diisseldorf the strongest influence in landscape was Andreas 
Achenbach, and Lessing was also something of a power. Bierstadt 
came in direct contact with these men. 

Principal Works : Rocky Mountains, Lander's Peak ; Valley of the Yosemite ; 
Emerald Pool ; Mt. Whitney ; Mt. Corcoran, Sierra Nevada (Corcoran Gallery, 
AVashington) ; Discovery of Hudson River (Capitol at Washington). 

Jervis McEntee (1828-1891, American) was far more advanced in 
technical ability and knowledge of color management than the others 
of his school. He felt the beauty and poetry of late autumn bet- 
ter than the others. He was the first to dwell on the tender effects of 
that moment when trees are nearly naked but some rich colors still 
cling to the picturesque branches. In "1866, when the American pic- 
tures which had been exhibited in the exposition at Paris came home, 
they were placed on view at the Academy in New York, and one by 
McEntee attracted special attention. Beneath it were the words: 
"The melancholy days have come. 
The saddest of the year. 
Of wailing winds, and naked woods, 
And meadows brown and sere." 
It was then the fashion to label paintings with verses — an appeal to 
the world which still saw only literature in pictures. We owe the 

RossETTi — The Blessed Damosel. 


escape from this habit to the French, who considered the art of pic- 
ture-making as superior to the art of poetry. 

Another of McEntee's pictures showed a mountain (Catskills) not 
very far off, the head capped by a heavy white cloud, superbly ren- 
dered, while all the land, with its tangle of naked brush and young 
trees, suggested the coming of an early snow flurry. This effect, 
which has been so much studied of late was then quite new, and these 
pictures manifested originality and artistic feeling, as well as force of 
execution. While painting with a forceful brush, McEntee under- 
stood the art of subordination of details to general effect. 

Principal Works: Old Mill in Winter, Autumn Day, Woodpath, Winter in the 
Mountains, Edge of the Wood, Valley of the Humboldt, Shadows of Autumn, Winter 

Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882, English) was a strange man. 
It is more correct to denominate him "strange" than original. It 
is difficult to find in him strength of character and certainly physical 
strength did not exist. The Italian blood inherited from his father 
must be taken into account. The Italians of the nineteenth century 
were spirited, intellectual, poetical, tender, but not especially inventive 
or strong in character. Rossetti invented nothing but a woman with 
a long neck, which may or may not be beautiful. All artists dream of 
making themselves original. Those who have the divine flame upon 
their foreheads make a success of their attempts at originality, and 
their number is few. Rossetti dreamed in his turn of being original. 
English art was in a pretty deep sleep, and he fancied that h^ could 
awaken it. The way to do that was to make a success in an entirely 
new style of painting. Rossetti was not the man to invent a new 
style, but he could imitate a long-lost one, giving it some new flavors. 
Perhaps this was enough originality. But Turner and Constable were 
really original, Menzel is very original, so were Monet and Leonardo 
da Vinci. These men were original without searching for it as Ros- 
setti searched. They were so from unconscious originality of charac- 
ter; Rossetti from intention and with conscious forethought. It may 


sound very Irish, but I think the only originality about Rossetti was 
his strangeness. That was original because he could not help being 
strange. His character was an unhealthy contrast to the Englishmen 
of full blood about him. The English have always been susceptible 
to the influence of these strange individuals, just as we are. We all 
love to be mystified and this man was mysterious. 

He came just as the English people were ripe for something, no 
matter what, so long as it was different. The country was tired of its 
lifeless art. Any new thing was welcomed as soon as they found out 
that it promised to be respectable, and also was sufficiently extreme to 
prove attractive. Millet of Barbizon was purely sincere, but Rossetti 
was only half way sincere. He was sincere in his dislike of the story- 
telling art of England and sincere in his disgust with the classical 
prettiness of much French art. He loved the quaintness and purity 
of the pictures by Botticelli and Lippi; so he determined to imitate 
them. It was imitation pure and simple, scarcely a spark of orig- 
inality in it. He was actuated by no unconscious mentality, by some- 
thing which he could no more help than a fish can help swimming. 
The style of Lippi and Botticelli was adopted because it was the best 
thing he could think of and because he liked its quaint directness. 
His Italian feeling for sensuous beauty saved him from failure with 
the public. One of the strangenesses of Rossetti was his habit of 
saying and doing things that nobody understood clearly. Nothing 
catches the bluff, practical Englishman so much as a suggestion of 
deep thought only half expressed, and we are made in the same way. 
We turn eagerly from the dry hardness of life to anything which has a 
flavor of the spirit land, even when it means nothing well defined to 
us. It is because we cannot explain it that we love its sensationalism. 

The good which came from Preraphaelitism is found in the 
renewed attention to those beautiful old pictures which the world had 
overlooked so many years, and the taste for the quaint which has 
entered into our decorations, our artistic utensils and furniture. All 
our furnishings were in confusion; senseless copies of styles little 
understood by the makers. The public was indifferent to the sort of 

RossETTi — Beata Beatrix. 


decoration the professionals gave it and the whole thing was as stupid 
as the life of a lord. Following the new movement, after it had 
ceased to be a practiced manner of picture-making, came a long line 
of art-workers in every kind of decorative article, all in the sentiment 
of the long-ago. Finally this became original design, so that at this 
day we see some superb designs, not copies, but affected by the study 
of old fashions. Even if some of this is bad, much of it is excellent. 
William Morris would have had no opportunity but for the movement 
of the Preraphaelite Brotherhood. 

One of the amusing circumstances connected with this develop- 
ment of art was the appeal to the brutal feeling for honest truth which 
the English people cherish as their most sacred birthright. It is an 
element of character to be admired, cherished, and counted upon in 
those emergencies in life which try men's souls. But holy as is this 
quality, it leads to amusing results when an art question is under dis- 
cussion. Only a limited number of the British "know themselves in 
art" — they wish to be told what to admire. The art which really 
appeals to them tells a pretty story, or a mystical one. But as Rus- 
kin had to convince the British public that Turner really was truthful 
before they would have anything to do with him, so when Rossetti 
had convinced them that the art of the Preraphaelites was something 
more truthful than any other, everything was smooth sailing. The 
public was captivated with the idea that at last there was "truth" in 
art, something until then doubted. This uprising of a sincere people 
to acclaim these heroes of sincerity was amusing. As if the dry truth 
could ever be great art! All art is simply art, something made to 
create an impression, awaken feeling, existing for the sake of 
expressing emotion, and not as a literal statement of facts. Those 
men went into the fields determined to capture every detail of nature 
and record its qualities as if they were topographical engineers or 
botanists. The elements of broad statement, largeness of sensation, 
suggestiveness and fine line were ignored. The strained effort which 
they made never entered into the calculations of the painters previous 
to Raphael. Those primitives painted as they did because that was 


all that they knew how to produce, not from any notions about the 
morality of truth-telling. They were sincere men who saw no more 
than a few plain facts, which they used as adjuncts to their sensational 
madonnas. The later Preraphaelites went to nature year after year, at 
the same season, in the same weather, in order to set down the facts 
just as they existed, nothing omitted or slighted. Of course they 
secured only hardness, dryness and stupid materiality. This could 
have no other result than the one which eventuated — a tired public 
and deserters from this sacred "Brotherhood." 

Rossetti imitated Diirer without his nobility and Botticelli with 
the charm of that really honest painter omitted. I am not accusing 
these men of the "Brotherhood" of dishonesty. Their intentions 
were serious and they really thought themselves apostles of better 
things. All honor to them — mistaken partiots in art. 

Anyone can paint pictures, if he have an all-round talent. Cer- 
tain men are born for no other purpose, are preeminently artists first 
and always. What is an art education? Special training, which 
occasionally injures a genius, but more often develops his abilities. 
In educating an artist, the first essential is to allow him to draw forms, 
preferably the human figure, under the disciplining influence of some 
one who will insist upon absolute accuracy, force of expression, 
grace, the peculiar effect of one line on another and the "construc- 
tion" of things, especially of the human head and figure. "Construc- 
tion" means more than simply a knowledge of anatomy. It means 
something about solids and their relations to each other; a matter 
hard to explain to one not an artist. It is difficult of attainment, very 
difficult. Education also means a knowledge of the relations of colors 
and how to use them with proper force, and this is also a long study. 
Pigments are curious materials. One artist can do strange things with 
them which another utterly fails to comprehend, and of course can- 
not imitate at all. 

Of all these matters Rossetti showed himself strangely ignorant. 
Yet no one knows about it who lacks training. Though rather weak 
and uneducadet in art, Rossetti attacked the most difficult problems 




while utterly unprepared to cope with them. All that he brought to 
the task was good intentions and poetic feeling. Of these there was 
an abundance, and these saved the art from utter negativeness. The 
man behind the brush was a poet, and that made a difference. 

His best picture is the "Beata Beatrix," in the National Gallery, 
London. Beatrix is a-dying; she sits on a balcony (overlooking the 
valley of the Arno, bathed in golden light) and the body suggests 
well the languid relaxation of the coming end. Into the relaxing 
hands a rose-colored dove, halo-crowned, drops the emblematic poppy. 
In the background, Dante and a female figure are seen, one passing 
away, one following — the echoed suggestion of the feelings of a lover 
about to lose his loved one and moved to attempt to follow into the 
other world. 

Bad as is this picture from the point of view of the artist of any 
serious training, it carries a certain power from suggestiveness alone. 
Fortunately, the drawing is no worse than weak and the color is 
inoffensive, which is more than can be said of much of his work. 

Principal Works: Annunciation, Beata Beatrix (London); Dante's Vision 
(Liverpool); Girlhood of the Virgin, Proserpina, The Blessed Damosel, Sibylle 
Palmifer, Vision o£ Fiammetta, Found, Ecce Ancilla Domini, Lady Lilith, La Pia. 

Paul Baudry (1828-1886, French) painted the decorations in the 
famous Paris opera house in a style which has commanded admiration 
for its pure classicism. 

Principal Work: The Wave and the Pearl (New York). 

Alfred Stevens (1828-), said to be a Belgian but always living in 
Paris and more French than the natives, touches his interiors with the 
personality of handsome modern women with marvelous cleverness. 
Stevens was one of the first to reveal the influence of Japanese art 
upon European painting. His figures of beautiful women were nat- 
ural though drawn with a fine style. What style is in literature is 
hard to describe and what it is in art still more difificult of definition. 
But this art had style, a certain noble something which differentiated 
it. All his forms were broadly rendered, never cut up for the sake of 


useless details. This he acquired from the study of the fine old 
Japanese pictures and prints. Also, his color was reserved and 
reduced to that refined play of quiet tones found in the finest of the 
old Japanese masters. We do not see it usually in the cheaper prints 
which, unfortunately too often confront us. The art of Japan which 
has influenced such men as Stevens and Whistler is found only in 
museums and private collections. 

Principal Works: Masquerade on Ash Wednesday (Marseilles) ; Consolation 
(Berlin); Lady in Pink (Brussels) ; Conversation, By the Shore (New York); At the 
Railway Station (Art Institute, Chicago); The Visit; Innocence; Miss Fauvette. 

Paul E. Gabriel ( 1 828-, Danish) does luminous, spaceful landscapes 
and good ones. Richard Bergh (1828-, Swedish) is a fine figure 
painter. Christoffel Bisschop (1828, Dutch) paints interiors of 
Friesland with simple truth and distinct forms, rendering old furniture 
so that we can examine its decoration easily. 

Ludwig Knaus (1829-, German), for a long time a professor in 
Diisseldorf in its palmy days, but called to Berlin by the emperor, 
was a sincere painter of domestic genre, sweet perhaps but well exe- 
cuted. His "As the Old Sung so Twitter the Young," several tables 
set in the open air, the front one seated about with children beauti- 
fully rendered, will keep his name green for many years. 

Knaus paints in a style quite unlike the modern French — though a 
considerable time was spent in Paris, where he was deservedly well 
thought of — in that his German temperament found its way to influ- 
ence his manner of painting. There is a glassiness and lack of 
solidity in the touch, though no detail is omitted. In the picture 
mentioned, he gives us the texture and makeup of the childrens' 
clothes with a faithfulness quite German. Indeed, his faithfulness 
would not admit of any neglect of minute and unimportant matters. 
It would have been easy for him to conceal the childrens' feet under 
the table, but not one of them is neglected. Every shoe is painted 
with the same care bestowed upon the faces This may or may not 

Knaus — The Holt Family. 


be considered an artistic virtue; but it pleases his patrons, the Ger- 
man public, who worship his name and fame. 

Principal Works: Children's Festival (Berlin); Holy Family, None but the 
Cats (Metropolitan Museum, New York). 

Thomas Hill (1829-, American) is still living in San Francisco. 
With many paintings of the Forest of Fontainebleau, but especially 
California scenes, Hill is nearly the last of the "scenery painters" of 
note. Unlike Bierstadt and Church, whose reputations suffered 
because of a certain scandalous suggestion that they were not truth 
tellers about those marvels in out of the way places, Hill reproduced 
every spot just as it actually appeared. His views of the Yosemite 
Valley were literal transcripts, and certainly he found the material 
quite marvelous enough. He was a bolder brushman than either of 
the others, but less fascinating. However, there was no lack of dol- 
lars to his credit. In his hay-day, the fashion for imported art had 
scarcely taken hold of the public. In these days, no American 
painter commands the prices frequently paid for European pictures. 
In some cases this has been an injustice, but it must be remembered 
that some extraordinary pictures from over the water are housed in 
America and their influence has been the making of our art. 

Anselm Feurbach (1829-1880, German) was a Diisseldorf man who 
tired of the sweetness of that school and went to the studio of 
Couture in Paris, afterward producing a quite noble art, semi-religious, 

Principal Works: Dante with the Women of Ravenna, Iphigenia in Aulic, The 
Banquet of Plato. 

Victor Muller (1829-1871, German), also a student with Couture^ 
found in Victor Hugo and Faust his inspiration, and made cartoons 
from Shakespeare's works. William Lindenschmidt (1829-1895, 
German) was a Munich professor who had an excellent influence by 
painting history and classical subjects in a semi-realistic manner. 
Benjamin Vautier (1829-1898, Swiss) rivaled Knaus at Diisseldorf, but 


was not as beautiful a painter of genre, though much sought after. 
Jean Jacques Henner (1829-, French) is a Prix de Rome man who 
has given to the world numberless nude nymphs with red hair set in a 
deep-toned landscape of enamel colors. Cool flesh and entire inno- 
cence of sensualism make his art delightful though not great. Paul 
Dubois, the father of the noble line of French sculptors, was born in 
this year. 

Principal Works: Fabiola, Idyl, Naiad, Good Samaritan, Cha.ste Susanna 
(Luxembourg); Biblis, Madeleine, Andromeda. 

Sir John Everett Millais (1829-1896, English) began in the Pre- 
raphaelite movement, but was not one of the sincere advocates of its 
principles. He soon painted in a larger manner, though still pretty 
careful of the details. Later in life his brushwork was large and bold. 
As a portrait painter, he had magnificent success and commanded 
enormous prices. Many anecdotic pictures came from his easel. 
The English loved him, as he was a fine specimen of the nationality. 
At the time of his death he w;as president of the Royal Academy. 

Millais' "Chill October" is a careful rendering of one of those 
commonplace subjects which many artists overlook, only some grassy 
foreground with the land broken by pools of water and this reaching 
out into the quiet distance. He worked at it in the chill weather at 
the spot where it existed as an actuality, and rendered the spears of grass 
and every detail of foliage with the conscience of a true Preraphaelite. 
There is, however, a sincere rendering of nature, as he had already 
commenced to draw away from the needless artificialities of that 
school. Possibly a colored photograph would have answered the pur- 
pose equally well, however. One of his most popular pictures, 
"A Flood", shows us the country in time of inundation, the wildness 
of the overflowing waters well rendered and in the principal plan a 
cradle bearing safely its crowing occupant — an unguided bark, except 
as Providence guides the helpless. 

Principal Works: Christ in the Home of His Parents, The Huguenot Lovers, 
Boy Princes in the Tower, Chill October, Over the Hills and Far Away, Yes or No, 

J. E. MiLLAis — Effie Deane. 


Portrait of Gladstone, The Ornithologist, Mercy, Pizarro Seizing the Inca of Peru, 
Grandfather and Child, Mariana in the Moated Grange, Ophelia, A Flood, Hearts 
are Trumps, Northwest Passage, Stitch — Stitch — Stitch. 

H. S. Marks (1829-, English) is a satirist in a way. 

Sir Frederick Leighton (1830-1896, English) was the most notable 
president of the Royal Academy in recent times. Though a man of 
remarkable education and polished manners, he was not a strong 
character. The president should be such an one. Geniuses of great 
individuality have no place in the office. His drawing was elegant and 
correct, but not at all strong. Carefully treated color did not make 
him a great colorist. As the English are impressed with classical art, 
he invented a somewhat original style of classics. Smooth painting is 
popular and elegance commands large prices, as Leighton's pictures 
did. His home was a palace with its furnishings and fittings of his 
own designing, and the best work of art from his talent. He will 
not be ranked among the great artists of the world. Such frozen 
elegance never is. 

Principal Works Cimabue's Madonna Carried in Triumph through Florence 
(Bought by the Queen in 1855); The Odalisque, Michael Angelo with His Dying 
Servant, Perseus and Andromeda, Rizpah, Garden of the Hesperides, Persephone, 
Bath of Psyche. 

Louis Dubois (1830-1880, Belgian) painted nude women about as 
refined as those of Courbet, whose influence moved him. Hendrik 
Willem Mesdag (1831-, Dutch) stands at the head of powerful marine 
painters. Like all his countrymen, he is moved by the serious moods 
of nature, loving the stern aspects of the sea, which his vigorous touch 
renders naturally and with extraordinary sense of the weight of the 
waters. Until forty years of age, he followed the business of banking 
and accumulated wealth. Henry Moore (183 1-, English) follows sea 
painting, but otherwise than the Hollander just mentioned. His pic- 
tures are pretty true but mannered and not very strong. 

Principal Works of Mesdaj';: Strand near Scheveningen (Amsterdam) ; Sunrise 
on Dutch Coast (Rotterdam); Fish Market in Groningen; Collision; Looking for 
Anchors After Storm, North Sea ; Arrived. 


Emile Adelard Breton (1831-, French), a younger brother and 
pupil of Jules Breton, paints deep-toned and dignified landscapes, 
usually winter scenes, rich twilights and gray days, motives selected 
in the villages of his native north country on the coast of France. 
His range is somewhat limited, but his color is so profound and tonal 
that he produces a most poetic effect and has no relationship with the 
pretty technicians about him in the exhibitions. 

Casada del Alisal (1832-1886, Spanish) shows how Spain returned 
to life in art matters, intensely clever in handling but repulsive and 
sensational in motive, quantities of headless corpses, the severed 
heads in view and pools of blood flowing. The Spanish liked the sub- 
ject and the artists liked the workmanship. Johannes Leonardus 
Hubertus Da Haas (1832-1900, Belgian) modeled cattle in paint, as 
it were; one of the strongest brushmen producing these subjects. His 
color though not rich is sufficiently natural, Leon Joseph Florentine 
Bonnat (1833-, French) almost paints sculpture, so vigorously 
modeled are his figures and so strong in light and shade. Also, he 
likes to have them on a midnight background. He draws superbly, 
renders every wrinkle relentlessly but correctly, and gives his figures a 
noble style. Portrait painting has made him famous, but he has pro- 
duced as well numerous religious pictures and decorations. On the 
younger (the present) generation the influence has been extended and 
good. As a colorist he is not entirely agreeable. Amandus Nilson 
(1833-, Norwegian) was brought up in the Diisseldorf School, but 
abandoned its mannerisms when again in his own couritry, painting 
simple barren lands, which became real and pathetic under his brush. 
He did not reproduce the lofty heights and the deeps of the fiords. 
Vassili Perov (1833-1882, Russian) attempted to preach politics (in 
paint) as the times seemed to call for it. 

Principal' Works of Bonnat: Samson Slaying the Lion. 

Gustave Paul Dore (1833-1883, French) created an immense stir 
in England and America, but the French never took him seriously. 
Many have pointed to his honors as proof that he stood high in the 


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L. BoNNAT — Martyrdom of St. Denis. 


estimation of his countrymen, but he did not command many, and 
never the coveted highest distinctions; a matter which ruined his 
happiness and embittered his dying moments. 

No man with the genius of this artist could escape glory and the 
enthusiastic approval of the people, but Dore was not content to 
"stick to his muttons," to produce that which he could do better than 
anyone else had done. His ambition called for glory and, to attain 
it, he attempted great historical and religious pictures, which his lack 
of training and his temp^erament both forbade. As a boy, he was well 
educated, but not in art. When still in his 'teens he happened to go 
to Paris and showed some hastily made drawings to a publisher, who 
at once engaged him at a good salary to do illustrative work. Thus, 
without any serious training, his career was begun and continued with 
great industry until his death. The French always called him "Dor6 
the caricaturist," which hurt his feelings. But it was not a slight, 
for he was a caricaturist. Probably the best work of his life was the 
illustrations of Don Quixote. His illustrations of Dante made an 
impression, but not upon artists. Artists sorrowed to see such good 
ideas so badly executed. He had ideas in abundance, in shoals, in 
floods, his thoughts evolved designs, striking ones, and so rapidly that 
even his remarkable industry could not keep up with them. 

Many salons were adorned, or disgraced, with enormous oil paint- 
ings, chiefly with religious subjects. Artists wondered why he painted 
them. It was to gain the medals and honors which never came; nor 
had he a right to expect them. With color at the best indifferent, 
with drawing that made even the boys in the schools laugh, and with a 
certain strange lack of dignity in his treatment, he could not expect to 
win medals. 

The series of illustrations of life in London is a curious commen- 
tary upon the lack of training. With much effect of bigness in the 
presentation of the city, he does not show a single characterful face, 
not one. He could not use a model and made everything from 
memory. As a consequence, his personages were characterless. But 
his ability to give human expression to animals was boundless, and 


the dramatic element in his illustrations impressed people who were 
not very particular, as better studied work would not have done. 
This was his claim to glory. It brought him great wealth instead. 

"Christ Leaving the Prstorium," seventeen by twenty-three feet, 
is his best religious picture. Had it better technique and better color, 
it would be almost great. The "Neophyte" stands as his best work. 
It is eight by ten feet in size and represents two rows of monks in the 
choir of a church during service. Most of them are brutes, but the 
youngest, an intellectual youth, has just waked up to the appreciation 
of the stupidity of his surroundings. Simple and direct as is this 
story, it borders on caricature, because he has overdone the stupidity 
of the monks to make contrast with the intelligence of the youth. 

A great many of these religious pictures are gathered in London, 
in what is known as the Dor6 Gallery. 

Principal Works: Designs for Don Quixote, The Wandering Jew, Dante's 
Inferno, and Tennyson's Poems; Dante and Virgil in the Frozen Hell, Christ 
Leaving the Prsetorium, The Dream of Pilate's Wife. 

Sir Edward Burne- Jones (1833-1898, English), the follower of 
Rossetti, was educated at Oxford for the church. He did not finish 
his collegiate course because the pictures of Rossetti came under his 
notice, and Holman Hunt's "Light of the World." A meeting with 
Rossetti determined his life work. The latter advised him not to 
study in any art school, fearing the influence of severe classical train- 
ing upon his poetic nature. In the condition of English art schools at 
the time, perhaps this did no harm. For many years, though con- 
tinually producing pictures and decorations, he did such needlessly 
bad things that they had no excuse for existence. During a long expe- 
rience and with much industry his drawing became refined and some- 
times subtle, though never by any means strong or masterful. All that 
has been said of Rossetti' s influence on the British and American pub- 
lic may be said of this artist. His frank imitation of the masters 
previous to Raphael, such as Botticelli or Angelico, gave him means 
to indulge in mysticism and develop his sentiment for decoration. 







His studious and painful elaboration of draperies reminds one of Sir 
Frederick Leighton's work; both of doubtful vitality. It is a forced 
artificiality inclined to weakness, and will not compare for dignity and 
grace with the same work by the best Renaissance artists or by the real 

The array of figures standing on the opposite side of a pool and 
admiring their fair proportions, called "Venus' Mirror," has been 
greatly admired and it certainly has elements of beauty. Regarded 
purely as a decoration it would be unjust to demand greater truthful- 
ness; indeed all decoration has a right to be artificial, as it is an 
arrangement purely for formal space-filling with graceful lines. 

Principal Works: The Venus Mirror, The Golden Stairs, Flamma Vestalis, 
King Cophetua, Briar Rose. 


In the year 1880, in Paris, I had the pleasure of examining one of the 
first exhibitions of the new society calling itsplf "The Impressionists." 
The French, quick to see the ridiculous side of everything, laughed at 
it more heartily than at any new thing for a long time. As none of 
us knew what it meant, or how serious it was to become, as we had no 
idea what we were expected to see, the affair seemed a farciful eccen- 
tricity. We saw only long lines of pale colors, seemingly crude, lack- 
ing in "tone" and that "fatness" to which we had become accustomed 
and which we thought essential to good painting. We did not ask for 
finish, but this daubing was a little too much for our comfort. Of 
course, the first noticeable thing was the purple or violet shadow cast 
by every object in sunlight. The following day, I made a second 
visit, got my eyes accustomed to the glaring effects and went away 
much impressed with the sincerity, and especially the truthfulness of 
many elements previously considered as only eccentricities. Most of 
all, I found out that the sun shone in these landscapes as I had never 
seen it shine on canvas before, and the air seemed to vibrate wonder- 
fully. With apologetic timidity, I approached my master, asking 
him to express himself. Much to my relief and astonishment, he had 


noted the same elements and then and there predicted the coming 
influence of this movement. 

We had been accustomed to see pictures carefully arranged as to 
the placing of objects, so as to produce an agreeable effect upon the 
senses, i e., semi-classical composition. Here, arrangement seemed 
to have been abandoned utterly. It was as if one should put up his 
two hands before his face and paint anything which happened to 
appear between them. It was as if one had looked sharply at a bit of 
nature without any forethought and then turned his back at once and 
painted all that he could remember of it, stopping when his memory 
was exhausted. There were heads half in the canvas, half out of it, 
right in front with all the world beyond hinted at in a wonderful 
manner. Lingering distinctly in my memory are interiors of railway 
stations, all in luminous shadow, with many trains, the smoke reach- 
ing up in curiously but truthfully managed volume — all this in shadow 
and the sun shining brilliantly on the buildings far away at the 
extremity of the train-house opening. Nothing was very plainly 
defined, but the "impression" of sunshine and shadow was magnifi- 
cently rendered. The selection of motives was unheard of — views 
along the bridges across the river Seine, with people walking through 
the smoke and steam thrown across the roadway by a passing steam- 
boat, and that same brilliant sunshine over it all. How they did 
glimmer and how purple the shadows were! At once we began to 
search nature for these truths, and of course we at once found them; 
or, at least, we found hints of their existence. But this manner of 
managing light influenced everyone who worked from nature directly, 
and it eventually permeated the entire output of the art world. Not 
that everyone became an impressionist, but that things were inevi- 
tably changed by this new influence. 

Edouard Manet 

{1833-1883. French.) . 

Manet was a man of serious convictions. He despised the conven- 
tionalities of life, considering them no better than trammels on the 

BtraNE-JoNBS — The Golden Stajb. 


free expression of all that made a man manly. His feeling was that 
no person had the right to encumber himself with fashions and man- 
ners which had become simply useless and harmful embarrassments 
upon his naturalness and the spontaneous giving out of his valuable 
ideas. I have never heard that he made a bad use of this liberty; he 
was a man of excellent habits, an earnest worker, a thoroughly artistic 
temperament, and one who never cried aloud in the streets. In no way 
did he insist upon forcing his personality upon the world except as an 
artist, and upon that he did insist. To him, the rules of painting were 
as smoke in the nostrils. There could be no rules for the living 
expression of the impression which nature made upon him. Anyone 
who reads Emerson's lectures will see how strongly that great writer 
felt in the same way. Emerson wrote as Manet talked. It is possible 
that Rossetti felt in the same way; but he could not use his feeling to 
advantage. Manet was a born painter; Rossetti a born poet, a literary 
not a painter man. Manet learned his technique at once; Rossetti 
never learned his at all. Manet's technique was not that taught in the 
schools, but it was a firm, bold manner of laying his paint, not a weak 
and bedraggled manner like that of the English-Italian. Most of all, 
Manet saw the "values" in nature with astonishing accuracy. Ros- 
setti never imagined that there were any values as he struggled to 
represent every unimportant minute detail in the bushes, and painted 
the cannon on a far-off fortress so that the big gun sat on the ear of 
the unfortunate saint in the immediate foreground. All Manet's can- 
non went back where they belonged and tormented no saints, however 
closely they happened to be juxtaposed on the canvas. 

Manet believed sincerely in the joy of living, and to him to live 
was to paint nature as she revealed herself to him, and never was 
nature kinder to man. She sat down beside him as he worked and 
took him into her confidence as she does only those who are worthy. 
Geniuses are the children of nature, her own, and they are possibly 
better untaught except by their own indulgent mother. I am not say- 
ing that a certain amount of instruction tarnishes genius, because it 
needs to know what the world has already accomplished before it 


came. But sometimes it is not well that an artist remain too .ong 
under the taming influence of regulations. Yet genius will have its 
own, however it is at first tied down; so perhaps it makes no differ- 
ence in the result. Manet did not lack school training, but he sub- 
mitted to less of it than was customary in France. 

As Edouard Manet had found out a new truth m nature's aspect, 
his congenial fellow worker, Claude Monet, pushed the investigation 
still farther, discovering the principles of light effects. Heretofore, 
artists had attempted to create an effect of light by means of very 
dark contrasts of shade. Monet observed that all shadows were very 
luminous, so he sought to keep all objects in shadow quite light and 
produce the effect of brilliant light by other means. Monet invented 
the purple shadows. Manet never used them. 

Pigments have no light of their own; only the sun has light, and 
all outdoors has light because directly under the sun. A spot of 
paint becomes comparatively light if surrounded with dark paint, but 
dark paint is dull and heavy, while nature is luminous. If one attempt 
to paint shades with light colors, the lighted parts necessary for the 
contrast approach white, which has no color. Herein every artist has 
found his hard-to-solve problem of light effects. 

Manet did not receive any recognition from the salon until his 
forty-first year, and then because his supporters insisted. It was in 
1881. Cross of the Legion of Honor in 1882. 

Principal Works: Man Drinking Absinthe, The Breakfast on the Grass ; Olym- 
pia (Luxembourg, Paris); Nana, Boy with a Sword (Metropolitan Museum, New 
York); Christ Insulted by Soldiers, Good Bock Beer, Railway, The Lion Hunter, 
The Fifer, A Bar at the Folies Bergeres, Spanish Dancers. 

H. W. Mesdag — The Beach at Scheveningen. 



In France we find Degas, Lefebvre, Carolus-Duran, Laurens. 
England's list grows longer — William Morris, Poynter, Hunt, Forbes, 
Orchardson, Alma-Tadema. America has now almost completely 
turned a new leaf, with Whistler, La Farge, Martin and Homer. 
Three remarkable men distinguish Germany — Gebhardt, Defregger, 
Lenbach. Belgium becomes more noticeable with Hermans. In 
Holland, Maris and Mauve are fine painters. Fortuny breaks the 
spell in Spain. 

Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas 

{iSs4 — French. ) 

In temperament. Degas is in many respects the most artistic indi- 
vidual that history deals with. He is not at all widely known and he 
has no desire to be. Satisfied with a modest patrimony, only art 
interests him. His horror of a newspaper writer shuts his door and 
his mouth at the suspicion of approach. This seems to be very 
genuine and not an affectation. It has always been difficult to secure 
information regarding his art and his personality. He hates exhibi- 
tions, never allowing anything to go before the public unless sent in 
by a dealer who had purchased the work. The dealers also appre- 
ciate that this art is for the few and above the comprehension of gal- 
lery visitors. 

Most people consider it shockingly ugly; artistically-inclined 
people look upon it as marvelous. Both are right. If it is difficult to 
point out the artistic qualities of his pictures when standing in front 
of them, what can I say in cold words? Subtlety of artistic expres- 
sion, keenness of observation, rudeness of execution with astonishing 
command of sensitive line, and all this bestowed on a subject which 



offends my lady's sensibilities. Never at any time approaching inde- 
cency, he is still anything but elegant. He loves strange effects — 
whatever he can find that has never been attempted before. The 
ugliest old woman, bending at her toilet saTis habiliments, is rendered 
in a subtle way unequalled by the greatest painters of the world. 
This statement is exactly correct and not exaggerated. There is a 
rude poetry in it not unlike that of Walt Whitman. As Whitman is 
not agreeable to many sensitive women and some men, so Degas is 
likewise no companion for varnished veneering. He stands alone in 
his art, without forebears or followers, and heroically indifferent to 
praise or blame so long as the world allows to his genius untram- 
melled expression. No one has defined "indecency." The word is 
used too loosely. This I can say: in no case has Degas painted any- 
thing to produce a blush, though he often paints scenes which many 
would draw the curtain over because they are unseemly. But who 
dares insist that the finest lessons in art or literature may not be con- 
veyed in matters which respectability would veil? Respectability has 
more sins to answer for than Degas. 

His more commonly seen pictures are of ballet girls, sometimes 
behind the footlights, at other times in the practice hall. Other men, 
who have presented the life behind the scenes, have pictured the 
coquetry popularly supposed to prevail there. Degas shows us these 
hard-working girls as they actually are— tired, bored, often plain, pot- 
tering over their troublesome stockings or adjusting a needed pin to 
prevent a toilet catastrophy. No one is plagued with foolish stuffs- 
painting or elaborated textures. He gives only the impression, the 
glance of the eye, quickly observed and indicated by mere spots of 
color; astonishingly correct spots, impressions caught at a glance on 
moving figures. 

What elevating influence has this on the soul? Who proves to us 
that art was invented to elevate anything? Art is expression, the 
outcome of a desire to reproduce the impression made by some scene. 
If the skilled man feels strongly moved, the effort at expression is art. 
When any one undertakes to make art by rule, thinking only about 


the proprieties, the result is mechanics, unworthy the name of art. 
Judged by this standard, Degas \% great. 

In one picture he represents a large hall, the grim dance-master 
training the girls who are arranged in a long row along the wall, each 
with her foot on a rail. It is like a company of soldiers at squad 
drill. Elements of awkwardness are keenly observed, the personality 
noted. Another shows all the girls balancing together in a straight 
line down the space. Each stands with one leg outstretched, in the 
perspective of approach until the last figure is outside the frame and 
only an extended foot appears to indicate its presence. This trick of 
cutting things off in a peculiar manner gives piquancy remarkably 
well managed, as when the heads of all the ballet corps are cut off, 
while the heads of the musicians appear below; thus the floor of the 
stage is the center of the picture, suggesting that a ballet is an affair 
of legs and orchestra; or these girls in gauzy costumes are balanc- 
ing just over the footlights, so that the light shines upward penetrating 
the thin stuff, catching under chins, noses, brows and ears — a most 
interesting and startling effect which every one has seen time and 
again, but no one has had the wit to reproduce, except Degas. Noth- 
ing excites his contempt as much as the endless repetition of hack- 
neyed subjects indulged in by artists of mediocre ability. Anything 
but the vulgarity of the commonplace is his motto. 

Early influenced by the polished art of Ingres, whose pupil he was, 
he imitated his style in a series of pictures of pretty shop girls. The 
race-track also furnished material for character-painting, both men, 
women and horses. But the advent of the refined Japanese art 
revealed to him a new point of view; so his is a Frenchman's render- 
ing of Japanese sentiment, though oriental technique finds no place 
in it. Japanese art and Edouard Manet were the influences which 
developed his genius. 

"To pass through the world unobserved by those who cannot 
understand him — that is, by the crowd — and to create all the while an 
art so astonishingly new and so personal that it will defy imitator, 
competitor, or rival, seems to be his ambition, if so gross a term can 


be used without falsifying the conception of his character. For Degas 
seems without desire of present or future notoriety," says George 

He painted in oils, until watercolors and pastels offered a more 
facile material for the rapid expression of his feelings. Feel he 
must; without this sense of urgency no art is art to him. He some- 
times begins in watercolors, continues in gouache and finishes in oils, 
even adding to this with touches with pen and ink. At one time, 
lithography interested him and his prints were often finished with pas- 
tels, and rare art he made in this way. When we remember how diffi- 
cult, almost superhuman, originality in art is. Degas' genius seems 
astonishing. Any fool can imitate Degas, but it will not hurt this 
master in the least. There can be but one Degas. In his paintings 
of the nude there is no suggestion that the woman is posing to be 
looked at, as is usual with nudes. George Moore speaks truth when 
he says that "Degas now occupies the most enviable position an 
artist can attain — if the highest honor is to obtain the admiration of 
your fellow-workers. That honor has been bestowed on Degas." 

It is difficult to obtain any information about the parentage of this 
man, because of his reticence. It is probable that his family was 
fairly wealthy, as he parted with a considerable fortune to relieve the 
necessities of a brother in financial difficulties. He is a Parisian 

Principal Works: A Ballet, The Ballet in Robert le Diable, The Ballet in 
Don Juan, A Ballet Dancer, Before the Race, Foyer de la Danse a I'Opera, Rehearsal 
of a Ballet on the Stage, Dancers. 

James Abbott McNeill Whistler 

(,/8j4-igoj. American.) .; 

Whistler is another unaccountable individual. In a measureless^ 
degree a charletan and poseur, his stupendous ability disarms criticism 
which would crush a smaller man. Some events can be accounted for, 
some, almost accounted for — Whistler is a mystery. Every coat the 
man wore was planned to create an impression, every move he made 
was for effect — studied posturing. But Napoleon also posed and so did 


Richelieu; why not this wonderful artist? Should we respect him 
more did he carry himself with dignified reserve? Probably not; as 
in that case he would be some one else and not Whistler. Better not 
interfere with a genius as he is and as the Lord made him! That 
coat with the buttons half way up his back and the skirts at his heels 
is a part of the man. So is his laugh, which calls attention to his pres- 
ence, and the long cane and that carefully guarded lock of white hair 
over his forehead. 

This can be asserted of him: that he never has swerved from his 
purpose to paint in the way that seemed to him right, no matter how 
much the art world frowned or the little-comprehending public 
scoffed. He went straight forward in the face of all kinds of defama- 
tion, crushing his enemies with a tongue and pen of extraordinary 
sharpness and wit — and he has won. In the matter of influence 
upon the art of all countries in the latter half of the past century, 
scarcely the like is found in any period. Velasquez himself has had 
no greater influence, nor Van Dyck, nor the Barbizon School. 

Except for a period at Gleyre's studio (whence Gerome also 
issued) Whistler does not seem to have attended any school of art, 
but a harder student has never existed. All painters have been his 
masters, and that is enough for a genius with energy and industry. 
He secured his education in that great schoolhouse — Europe. Goya 
and Velasquez taught him (as they also taught Sargent) and the use 
he made of the influence was peculiar. Sargent largely followed the 
Spaniards' technique, but Whistler made his own. The actual source 
of his inspiration is found in those painters and color-print makers of 
Japan, who flourished an hundred or more years ago. The widely- 
admired Japanese artist, Hokusai (died middle of nineteenth century), 
appeared as a godlike personage to Whistler. The latter once said, 
with a lofty air: "Yes, there is Velasquez, Hokusai and — myself." 
And he has said things much farther from the truth than that. 

His reduction of all forms to simple masses was suggested by the 
Japanese; also his reduction of all colors to quiet, harmonious tones 
rather than realistic renderings. The old Japanese prints are not gay 


in color. It is Interesting to trace these impressions through his life; 
and never once a suggestion of the copyist in it all. It is one thing 
to accept an influence and quite something else to merely copy. 

Whistler has not always painted dark pictures. In the Pan-Ameri- 
can Exposition was one of his light-toned and reserved but absolute 
color pictures: a room with white walls, white chintz curtains and 
portieres, plainly marked with patterns in color; unnoticeable green 
borders and wainscot; a large mirror reflecting a woman in gray dress, 
with dark hair; nearly all the lower half was a dark maroon carpet. 
United with this a woman in black riding habit, one white-gloved 
hand making an isolated spot on all this spread of darks. Directly 
behind, but very visible, there was another figure, a girl, reading, all 
in white except black shoes on the maroon carpet, her reddish hair 
against the pale-green wainscot, and her book in white. The chintz 
has patterns of red and green; rose figure. This describes a remark- 
ably original picture, but does not tell of the peculiar quality of his 
still stranger colors, or the fact that all this had very little light and 
shade (Japanese effect), so that the different articles showed each as a 
separate spot. 

Whistler painted, some time ago, "nocturnes," "arrangements in 
black and white," such as the one just described, "arrangements in 
blue and gold" and in any other colors or tones, also "symphonies" 
in various colors. All this was so opposed to the usual painting for 
the sake of textures or story telling accompanied with garish reds and 
other crying primaries, that the art of it found tardy recognition 
except with people of keen artistic feeling. The academicians were 
shocked beyond measure. To meet the hostility of the Academy came 
the establishment of "the greenery yallery Grosvenor gallery," sung 
of in the Gilbert and Sullivan operetta, which gave to all the "queer 
painters" their public opportunity. 

These unexpected "queers" were discovered by all agressive young 
men and served to turn the scale in Europe against the dry artificiality 
of the classicists. It was itself an artificiality, but not a dry one, and 
it was much nearer the throbbing heart of nature. 


i^.^:dC.ii^J^^Jaafeai^Ea^t-"''-^ -^siiMl-l'm 

Whistler — Traumerei. 


The nocturnes led to the style of low-toned effects which carried 
away so many distinguished Frenchmen and proved that Constable 
was not the only example of a foreign artist who could upset the 
established canons of art in the sacred city of art itself. The Expo- 
sition of 1900 was studded with works by eminent Frenchmen who had 
learned their lesson from Whistler. Going through the galleries of 
the whole world and seeing on all sides these evidences, and then 
returning to the American galleries, I said many times, "Who does 
this thing better than Whistler? Who can lay those bold, long strokes 
of shimmering gray so beautifully in the tender atmosphere? Who is 
so firm with this vague poetry of nocturnal mystery?" And the 
answer was always the same at each visit: "No one." 

One of his "nocturnes" was a portrait of himself, called by that 
technical name because the colors were all reduced to a very low and 
almost black-and-white colorless tonality, even the flesh kept in tone, 
no pink about it. The other one was a full-length portrait of a lady — 
a splendidly swept-in effect of black lace over black dress and the flesh 
again in tone. Sargent's black upon black was a real black altogether 
different, and his flesh was flesh color, not reduced to a vibrating 

The photograph of the portrait of Whistler's mother (Luxem- 
bourg), so well known, is pretty nearly the actual picture as it is in 
color. Pretty nearly. That almost marks the difference between 
this artist and all others. The photograph would be exactly the 
painting over again, were it not for that suggestion of color almost 
not there and still dominating the tone. It is this little "almost" 
which differentiates Whistler and marks him as the most subtle painter 
of many centuries. 

It was interesting to observe how much the work of Miss Mary 
Cassatt (American, residing in Paris) followed Whistler's style, even 
to the mannerisms, and how much the Japanese had influenced her 
also. This impression is more manifest among the French painters of 
importance than with the Americans, though sufficiently in evidence 
with our men. 


Whistler's birthplace is a matter of dispute. Baltimore and Lowell, 
Mass., both claim him. His father was a civil engineer who moved from 
place to place, and in this way the boy went to Russia for a considerable 
period. But his education was American and in the course of time he 
entered the United States Military Academy, at West Point, where he 
was "plucked" at one of the examinations because of careless indiffer- 
ence to the matter in hand. Then the young man was a draughtsman 
in one of the scientific bureaus at Washington, but did more drawing 
for his own amusement than for his country's good. He engraved 
maps as well as doing draughting, thus acquiring the technical skill 
which has made him one of the world's finest etchers. During those 
periods when the "symphonies" did not meet with ready sale, he had 
only to issue an edition of etchings to command all the money needed, 
as these met with no dispute, unusual as they also were. The col- 
lectors of etchings have always been in the advance with all innovations 
and new sentiments in art. 

Important Works: The White Girl, Coast of Brittany (Baltimore) ; Portrait of 
My Mother (Luxembourg) ; Portrait of Carlyle (Glasgow) , Portrait of Sarasate 
(Pittsburg) ; Princesse des pays de la Porcelaine, At the Piano, Gold Girl, Nocturne 
in Blue and Gold, Nocturne in Blue and Green, Nocturne in Blue and Silver, Blue 
Girl, Entrance to Southampton Water, Great Fire Wheel, Harmony in Brown and 
Black, Rosa Corda, The Lady with the Yellow Buskin. 

William Morris (1834-1898, English) influenced the decorative art 
of England powerfully, as his Gothic love of massive simplicity 
changed the taste of his countrymen from the frivolous to the mas- 
sive and quaint. . Such a strong character could not fail to overturn 
that which it disliked. His intense honesty revealed itself in all his 
writings and in his product as a designer, whether it was a wall deco- 
ration, a carpet or an armchair. 

Morris was an original character, having "ideas." These were in 
regard to art and to the relations of the art worker to the public, to 
the employer and to his fellows. Such men as Morris and Walter 
Crane have done a vast work in awakening the art-craft workers to a 
proper appreciation of their own dignity. These men insisted that 


the craftsman should be allowed to sign his own name to his product 
irrespective of the claims of the firm issuing the work. For this 
reason, many artists now do superb craft work who would not consent 
thus to occupy themselves unless givpn credit for their output. 

Morris improved the artistic printing and bookbinding (which 
needed it) of his country more than most of us appreciate. He also 
set a new and artistic stamp on wall hangings and created a factory 
for the making of carpets and rugs. In fact, he revolutionized art 

Alfred Walberg (1834-, Swedish) has resided much in Paris and 
received his influence from the Barbizon men, but has his own manner 
of expression; low tone, broken touch, simple composition; good 
landscape painting, but mannered. No one else paints with his pecul- 
iar texture. Carl Bloch (1834-1896, Danish) was born when the art 
of his country had not attained a position. By travel and by study in 
France he attained to greater technical excellence but ceased to be a 
Danish artist in feeling. Genre and history occupied him. Franz 
von Defregger (1835-, German), a genre painter who pictures the 
peasantry of the Tyrol at their sports and simple life, with no attempt 
at other anecdote than the actualities of the life. As many as fifteen 
figures sometimes are grouped in an interior of that picturesque 
country. Probably one or two of these will be in violent action, as 
dancing. He understands his art and is a healthy delineator of real- 
ism, much beloved of the people. Piloty was his master. 

William Quiller Orchardson (1835-, English), while not the 
strongest, is one of the most pleasing painters in his country. Inci- 
dents, often with a moral tacked on (as the fashion is with our sermon- 
loving cousins), from actual life are painted with a peculiar loose 
touch, the paint being laid very sparingly. It is like a watercolor 
done in oils. One of his interiors represents a quartet at cards, hav- 
ing spent all night at the table, as is evidenced by the floor, completely 
carpeted with the cards scattered about as each round was terminated 
and a fresh pack taken in hand. The young nobleman of this party. 


having been worsted, is taking his leave. The expressions of the faces 
are over-dramatic. He is nearly at the head of the list of portrait 
painters of England. 

Principal Works: The Challenge, Casus Belli, The Bill of Sale, On Board H. 
M. S. Bellerophon, July 23, 1845, The Salon of Madame Recamier. 

Hugh Cameron (1835-, English) departs from the conventional, 
paints loosely and secures fine color. John La Farge (183 5-, 
American) is a peculiar man, of Parisian art education, most sensitive 
to refined color, a free handler of paint and quite unlike any one else. 
His mural decorations in Trinity Church, Boston, and the Church of 
the Ascension, New York, and his superb work in stained glass set 
him apart in other ways. His methods in glass window manufacture 
are entirely original and truly wonderful. His position in the profes- 
sion is close to the top. Franz von Lenbach (1836-, German) is a 
great man in his portraits, both in expression and in handling and sug- 
gestive treatment. A realist who never is too real, an idealist who repro- 
duces the exact character of his sitter — and character is in all of it— 
this man stands at the head of German portrait painters. His color is 
sufficient and still reserved. 

Jules Lefebvre (1836 or 1834-, French) is the outcome of the classi- 
cists who descended from David's influence through Ingres. His 
scientifically correct nude figures are pure idealizations and sometimes 
only tender vaporings. But usually his figures are firm and superbly 
constructed and finished to a high polish. 

His "Truth" shows us a life-sized nude woman standing at the 
bottom of a well (which is supposed to be the abiding place of Truth) 
and there is only a suggestion of water about the stones upon which 
the figure is planted. It is a figure of wonderful grace and correct 
line, painted as only those highly-educated Frenchmen can do these 
things. One hand holds the bucket rope (for no purpose except to 
give pose and excuse for the position of the neatly bent elbow), while 
the other is held aloft bearing a torch, which suggests an electric 

A. DE Neuvillb — The Depaettibe. 


light. At the time of the production of this picture the arc lamp was 
still an experimental affair; so this incident is prophetic. 
Principal Works: Nymph and Bacchus, Truth. 

Alphonse Marie De Neuville (1836-1885, French), a well-educated 
man, began art work as an illustrator of books, chiefly historical and 
military events. During the Franco-Prussian war his position on 
the staff enabled him to see and sketch all the incidents of the cam- 
paign. Thus equipped he began to paint the series of battle pieces 
and incidents which have made him famous. The character in the 
faces of his German officers pleased even the enemy. Usually De 
Neuville pictured activities and Detaille, the other great military 
painter, quiet events. 

Principal Works: Defense of Le Bourget, The Adieu (New York) ; In the 
Trenches, Attack at Dawn (Baltimore) ; Last Cartridges. 

Sir Edward Poynter (1836-, English) is now president of the 
Royal Academy. As is suitable, he is a classicist, a correct draughts- 
man and a rather hard technician. We might be happier could we 
feel that he had genius as well as correctness. 

Principal Works: Israel in Eg-ypt, The Catapult, The Ibis Girl, Atalan- 
ta's Race, Zenobia, Diadumene, On the Terrace. 

Laurens Alma-Tadema (1836-, English, of Dutch birth) is the 
best one of this array of classical painters, having many indications of 
genius, though it may be no more than remarkable talent. He paints 
far better than any of the others and has infinitely more invention. 
In coloring he has often fine tonal qualities and positive colors used 
with marked feeling. Usually confining his themes to the reconstruc- 
tion of ancient Roman life, he has also made some smaller pictures of 
local interest, less learned but with greater sentiment. In the painting 
of marbles, bronzes and flowery accompaniments no one equals him, 
and he has produced beautiful flesh textures. 

Principal Works: The Vintage, Catullus, The Siesta, Entrance to a Roman 
Theater, Tarquinus Superbus, Phidias, An Audience at Agrippa's, Egyptians Three 


Thousand Years Ago, The Mummy, Phyrric Dance, Death of the Firstborn, A 
Roman Emperor, The Picture Gallery, The Sculptor Gallery, A Reading from 
Homer, Sappho, Cleopatra, A Question, The Improvisatore. 

Peter Graham (1836-, English-Scotch) learned his art in Scotland 
and handles paint like no one on the continent. Beginning as a 
painter of figures, he used that training to reproduce the rugged cattle 
of his rocky hills, giving them much detail though of a healthy sort of 
reality. He is a people's painter. Paul Chalmers (1836-1878, Eng- 
lish-Scotch), a talented man who did much for the art of his province 
but little for himself, because he rarely could satisfy his ideals. 

Homer D. Martin (1836-1879, American) paints landscapes; notpor. 
traits of the scenery but idealities which express his sentiment. This 
is the true mission of the poetic artist. He is not a strong brush- 
man because of his labor to secure sentiment but the world is better 
for such men. 

Principal Works: Thames"'at Richmond, White Mountains from Randolph 
Hill, Adirondacks (Century Club, New York); Evening on the Saranac, Spring 
Morning, Sand Dunes on Lake Ontario (New York) ; Autumn Woods, Landscape 
(Brooklyn) ; View on the Seine (Metropolitan Museum, New York). 

Winslow Homer (1836-, American) stands so high in rank as a 
man of remarkable power and originality that he has lifted American 
art many stages upward. He lives the life of a recluse on the coast of 
Maine and studies the sea at all seasons, rendering it in a manly way. 
Strange aspects and unusual points of view attract him, things never 
before attempted. There is little detail in his painting; nothing but 
the bold statement of the peculiar aspect of the sea, done directly 
and left alone. He is also a good figure painter, though never manu- 
facturing a story for its own sake. 

His picture of "The Breeches Buoy" represents an incident suffi- 
ciently common on the coast of Maine, where he lives — the rescue of 
a woman from a stranded ship by means of the apparatus used by the 
life-saving force, always ready to respond to the call of nautical suffer- 
ers. The stranded ship is not visible but only the taut rope, which we 


know has been thrown out to the wreck by means of the cannon kept 
for this purpose. On this stretched rope, the machine with loose 
breeches, into which the life-saver thrusts his legs for greater security, 
glides on a trolley wheel. Thus the life-saver bears a fainting woman 
through the raging waters to the land. Nothing is visible but the two 
figures thus suspended between wild waters and the wild sky. This is 
the most original subject ever undertaken from American life. It was 
purchased by the late Catharine Lorillard Wolfe; the first American 
work in her collection. The color is gray, as suits the subject. 

In his renderings of surf-beaten rocks. Homer departs from the 
common practice, placing himself close down in intimate association 
with the in-coming-wave (in dangerous proximity to it), and with a few 
well-placed brush strokes suggests the overwhelming power of the 
in-rushing waters. 

Principal Works: Prisoners from the Front, The Sunny Side, Launching the 
Life Boat, Coming Away of the Gale, The Life Line, The Breeches Buoy. 

Elihu Vedder ( 1 836-, American) lives in Rome. The illustrations 
for the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam reveal his true talent, and these 
are excellent. In mural decorations at the Congressional library 
there is indication of peculiar ability, though these are greatly bet- 
tered when translated into mosaic. His color is dry and displeasing 
and much of his composition not worthy of attention. By means of 
mysticism he catches the attention of people who do not object to 
his paucity of painter qualities. 

Principal Works: The Lair of the Sea Serpent, Questioner of the Sphinx, 
Cuinsean Sibyl, Young Medusa, Designs for the Rubaiyat. 

Charles Augustus Emile Duran, called " Carolus-Duran " (1837-, 
French), portrait painter, figure painter also; this artist stands high 
in the scale. Occasionally he paints a full-length nude. His women 
as painted are all noble and elegantly posed; he gives them beautiful 
flesh tones, and superb draperies. His brush work is dashing, sure in 
touch and suggests the texture of the goods without any appearance 
of effort. In the late Paris Exposition, there is an evidence of effort to 


be peculiar and artificially sentimental which displeased many artists. 
A large number of pupils have come from his atelier, among them 
John S. Sargent. 

Principal Works: Dame au Gant (Luxembourg) ; Portrait of Mile. Croizette, 
Gloria Mariae Medicis (ceiling in the Luxembourg) ; and many portraits. 

Adolph Artz (1837-1890, Dutch) is one of the good landscape 
painters who sprang up when Holland came to her own again. He is 
tenderly gray in color. Jacob Maris (1837- 1889, Dutch) and his 
brother, Willem Maris (1815-), were superb painters of landscape, the 
former following in the lead of the Barbizon men, and the latter influ- 
enced by the impressionists, though mildly so. An older brother, 
Mathew Maris, was born in 1835, but spent his life in England paint- 
ing pictures of sentiment in the medieval manner. Ivan Kratnskoi 
(1837-1887, Russian) led in a revolution in art matters at the Russian 
art academy and had influence on the rising generation, causing the 
new men to paint what they pleased rather than the conventionalisms. 

Holman Hunt 

{1837 — English.) 

Hunt declares that his mission is to preach religious sermons. If 
he cannot preach, he will not paint. Pictures are to him simply a 
convenient medium for making a religious impression. As might be 
expected, he has little real genius for painting, though his learning in 
art-technique enables him to draw a good figure and paint objects 
neatly and correctly. Despite his artificial color, which puts artists' 
teeth on edge, his conceptions and compositions are so excellent that 
he carries conviction to many people. 

A figure of Christ standing at a door, with a lantern in hand, and 
knocking for admission, is delicately composed and executed, every 
detail carried to the utmost. Hunt was one of the Preraphaelite 
Brotherhood and followed their tenets to the extreme, counting excess- 
ive detail as one of the essentials of "truth." This picture is better 
in engraving than in color. 

His "Shadow of the Cross" represents Jesus in the carpenter shop, 


WiNSLOw Homer — The Breakers. 


as a young man. He stretches himself as if fatigued, thus throwing 
his shadow on the wall, making the figure of the cross. The concep- 
tion is ingenious and original, but the painting of shavings and other 
minute details becomes tedious, and many people find the entire work 
lacking in the first principles of effectiveness and dignity. "The 
Triumph of the Innocents" is a large picture with the usual elements 
of Joseph, the Madonna on the ass and the infant Christ in arms. 
Hovering over these figures are swarms of wounded babes (the ones 
which Herod slew), and these physically dead but spiritually alive 
cherubs accompany their Infant Master in whose cause they have been 
slain. All about are iridescent bubbles, reflecting many colors. 
Again this is remarkable invention, and the details are pushed to the 
extreme of finish, but it is hard and unsympathetic and shockingly 
inharmonious in color. In truth. Hunt has no genuine color sense. 
His sincerity led him to spend much time in the Holy Land for pur- 
poses of study of actualities. 

Principal Works: The Strayed Sheep, The Hireling Shepherd, The Light of 
the World, The Scapegoat, Christ in the Temple, The Triumph of the Innocents^ 
The Miracle of the Sacred Fire. 

■A. Stanhope Forbes (1837-, English) studies, by the sea in Corn- 
wall, figures in boats, the port and its picturesque details serving as 
background. He is a realist in the large sense, and a strong painter- 
Thomas Moran (1837-, American) clings to much of the style of the 
Hudson River School, painting landscape "views" in the Yellowstone 
Park, with bright colors. Many imitations of Turner have come from 
his easel. Jean Paul Laurens (1838-, French) renders Biblical his- 
tory and other historical subjects with a vigor in technique and depth 
of color which have rarely been equaled. Though not a popular 
painter, he influences many young students to do vigorous work and is 
greatly admired by them. His picture of the body of General 
Marceau lying in state is a triumph of directness in the rendering of facts. 

Principal Works of Forbes: By Order of the Court. 

Principal Works of Lavrens: Death of Morceau, Pope Formosa, Death of St. 


HippolyteBoulanger(i838-i874, Belgian) was a poor boy who began 
life painting for house decorators, but went into the country to study 
nature, developing a lovable art much like that of the Barbizon men, 
first low toned and then in tender grays resembling Corot's. He 
changed the art of his country. Alfred Varwee (1838-, Belgian) 
changed the character of domestic animal painting in Belgium, 
abandoning the silken finish of Verboeckhoven. Anton Mauve 
(1838-1888, Dutch) lived at Laren, a little village south of the Zuider 
Zee, painting sheep and other domestic animals with beautiful senti- 
ment and tender color, handling them frankly. His pictures are so 
simple in their quiet statement of facts that any spot would seem to 
answer,, but they are all actual scenes on the sand dunes about Laren. 
Mauve is to the sheep and animal painters of the recent Dutch school 
what Israels is to the figure painters. His following is considerable, 
many imitating his color and handling closely. But none of these 
can handle so loosely or so freely as he did. Cool gray color and 
simple lines, flocks of sheep in quiet movement, the sentiment of 
restfulness which goes with long lines in composition — these are his 

Vilem Rosenstand (1838-, Danish), having studied in Germany, 
followed the style of the school and had no national character. 
Edouard von Gebhardt (1838-, German) lives in Diisseldorf and 
paints religious subjects, not in the style of Schadow, because he is a 
protestant. Choosing medieval German costumes_ because of their 
picturesque dignity, and the faces of the people about him as models, 
painted just as they are, he secures realism with impressiveness. 
Rich, low tone and no attention to useless details, make these noble 
works. Jan Matejko (1838-1892, Polish) was director at Crakow, but 
painted as he had been taught in Germany. 

Francis Hopkinson Smith (1838-, American) is a clever man 
whose profession is that of a contractor for laying sea walls and build- 
ing lighthouses. For amusement he paints, and this to so good pur- 
pose that people buy his pictures at high prices. He is witty enough 
not to undertake things that he cannot do. A few lines on toned 







paper and tinted with watercolors, done in a large way, are. his 
claims to art standing. But he is clever. His writing is also clever 
and very popular, covering a considerable field of romance. 

Mariano Fortuny y Carbo 

{1838-18^4. Spanish. ) 

"The Choice of a Model," the largest of Fortuny's famous pic- 
tures, which has recently come into notice through the accident of its 
purchase for a large sum by Senator Clark of Montana, was exhibited 
at the Paris Exposition of 1878, together with enough others to fill an 
entire wall. This was the largest group of this painter's works ever 
seen at that time. All of them were owned by Mr. W. H. Stewart, an 
American residing' in Paris (familiarly known as "Sugar Stewart," to 
distinguish him from the millionaire dry-goods merchant), who was 
one of the first to discover Fortuny's ability. It is right that he 
should have the credit for this. 

"The Choice of a Model" is only as large as tlie panel in a writing 
desk, but there is a great deal in it — people, architecture and decora- 
tions. The scene represents a palace interior and an art jury of the 
period of Louis XV. These men are in the silken clothes, richly colored, 
of that period of fine coats, and the gorgeous interior is in keeping 
with the clothes. Having cast off her garments, the model springs 
upon a table, striking an attitude quite in accord with the posturing 
fashions of the period. 

Richly variegated marbles, decorations ana costumes gave Fortuny 
his opportunity to lay a mosaic of pure colors, gay but harmonious. 
Possibly this use of pure tones was the first of the sort ever seen in the 
world. "Of the sort" is a proper limitation, because this young 
artist had manifested an original color talent, something entirely his 
own. There is none of that peculiar ability to delineate character, 
spoken of in connection with Velasquez and Goya. Wonderful color 
sense, brilliant technique, the bravura of Goya and the minuteness of 
Meissonier (but without his wonderful firmness), these characterized 


Another of these pictures, quite small (as they all were), showed a 
garden beyond a wall and buildings, the orange trees bearing per- 
fectly-formed fruit, though each yellow orb was no larger than a pin- 
head. Many figures, no larger than a goose quill and finished to the 
minutest detail, showed the effort to rival the great painter of the 
minute. He fell a trifle short in this, though the color left nothing to 
criticize. Little heads, the size of a quarter dollar, were rendered in 
iridescent colors which made older men despair. This was the art 
of a man still very young. He died young, carried off by Roman 
fever while sketching on the Campania near Rome. 

In boyhood he revealed his talent by carving and decorating some 
puppets for his relative who made the itinerary of the Spanish prov- 
inces as a showman. This early expression of form-and-color-sense 
attracted attention, bringing the penniless boy patrons who paid his 
way for several years in the Academy of Barcelona. Gaining the 
prize there which sent him as a beneficiary to Rome, his career began 
auspiciously. This was in 1857. During the war with Morocco, the 
Academy of Barcelona commissioned pictures which took the young 
man to Africa and gave opportunity for limitless use of his color- 
talent, resulting in the reputation already spoken off. 

Fortuny was the first manifestation of artistic life in Spain since 
the death of Goya, 1828. He was Spain's second comet in the nine- 
teenth century, but many more came immediately, most of them fol- 
lowers of his style. A great many men, not Spaniards, also followed 
it. His wife was the daughter of Frederigo Madrazo. As an etcher, 
his brilliant technique created a revolution in style. All these pic- 
tures at the Paris Exposition of 1878 were in oils, but he used water- 
color much (then unusual on the continent), and every medium was 
at his command. His tireless industry and intensity of purpose 
amazed his fellow artists and eventually caused his death. 

Principal Works: The Spanish Wedding, The Snake Charmer, Arab Fantasia 
(Paris); Portrait of Mme. Garcia (Metropolitan Museum, New York); An Ecclesias- 
tic, Don Quixote, The Mendicant (Baltimore) ; Tribunal of a Cadi, Carnival of Last 
Century, Beach at Portici, The Choice of a Model. 

- ■ ' '-■.■■ 

■ ; ,A ■pf!^/!:'!! ■ 

■ ■ ' 

Velasquez — The Infanta Margtterita. 


John Pettie (1839-1893, English, born in Edinburgh) was an his- 
torical, genre and portrait painter; exhibited in the Royal Academy 
in 1861; "What-d'ye Lack," painted in 1862; "A Drum-head Court 
Martial," 1864; "Arrested for Witchcraft," 1866, because of which 
picture he was made an A. R. A., and in 1874 he obtained the full 
title of Royal Academcian. 

Charles Hermans (1839, Belgian) is a sincere naturalist, working 
in a large and simple way. In his picture "The Dawn," he shows the 
entrance to an all-night ballroom from which issue a young and well- 
dressed man and two prett)' girls. The faces seen in the shadowy 
doorway against the not yet extinguished gas, are simple black sil- 
houettes, an evident truth but one which shocked the mannered Diis- 
seldorf painters when the work was exhibited there. His insistence 
upon actual truth did much for Belgian art. Wilhelm Diez (1839-, 
German) studied with Piloty but laid out his own course, tending to 
simplicity, dignity and a certain resemblance to the manner of some 
old Dutch and early German painters. He has an original way with 
him and many pupils seek to follow it. Constantin Makovsky 
(1839-, Russian) and his brother, Vladimir (1846-), are extremely 
popular painters, representing Russian life as it really is, some senti- 
mental story interpolated with the reality. Large pictures, over- 
loaded with detail and true to textures rather than correct observation 
of the light of heaven. The widely-known "Russian Wedding Feast," 
with every inch of space loaded with embroidery and jeweled gar- 
ments, is not at all great art. Most Russian painters contented them- 
selves with following the methods of the schools they studied in, as 
Wagner (1838-) and Liezen-Mayer (1839-1898), who became instruct- 
ors in the academy at Munich, following Piloty' s methods. Edoardo 
Zamacois (1840-1871, Spanish) had much of the cleverness of Fortuny 
but was not so lightsome a painter. All his genre pictures are fin- 
ished to the extreme of the possible, well colored and pretty strong. 
A baby prone on the floor rolling a ball at tin soldiers which an 
attendant field marshall in gorgeous uniform has set up for him, repre- 


sents "The Education of a Prince," and it is one of his famous pic- 
tures. Gabriel Max (1840-, German) was the outcome of the Piloty 
studio, but did not imitate his master. Instead of striking contrasts of 
cool and violent warm color, Max was a painter of cool tones and 
simple effects, a very dignified art and original. Throughout the 
works runs a strain of affectation of materialism in spirit-manifesta- 
tions, as the "Spirit's Greeting," a girl of serious aspect touched on 
the shoulder by an armless hand from spirit land. The manner of 
treatment prejudiced some people against the man's art, and indeed 
it was too "common" in conception. Hans Markart (1840-1884, 
German) undertook to rival the gorgeous color of the great Venetians. 
His enormous panels are good decorations but without any indication 
of original conception. Scenes from Venice furnished him themes. 

Principal Works of Makovsky: Choice of the Bride, Russian Wedding Feast. 

Principal Works of Zamacois: A Good Pastor, The Entrance to the Convent, 
Education of a Prince, Favorite of a King. 

Principal Works of Max: The Anatomist, Head of Christ, Crucifixion, Mar 
garet on Walpurgis Night, Maiden Martyr in the Arena, The Lion's Bride. 

Principal Works of Makart: The Pest in Florence, The Plague in Florence, 
Catharine Cornaro Receiving the Homage of the Venetian Nobles, the Entry of 
Charles V. into Antwerp. 

Briton Riviere (1840-, English) is one of the good painters whom 
modern England has produced. He treats animals in a natural way, 
as where the lions roam at will by moonlight amid the ruins of ancient 
edifices. The sense of solitude and abandonment and the mystery of 
atmosphere are admirably given. 

Principal Works: The Poacher's Nurse, Circe, PersepoHs, Daniel in the 
Den of Lions, Sympathy, Rizpah, The Exile. 



As usual,, the list of France is the most important, including 
Monet, Vibert, Regnault, Lhermitte, Benjamin-Constant, Merson, 
Detaille, Bastien-Lepage, Besnard. Frederick Walker and Walter 
Crane appear in England; Thaulow and others in Norway; Denmark 
makes some showing; Madrazo and Pradilla are brilliant in Spain; 
Italy has Chialiva; Repin and Munkacsy draw attention to Russia; and 
in America Tiffany. Blashfield and Thayer do excellent work. 

Claude Jean Monet 

{184.0 — . French.^ 

Monet insisted on making his shadows luminous, as nature is. He 
discovered that he could manage with very little of the colorless white 
if he laid little spots of pure pale yellow, pale red and pale blue (pri- 
mary colors of the spectrum) closely side by side, like stitches in 
embroidery. Mixed together, these made dull gray. Kept pure and 
separate, they made light. It was the application to paint of a simple 
principle in optics. Of course, as he used almost no pure white, he 
avoided the cold colorlessness of white. He could make it a yellow 
light by using more of yellow than of the other two colors; blue by 
using more of the blue, and so with red. It was as simple as that 
famous (tgg of Columbus, when once demonstrated. One difficulty 
was the excessive roughness and rudeness of the painted surface. 
People like their pictures smooth. He braved public opinion and did 
as seemed to him correct. People learned that his pictures were more 
alive than others, and they accepted the roughness, finally liking it 
as they learn to like old cheese. The roughness became a virtue, 



because the paint glimmered as ligiit does instead of looking dull and 

Every one knows that music can be reduced to science of har- 
mony; to a mathematical formula. Monet reduced his scheme for 
the management of colors to a mathematical formula. Any skillful 
person can learn to play the piano by this musical formula, and any 
one can paint a picture by Monet's mathematics of color. Only a 
musical genius can make so sensitive a use of the mathematics of 
music as to give us pleasure, and only a painter genius can use Monet's 
formula delightfully. Fortunately, he was such a genius. "Which 
the Egyptians assaying to do were drowned," says the Scripture. 
Many painters essaying to do this, proved themselves Egyptians, and 
this is the reason that so few practice it now. Almost every painter 
uses the principle somewhat, however. Among American artists, 
Childe Hassam has sufficient genius to use it admirably. So does the 
Frenchman, Henri Martin. They are in no sense imitators of Monet, 
but rather competitors for the honors of the situation. 

It is not as possible to reduce the art of Edouard Manet, the elder 
impressionist, to a science or tell with exactness wherein lie his claims 
to inventiveness. All artists were searching for the truths of "values," 
and Manet found them. As pure white is one extreme of the palette 
and pure black the other extreme, it required a very sharp eye to dis- 
cover the relative "value" of every light object in its relation to white 
and every dark object in its relation to black. This was the problem 
which Manet attacked and conquered. He at once rejected every- 
thing in nature which was non-essential and confined his attention to 
the exact value which an object held, thus creating an "impression" 
of truth, going further than had ever been done. It was a great les- 
son that he taught the world. But for this lesson, it is improbable 
that Monet would ever have made his discovery. Also Manet proved 
how much the artists had been the slaves of non-essentials. His work 
was not pretty, because that element of prettiness had long been the 
bane of true rendering of nature. His works taught the world that 
a fitly spoken word of truth is worth more than tedious words uselessly 


repeated, and that finish is not necessarily good art. These men's 
names will be written high on the walls of the pantheon of art his- 
tory. It seems strange that the world should for a moment have 
imagined that Rossetti was finding truth because he imitated the prim- 
itives in their limitations, by painfully laboring over hundreds of 
minute leaf forms while still ignoring the first essentials (which every 
artist knew to be essentials), the relationship between these leaves and 
the sky and distance. However, the mistaken and poetical Rossetti 
was not a painter genius; the pen was his true instrument. 

Edouard Manet's painting was broad and free in touch, made with 
a full brush. He never used the embroidery-stitch which Claude 
Monet invented. The purple shadow is no essential part of the art of 
the former — possibly is never found in his painting. This purple 
shadow is a part of the principle of the light effects of Monet; helping 
to create the effect of luminosity in shadow by contrast with the 
warmed white (yellow) used in all the lights. It may or may not be 
truthful exactly— who knows what is the true color of light or the 
exact color of shadow? In principle it is certainly true, though it may 
be a sacrifice of certain truths for the sake of others. 

Principal Works: Mouth of Seine at Honfleur, Caniille, Fontainebleau Forest, 
Vessels Leaving Le Havre, Lavacourt, Breaking Up of the Ice on the Seine, Low- 
Tide at Pourville, Snow at Port Villers, La Manne Porte at Etretat, Study of Willow 
Trees, Canal in Holland, A Wheat Field, The Seine at Givemy, Fourteen Studies 
of the West Front of the Cathedral at Rouen, and many Landscapes. 

Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley and Camilla Pissarro should be 
spoken of with enthusiasm as followers of this school of painting, and 
Georges Seurat who, with the strange commingling of paint-spot- 
tings, secured an effect meaning nothing near at hand, but gleaming 
wonderfully at a proper distance. 

Jean Francois Raffaelli is a Parisian born and his bearing and his 
work show it. Though schooled in art under Gerfime, his paint- 
ings reveals no trace of his master's influence, except the results of 
perfect training in drawing. It is customary to class him with the 


impressionists, but his painting resembles the work of no leader of 
that movement, except that his statements of nature's truths, which 
are observed very keenly, are expressed in the briefest possible 
terms. He startled the art world by presenting views of Paris, its 
streets crowded with hints of many moving figures, and its characteristic 
inhabitants in pathetic situations, the painting executed in an unknown 
handling. It seems as if he had drawn all the buildings and figures 
with charcoal, in loose, scratchy lines, not unlike an enormous and 
careless etching. At first glance, these lines seemed quite purpose- 
less, but a few moments of study revealed their full meaning. All the 
canvas beneath these scratchy lines seemed entirely bare excepting 
at certain parts where remarkably refined colors had been smuggled 
in. It was discovered that the rude line work had been made with 
crayons of solid oil paint, something of his own invention. So refined 
and poetical was the sentiment of the work that all artists accepted it 
at once. Finally Mr. Raffaelli invented a series of paint-crayons, 
imitating all the tints of the palette, which have been received with a 
great deal of favor by noted artists. The use of these is advantageous 
because no brushes are required in producing the painting, thus saving 
much inconvenience. It is not to be expected that these solid-oil 
sticks will create a revolution in painting, but the invention is interest- 
ing and ingenious. 

Jean Georges Vibert (1840-, French) is one of the most clever of 
the very fine French technicians. He has studied the chemistry of 
colors and made many valuable additions to the painter's palette. 
Whether this is a good thing for art or not depends upon one's taste. 
The finest pictures are made with a simple palette — perhaps. Vibert 
believes in using pure pigments in abundance, even to a point which 
by some is regarded as violent crudity. No blossom is too brilliant in 
color for his palette. He makes them and his stuffs more crudely true 
than the facts demand. Subjects without limit which call for the rep- 
resentation of cardinals in scarlet robes occupy his attention. These are 
frequently humorous, like the scene where cardinals are at outs over 
an ecclesiastical argument, or where two are engaged in burning bad 


books but find themselves seduced into the absorbed perusal of the 
forbidden literature — anything to give the opportunity to paint a red 
robe and tell a funny story. It is pretty and talented, but not noble 
art. He founded the French Watercolor Society not long ago. It 
was some time before the French artists were willing to take water 
colors seriously, as they looked upon it as a trifling and unimportant 
medium. Now they have learned from the Dutch artists and from 
such men as Menzel its capabilities. 

Principal Works: Grasshopper and Ant, Monseigneur's Antechamber, Com- 
mittee on Moral Books (New York); Gulliver and the Liliputians (Baltimore). 

Fred Walker (1840-1875, English) died so young that his works 
are not numerous, but the influence left in the world, in and outside 
of England, might be the envy of more conspicuous men. With little 
sound health and a retired life he made no noise — his art did the 
talking. Small pictures, many of them in watercolors, were made very 
tender and revealed so much of that sentiment which we call "artistic" 
for want of a more specific term to describe the matter we feel but 
cannot analyze; these have laid hold of artists' hearts. Recognizing 
the British love for story, he still managed his subject matter not 
anecdotically but as a pastoral poem. Besides this, the technique was 
wonderfully good. In one of his important works, a lithe young man 
mows the lawn of an old peoples' home, at sundown. Many old tod- 
dlers sit about an ancient fountain in the center background, while 
just in front an erect young woman, looking calmly ahead into the 
future, sustains an old woman who looks nowhere but muses silently, 
and near them the mower irresistibly swings his scythe. A simple 
subject, but nobly painted. The reproduction of this hangs in many 
of our homes. 

Walker and Mason (twenty-two years older) are the men of this 
period in the production of figures in landscape painting. Turner 
died when Walker was eleven years old. Cabanel, Bouguereau and 
Gerome were flourishing during his lifetime. Menzel was thirty-five 
years his senior. 

Principal Works: The Plow, The Old Gate. 


Marcus Stone (1840-, English) is a pure story-telling artist who 
paints well. 

Thomas Hovenden (1840-1895, American) came from Ireland, the 
land of his birth, when a young man. His education was Parisian and 
pretty thorough, and he produced genre pictures, scenes laid in 
American life. His "Breaking Home Ties," at the Columbian Expo- 
sition, created an enormous impression upon thousands of people who 
read in it the story of many American boys. He painted well enough, 
but was neither great nor original except in subject. 

Polish painters went to Munich, as Brandt, Rosen and Kowalski, 
and created no original art, though reproducing their local life. 
Albert Moore (1841-1892, English) created a good deal of a sensation 
with decorative panels filled with studiedly draped women quietly 
posing in a long row. His painting resembles that of Alma Tadema 
considerably, or he may be placed between Tadema and Leighton. 
A certain original decorative sense makes these interesting, though 
they look better in reproduction than in the original, being softened 
in the half-tone process. Charles N. Henry (1841-, English) is a 
marine painter who lives on his yacht and studies faithfully the life of 
the ocean and navigators, painting human figures in action well. Sir 
George Reid (1841-, Scotch), president of the Scotch Academy, 
paints a good deal like Mauve, making refined landscapes. 

Raimundo de Madrazo (1841-, Spanish) is a descendant of an 
influential line of painters. His home has been much in Paris, though 
his native country has not been neglected. Fortuny was his master 
and his painting resembles the brilliant leader's work in dash, color 
and treatment, being nearly an imitation. His picture of revelers 
issuing from a mansion at dawn after a masked ball, is a well-told 
story, the pretty women in gay costumes adding to the picturesque- 
ness. Beside the door stands a group of coachmen and servants, one 
reading the "Petit Journal" while the others listen, suggesting that 
influence and power and political control may pass from the favored 
mortals into the hands of the despised and humble. A hint of 


laborers going to their work, some of them not employed in very 
clean occupations, gives additional force to the contrast. Fortuny 
was the brother-in-law of this Madrazo. 

Principal Works: End of a Masked Ball (New York) ; El Jaleo (Philadelphia) ; 
My Model, La Soubrette. 

Marie Collaert (1842-, Belgian) is a woman painter who rivals, if 
not exceeds, Rosa Bonheur in the painting of cattle with strength. 
Francisco Domingo (1842-, Spanish), a dainty brushman and colorist, 
follows the lead of Meissonier, making domestic scenes. Otto 
Sinding (1842-, Norwegian) paints well, but in various manners, seem- 
ing to be an imitator. Vassili Verestchagin (1842-, Russian) has 
managed his business so as to attract wide attention to himself. Sent 
out by the Russian government to delineate the events of the Russo- 
Turkish war, he was seriously wounded as a reward for his reckless 
bravery. The horrors in his too faithful renderings of war caused the 
government to reject his works, which he then took to Paris and (posing 
as the advocate of peace) created a sensation, which continued around 
the world. He is not a great painter. Luigi Chialiva (1842-, Italian) 
lives near Paris but paints in his own way, with the delicacy and sen- 
timent of his race, rendering figures with sheep, geese, turkeys or other 
domestic creatures, in landscape, with graceful groupings and tender 
color. His pictures are not marked by that dashing technique and 
extravagant color which is the pride and perhaps the taint of the mod- 
ern Italians. His work is more normal and healthy. 

Leon Lhermitte (1844-, French) has ability beyond most artists to 
render his transcript from nature (peasants at toil or at rest in the 
woods or the hay field) with rugged vigor, sentiment and directness of 
touch. Sometimes his peasants tell a Scripture story. Giovanni 
Boldini (1844-, Italian) is the most striking example of that dashing 
technique, the doubtful glory of recent Italian art. His full-length 
portraits astonish the visitors to each international exposition, because 
of the strange and almost grotesque picturesqueness of the pose and 
the wonderfully clever brush work. The women in his portraits are 


all coquettes. Wilhelm Leibl (1844-, German), a man of consummate 
ability, is capable of imitating Holbein without losing the respect of 
the most exacting art critic. His motives are found in real life and 
painted with intense sincerity in the manner of the old German mas- 
ter. Albert Neuhuijs (1844-, Dutch) follows the lead of Israels in 
painting Dutch fisher and peasant life with its quiet peacefulness, in 
colors harmonious and grave. Wilhelm von Gagerfeldt (1844-, 
Swedish) paints like no one else, a richly-toned, mysterious landscape 
in sparkling grays made with the lower notes of his palette. Hlias 
Repin (1844-, Russian). Realism, as applied to scenes of Russian 
life, could not be carried farther than this man goes. His technique 
has been learned in Paris, but his treatment is original, impressive 
and thoroughly national. In the 'Tnsulting Reply" picture (Cossacks 
writing to the Tzar) he is brutally faithful to character. His theater 
gallery full of people laughing at some witticism in the play keeps 
this other picture company; but the "Return of an Exile to His Fam- 
ily" is quiet, pathetic and intensely true. Unlike Verestchagin, he is 
a superb painter and not a poseur. Mihali Munkacsy (1844-, Hun- 
garian) has made for himself a wide reputation with his large picture, 
"Christ Before Pilate" (owned in America). The scene is literally 
and forcibly portrayed, but the arrangement is conventional on very 
much used lines. It is as a painter of rich, deep color that he can 
claim distinction; largely genre pictures. One of his best known 
pupils is Dannat, the American. Julius Benczur (1844-, Russian) is 
director at Buda-Pesth and follows Piloty's manner. John Appleton 
Brown (1844-, American) studied in Paris and paints a pleasing gray 
landscape on simple lines. C. S. Reinhart (1844-, American) has 
been much on the plains in our western country and gives faithful 
and sprightly renderings of wild Indian and soldier life. Henri 
Regnault (1843-1871, French), a brilliant young man, worshiped by 
the students in Paris. He was killed in battle during the Franco- 
Prussian war. In the Orient he found the colors and costumes for 
magnificent effects. The "Execution in the Alhambra" shocked the 
world. On a grand staircase an executioner has caught his victim 



and with one blow of his sword whipped off his head, which rolls 
down the stairs followed by streams of too literally painted blood. 
The executioner quietly wipes his sword. It is a magnificent work of 
art, though so shocking. 

Principal Works: Execution at Grenada, Portrait of General Prim. 

Ernest Duez (1843-1896, French), a strong painter of figures in 
landscape, quiet and dignified in treatment, sometimes with a religious 
tendency. Edoardo Dalbono (1843-, Italian) follows the lead of 
Morelli. Over-dashing in technique, forced in color, clever to a fault, 
he has painted some horrors; but usually represents the Bay of Naples 
with its gay festival life or with allegorical conceptions. Though 
somewhat shallow and lacking serious conviction, his work is pleas- 
ing. Carl Gussow (1843-, German) abandoned the theatrical treat- 
ment of Piloty for a healthy realism, indicating a remarkably keen 
observation of the aspect of objects and figures. Anton von Werner 
(1843-, German) is another in this line of serious literalists. George 
von Rosen (1843-, Swedish) has some of the stilted over-action learned 
in various schools, but his portraits are dignified. He is director at 
Stockholm. Ludwig Munthe (1843-, Norwegian) studied in Dussel- 
dorf, but even before leaving there displayed originality and force in 
winter landscapes. Christian Zahrtmann (1843-, Danish), though a 
student in several schools, keeps to a good national individuality. 
Christian Zacho (1843-, Danish) paints landscape much in the style 
of the colorful impressionists, which has been good for the too grave 
Danish artists. 

Jean Joseph Benjamin-Constant (1845-1902, French), a powerful 
painter, rich colorist, who laughed at artists who could not give the 
fullness of the palette, was a leading painter who greatly influenced 
the rising generation of students. Oriental subjects pleased him, and 
he treated them differently from all others. The artist's very first 
picture — "Hamlet and the King" — created a sensation at the salon in 
1869. But it was his Morocco subjects that made him famous, as they 
were at once dramatic and daring in subject. 


Benjamin-Constant laid paint in the most positive manner, being 
the embodiment of that result of thorough schooling which is the 
pride of the French; using color pure from the tube without the 
admixture of white except when absolutely essential to the rendering 
of light, and thus commanding a richness which those who mix too 
much never attain. His recent portrait of Queen Victoria, a very 
large picture, is so glowing in tones of the full palette that it pales 
everything else in a gallery. 

Principal Works: A Woman of the Riff Coast,' Prisoners of Morocco, Women 
of the Harem, Entrance of Mahomet II. into Constantinople in 1443, Portrait of 
Emmanuel Arago, The Last of the Rebels, Cherifas, Justice in the Harem, Justi- 
nian, The Moonlight Sonata; Portrait of the Painter's Son Andre (Luxembourg); 
Portraits of M. Chaplain, Lord Dufferin, the Due d'Auniale, M. Maurel, Mr. Jay 
Gould, Sir Julian Pauncefote, Mme. Benjamin-Constant, the Grand Duchess Paul 
of Mecklenburg, Mme. Calve, the Princess Radziwill, and Queen Victoria on her 
Throne in the House of Lords. 

Luis Jiminez (1845-, Spanish), one of those astonishingly dextrous 
painters that Spain and Italy have so often produced in this genera- 
tion. His figures are beautifully made. Ludwig Loefftz (1845, Ger- 
man) was until i-ecently director at Munich. All the masters from 
Quentin Matsys through Holbein and Van Dyck have so influenced his 
manner that he has almost copied them. He has great skill if no 
originality. Albert Keller (1845-, German) is a colorist who first of 
all studies color arrangement. Beautiful gray tone and combinations 
of color are applied to portraits and fashionable interiors of the 
period. Blommers (1845-, Dutch) is another follower of Israels, 
painting ripe tones with little positive pigment, rendering the pathetic 
life of the Dutch peasantry. Hugo Salmson (1845-, Swedish) is a 
strong painter of scenes from his native country, figures of importance 
in landscape, in refined color and somewhat in the manner of Bastien- 
Lepage. Gottfred Christensen (1845-, Danish) is another who helped 
out the heavy Danes in the matter of color and departed from the 
severe naturalism which prevailed. Frank Holl (1845-1888, English) 
painted portraits with singular appreciation of pose and characterful 



arrangement, holding worthily a high place. Robert Gibb (1845-, 
Scotch), though never a soldier, paints military scenes, the Crimean 
war furnishing the pathetic subjects. He began with landscape and 
anecdotic pictures. 

Luc Olivier Merson (1846-, French) made an impression with his 
"Repose in Egypt," in the salon of 1879, because it was so very 
unusual in conception. He painted a representation of the plains of a 
desert country entirely in a peculiar bluish-gray tone, with very little 
contrast between the land and the sky. In this solitude the sphinx 
stands quite alone under a starry sky. Reposing in the arms of the 
sphinx, Mary and the Babe sleep. From the figures gleams a soft 
light, the sacred halo. Near by, Joseph sleeps and the ass stands in 
an attitude of repose. Beside them the remains of a fire are smoldering 
and sending up a thread of smoke, like a motionless indicator of the 
absolute windlessness of the air. Nothing could more thoroughly 
suggest solitude, silence and repose. This picture is now in St. Louis. 
Beginning as a pupil of the classicist Pils, Merson has invented his 
own uses for his talent. 

Principal Works: The Vision of the Cross, Sacrifice to Patriotism, St. Francis 
Preaching to the Fishes, Two Decorations in the Palace of Justice (Paris); 
Arrival at Bethlehem. 

Jerndorff (1846-, Danish) is a very good portrait painter. Walter 
Gay (1846-, American) paints French subjects and lives in France. 
Alfred Roll (1846-, French) produces large pictures of work people, 
often delineating their pathetic life and with great power, in gray 
tones. He has made beautiful pastorals, very simple and imposing, 
with exquisite tone. Francesco Pradilla (1847-, Spanish) is another 
of the astonishingly fine brushmen of the south. The Frenchman 
Laurens influenced him to a severe manner, but he can do anything 
with paint and handle any subject, terrible or commonplace, history, 
camps, seaside resorts or domestic scenes; he is an acrobat with paint, 
true in observation but not full of conviction. Pradilla's painting of 
the "Surrender of Grenada" secured him a gold medal at the exposi- 


tion at Munich in 1882, and he had previously been honored in the 
same manner at Paris in 1878 for the "Joan the Maid," which was in the 
solid manner of Laurens. In the Grenada picture there are grouped 
on the right the king and queen on horseback and a multitude of 
attendants, while be5'ond is a glimpse of the captured city. Balancing 
these is the figure of the captive chief of the Moors, Boabdil, who is 
received with the honor which his extraordinary abilities deserved. 
All the massive composition and solid handling of the artist's early 
days have been abandoned here for a butterfly touch, extraordinarily 
pleasing, but not very serious. 

Fritz Thaulow (1847-, Norwegian) is called the Apollo of the 
north, and paints magnificently the landscapes of his own country and 
the north coast of France. His moonlights are among the finest of 
recent times. Thaulow has made a special study of running water, as 
when it issues from the tail of a mill race. Of course the picturesque- 
ness of the mill also gives him opportunity to paint old brick and the 
attractive surroundings. Formerly his habit was to make all his pic- 
tures directly from nature, but the moonlights had to be produced 
from observation, so that his power for memorizing increased greatly 
and the result has been fluency of expression and attention to artistic 
treatment independent of the literal rendering of textures. Now he 
has become one of the most forceful manipulators of poetic effects, 
rich in color and full of mystery in treatment. 

Jan Ekenaes (1847-, Norwegian) finds in the fisher people of his 
land subjects to paint with force and character. Like most of the 
recent Scandinavians, educated in good foreign art schools, he has 
used excellent technique to develop his national character. F. A. 
Bridgman (1847-, American) was a pupil of Gerome and painted at 
first exactly like his master, having success with his "Burial of the 
Mummy," mourners in boats crossing the Nile. Oriental subjects 
occupy him, but nothing better has come from his easel. John 
Macallan Swan (1847-, Scotch) has remarkable talent in representing 

Bastien-Le Page — The Hat-makers. 


wild animals and wild naked men among them. His attitudes are 
superb and original. 

Daniel Urrabita, called Vierge (1847-1882, Spanish) did not put 
forth an extensive array of paintings, but he is the father of the 
modern manner of working with pen and ink, ink washes and other 
light manners of treating illustrative matter for reproduction. This is 
not saying that all illustrators follow his style, but that the influence 
has been great. Vierge is of Spanish blood, but has spent his life in 
Paris. In the manner of composing his works so that they will have 
just enough of clear statement without encumbering the page with use- 
less incident and confusion, he is a past master. The question of 
causing the printed illustration to appear in the same tone and general 
texture as the printed matter has been solved by him wonderfully 
well. His figures are admirably drawn and posed, full of vitality and 
naturalness. While still young, but after his reputation was estab- 
lished, an incurable disease (a sort of paralysis) laid hold upon him, 
but with dauntless courage he continued his work until death relieved 
his sufferings. 

Edouard Detaille (1848-, French) is a pupil of Meissonier and 
paints in a measure like his master, though never with the same atten- 
tion to minute details. He saw service of a serious sort in the Franco- 
Prussian war and has made fame for himself in delineating military life, 
usually selecting scenes with little action but having tense nervous 
interest. A scene in a garden beside the high wall which the soldiers 
are preparing to defend, an anxious general officer, a worrying gardener 
incensed at the rude treatment of his pet vegetables, troops waiting 
for the attack, others in active defense in the distance, quiet and 
awful expectation, these go to make up the subject matter of the 
"Defense of Champigny." 

Important Works: En Retraite Charge du g erne Cuirassiers, Le Regiment 
qui Passe (Corcoran Art Gallery, Washington); Salut au Blesses, Le Reve, 1888; 
Charge duer Hussards, (Luxembourg). 


Jose Villegas (1848-, Spanish) is a pupil of Fortuny and one of the 
ultra brilliant technicians and colorists, painting either an armourer's 
shop or the marriage of a Doge with an astonishing variety of cos- 
tumes and color rarely equaled. Fritz von Uhde (1848-, German) is 
a grave man producing severe and serious subjects in low, gray tones, 
many selected from Scripture and treated in naturalistic manner in the 
costumes of to-day. His Christ and the disciples are as we are. 

Jules Bastien-Lepage 

(1848-188S. French.) 

The man's name is Bastien. The "Lepage" is added to do honor 
to his mother's family. He came of sturdy peasant stock, reasonably 
prosperous through years of industry and saving, his birthplace Dan- 
villiers (Meuse). The circumstance that he, while a student in Paris, 
became a letter carrier in order to earn money that he might pursue 
his studies, is no more than one of those incidents illustrating the 
frugality of French peasants. His parents were not without a savings- 
bank account. The hard drill in Cabanel's studio served him well, 
and the failure to obtain the Prix de Rome (though all the students 
manifested their serious displeasure that their favorite should be sup- 
planted by another who was less good but more classical) is another 
leaf in that long history of the war between well-regulated classicism 
and independent research. A good many years later, he had the same 
experience with his famous "Joan of Arc" picture. The independent 
thinkers acclaimed it for the Grand Medal of Honor, but it was not 
thought as worthy by the jury as the "Good Samaritan" of Moreau, a 
carefully-painted classical composition. Both these failures were 
blessings for Bastien, as they more surely fixed his purpose to paint as 
he liked. It was the originality of Edouard Manet and his discoveries 
regarding "values," with the attendant keenness of observation of 
nature, which set Bastien in the right way. 

When one is surfeited with the artificialities of classicism, his 
senses are wonderfully quickened by the contemplation of a picture 
presenting a few simple truths in a broad, direct manner. Absence 



of artificialities is like the inrush of fresh air to the stifling atmosphere 
of a ballroom. Somewhere in the mid-seventies, I happened upon the 
salon containing Bastiens twin portraits of his father and mother; the 
simple, unaffected people seated under the trees in a garden. Those 
faces, frankly laid in and fully illuminated by the diffused light of 
day, seemed the perfection of correct statement. This is a remark- 
able instance of the value of academical training. Bastien received 
the severe and long continued criticism of Cabanel, nearly carrying 
off the Prix de Rome. If Manet could have had the benefits of this 
severe classical training, we might have had less rudeness in his work. 
Yet, possibly, the rudeness was an excellent influence and had the 
greater power in the reformation. I shall not attempt to interfere 
with the workings of Providence; it is enough that Manet's influence 
was what it was. But certainly Bastien was the better painter because 
of his training, although he owes his manner of seeing to Manet. 
Also, he proves that genius is its own safeguard, not to be injured by 
contact with anything. Manet's painting is shockingly brutal; 
Bastien's refined. Both followed the same tendency in rendering 

Bastien's picture of the hay field (mowers resting), the air heavy, 
sun overcast as it so often is in northern Europe, reproduces an effect, 
which we rarely see in America, called the "beau temps gris"; not 
threatening rain, simply a condition of silvery mistiness. The light is 
like that cast by ground glass — diffused, tender. This was the artist's 
opportunity to make his figures like the tones of the half-dried hay — 
a marvelous tonality. The students holding advanced views, clamored 
for the artist's recognition. This was denied in the measure they 
desired, but that did no harm to the rising school or the interests of 

The story of the contest over this Grand Medal of Honor, as told 
in the journal of Marie Bashkirtseff, is entirely correct. I was myself 
in Paris at the time and a witness of the events. After all is said, it 
is possible that an art academy does right to give prizes for academical 
excellence rather than for originality. Originality has to take time to 


prove its value. The public is its own guide though so often encum- 
bered with the ponderous habiliments of established respectability. 

The "Joan of Arc" we can see at any time in the Metropolitan 
Museum in New York. Instead of arranging an artificial landscape 
for the heroine's use, one in which visiting voices would feel them- 
selves at ease, Bastien betook himself to his own back yard and found 
one of his peasant neighbors suitable to enact the part of the inspired 
maid. She is represented exactly as nature made her, almost repul- 
sively plain, and the rude clothing adds no charm. Intense abstrac- 
tion is suggested by the attitude, one hand reaching out to toy with a 
twig of the tree under which she stands. Much weeping or long con- 
tinued anxiety might produce that dark circle about the eyes, but the 
artist exaggerated it for effect's sake. Like all supernaturalisms, it 
created wonderment. Literalism was carried too far when the spirits 
were materialized. They had been better left to the imagination, as 
the expressive face was enough for the effect desired. There can be 
little doubt that the hay field is the better picture. 

Bastien-Lepage died, in the midst of his success, of a lingering 

Albert Wolff, the brilliant art writer for Figaro, made it his busi- 
ness to create public interest in Bastien's art. In the course of time 
the artist painted the critic's portrait, one of several masterful per- 
formances on quite small canvases. The art writer was represented 
seated at his writing desk in study-gown and scarlet-leather Turkish 
boots. These boots were conspicuous and wonderfully polished. 
Complaint had been made that the artist truckled too much to the 
writer. So, when the question was asked of a salon visitor, "Isn't it 
wonderful?" the reply came promptly, "Yes; but do you not think 
that the artist has 'licked his boots' too much." Things in a painting 
too much finished are said to be "licked," in studio parlance, but 
"lecher les bottes" means something else. 

The celebrated portrait of Sarah Bernhardt, the actress, was again 
on view at the recent Paris Exposition (1900), and it is the most won- 
derful of these little portraits. It was framed in a steel-colored mould- 

Besnard — Decohation in the Vestibule of the Ecole de Pharmacie. 


ing, and a gray-toned white garment reached from high ruff to heels, 
the red hair brought in relief against a steel-gray background. The 
actress sits gazing, with parted lips, at a carved old-ivory figurine 
held in the hand. At once the public knew it as "the fair idolatress, " 
because she was worshiping a graven image. 

This harmony of steel-gray frame and a series of cool and warm 
whites (or grays) in the various parts of the garment and surroundings, 
contrasted with the old-ivory white of the image and the cool flesh 
and red hair, was the first of a long series of these studies in white on 
white and gray on gray. It is the same problem which Rosa Bonheur 
attacked in the oxen-ploughing picture, her first success. 

Principal Works: Joan of Arc (Metropolitan Museum, New York); First Com- 
munion, Village Love, The Haymakers, Grandfather's Portrait, Portrait of Sarah 
Bernhardt, The Potato Harvest. 

Bruno Piglhein (1848-1894, German) was an ingenious man who 
painted a panorama of the crucifixion with great success. Pastels of 
remarkable force and cleverness kept him busy and commanded 
admiration. A. Normann (1848, Norwegian) was a Diisseldorf stu- 
dent, but paints the precipitous fiords of his own country in an original 
and forceful way. Walter Crane (1848-, English) deserves our 
hearty thanks for rescuing the child's picture book from the vulgarities 
of cheapness. Publishers were frightened at the idea of putting much 
money into a child's amusement, but Crane had his way and made the 
success which always attends the ability to please adult and child 
alike with truly meritorious work. His designs are superbly pictorial, 
decorative and suitable, well drawn and entirely original in concep- 
tion. His imitators are legion, but none can surpass him. Walter 
Ouless (1848-. English) delineates character and paints well. Louis 
C. Tiffany (1848-, American) is of the same family as the famous New 
York silversmiths. Educated in Parisian art schools, he returned lo 
invent a new method in making colored glass windows and glass 
mosaics, applying his skill to the production of monumental works 
which have made him famous the world over and placed the art-glass 


product of America on a high plane. Edwin Rowland Blashfield 

(1848-, American) has given his attention to mural and other decora- 
tions of important size, among others some of the important panels in 
the Congressional Library. He does this work with rare excellence. 
Paul Albert Besnard(i849-, French) gained the Prix de Rome, but 
abandoned the classical manner, making of himself one of the most 
remarkable and original painters of France. His color is magnificent, 
though kept well in hand and never garish. In the new Hotel de 
Ville at Paris (a sumptuously decorated building containing the best 
art of France) his decorations are possibly the best. He is sometimes 
classed among the impressionists, though the name applies but little. 
An independent and original worker he certainly is, and the utter 
abandonment of polished finish contrasts his product with that of the 
classical school. At the Luxembourg is a painting from his easel 
called "La Femme qui se Chauffe." A nude woman, just from the 
bath, is seated on the floor of her chamber in front of the grate fire, 
a cup of something hot in her hand, the back toward the spectator. 
No fire is visible, only its glow on the nude flesh reveals its existence. 
This effect has been often attempted, but always with the firelight 
shining in a darkened room. This is broad daylight, the irhpression 
of firelight secured by the contrast of cool flesh with warm glow. The 
woman's hair is a peculiar ashen color, which almost melts into a back- 
ground of a similar tint. Handled with swift, free strokes, the paint- 
ing is so brilliant as to dominate the gallery, though few positive 
pigments are used. He paints his picture to completion in cold black 
and white at first. When this perfect, though colorless, statement is 
quite dry, the brilliant tints are swiftly added, with such certainty of 
touch as to mark the artist as an extraordinary technician. 

Besnard is one of the leaders of the organization known as "The 
New Salon," which is saving the reputation of France as the leading 
art center of the world. 

Emile Wauters (1849-, Belgian) is an historical and portrait painter 
of distinction. Giacomo Favretto (1849-, Italian) is a most brilliant 
colorist and technician, who revivified the life of medieval Venice. 

,AuBOTT H. Thayer — Brother and Sister. 


Ferdinand Brutt (1849-, German) took his subjects from the social and 
the commercial life about him, striking an original note, and painting 
well. Max Lieberniann (1849-, German) fell in with the movement 
inaugurated by Gebhardt, Uhde and others that religious subjects should 
be treated in a realistic manner with types found in the daily life of one's 
immediate environment. He carried it to the extreme of choosing 
woefully ugly models. Finally abandoning this extreme, he paints 
daily life as he sees it without artificially arranged story. Franz 
Skarbina (1849-, German) follows the same ideals in literalism. 
Hans Dahl (1849-, Norwegian) was educated in Diisseldorf, but paints 
his native scenery with important figures, usually with humorous inci- 
dents. Reproductions of his work (in black and white) are very com- 
mon. Michael Ancher (1849-, Danish), with his wife, who is ten years 
younger and an excellent painter, discovered the attractions of a 
north Danish fishing village. Ancher produces fine heads and charac- 
terful action from his fishermen models. J. M. Strudwick (1849-, 
English) follows the mysticism of Burne Jones. Hubert Herkomer 
(1849-, English, Bavarian born) has made a name for himself, though 
handicapped by an unpopular style of technique. His pictures of 
peasant life are full of character and without forced story. His first 
success, "Chelsea Pensioners," shows a powerful characterization of 
ranks of superbly painted veterans in chapel. This picture was 
awarded the first grand medal of honor at the Paris Exposition, 1878. 
He visited America and dared paint very badly many thousand dol- 
lars' worth of portraits, and with this money he started a very per- 
sonal art school near London. Alfred East (1849-, English) is a 
popular painter of spring and autumn landscapes with lively effects. 
John W. Waterhouse (1849-, English) is mystical enough with his 
classical genre to please the English, and rather realistic withal. 

Principal Works of Liebermann: Flax Spinners, Munich Beer Garden. 

Principal Works of Strudwick: St. Cecilia, Ramparts of God's House. 

Principal Works of Herkomer: Last Muster, Eventide, The Chapel of the 

Principal Works of Waterhouse: Herod and Mariatnne. 


Abbott Henderson Thayer (1849-, American) studied in Paris with 
Gerome, but abandoned his master's style to make decorative designs 
of a semi-religious or allegorical character, remarkably original and 
dignified in style. He is worthy to be called "great." Thayer began 
as an animal painter, making such pictures as "Young Lions at Cen- 
tral Park," "Cows Coming from Pasture," "Boy and Dog," "Autumn 
Cornfield," but his reputation is built upon the facts that he is a think- 
ing painter. His drawing is by no means faultless, his color being 
gray makes little impression in a gallery and lacks clearness; but he 
has ideas and, what is worth a great deal, style. There is something 
which recalls the early Florentine School in the "Corps Aile," a girl 
with wings against a blue ground — something mysterious and impres- 
sive. "The Virgin" shows a tender-faced young woman (an Ameri- 
can type) marching breezily across a meadow, leading a boy and a 
girl in either hand. Nothing could be farther removed from imita- 
tion than this trio of faces. They are evidently studied from actual 
individuals who live with us, being of us. In the sky are painted 
clouds which suggest enormous heavenly wings for this angelic 
creature. "The Virgin Enthroned" is owned in Boston, by J. M. 
Sears. The "Caritas" is in the Art Museum at Boston. Thayer's 
birthplace was Boston, and he now lives at Cornwall on the Hudson. 

Principal Works: Caritas (MHseum of Fine Arts, Boston); The Virgin 
Enthroned (Boston); Brother and Sister, The Virgin, Winged Figure, Portrait of 
Two Ladies, The Child with the Kitten. 

Edwin Lord Weeks (1849-1903, American) studied in Paris and 
resides abroad. His motives are found in India and the output is natur- 
alistic and strongly painted but not of the great order. Dwight W. 
Tryon (1849-, American) has struck a note in landscape painting which 
commands the admiration of artists because of fine gray tone and great 
naturalness. He follows the Japanese method of simple, long lines, 
always seeking dignity of effect. Selecting a spot in a New England 
level meadow, where the tall trees range themselves along the dividing 
fence in continuous line, he manages his composition in long hori- 

DwiGHT William Tryon — Early Spring in New England. 


zontal bands. Thus: the green meadow makes one horizontal band, 
the Hne of thin trees another, the low hill behind this long-drawn 
hedge of trees another, the sky another still. This series of varied 
bands, extending from edge to edge of the frame, creates a decora- 
tion suitable for architectural accompaniment; that is to say, it is rest- 
ful and intensely dignified. He selects the early spring, when trees 
are thin and bare, with tender colors; or the late autumn, when the 
same conditions prevail with similar but not the same tints, and this 
manner of procedure has given to us some of the most original com- 
positions in our exhibitions. 



Only one Frenchman of importance, Dagnan-Bouveret, appears in 
this chapter, but the array of Americans is very striking, as Chase, 
Alexander, Abbey, Harrison, Brush, Stewart, Sargent, and Hassam. 
In Italy, Michetti sparkles and Seganlini is vigorous. Zorn comes 
out of Sweden with remarkable things. 

William Merritt Chase 

(/c?^9 — . American.) 

It was in 1869 that a gentleman in St. Louis said, "Come with me, 
I have found a young man who paints so well that I dare not tell him 
how good his work is." It was Chase and he had been in New York 
studying with Wyatt Eaton, showing the effects of moderate training. 
He revealed a remarkable aptitude at painting anything set before 
him, which at that time was mostly still life and an occasional portrait. 

His birthplace was in Indiana, his father a merchant, his mother a 
woman of remarkable sweetness and refinement and given to the pur- 
suit of the fine arts according to the limited opportunities to be found 
in a small place. Chase says that it is to this gentle mother that he 
owes his art tendencies. He was astonishingly clever and self- 
centered even at that early period. With people and paint alike his 
command of the raw material was remarkable. 

St. Louis was raw in those days and artists lived on expectations, 
all except Chase. So great was the impression made that, after two 
years' stay, several persons united in making up a purse for defraying 
his expenses during a long stay in Munich for study at the art acad- 
emy. After rapid advancement in the antique and life classes, and 
the reception of several important prizes, he became a member of 


William M. Chase — Alice. 


Piloty's "Master Class," the highest rank in the school, and in that 
class he gained another and still more important prize. 

A long residence in Venice and Paris caused an early abandonment 
of the mannerisms acquired in Munich, and gave to his painting a 
decided French flavor- He has always been impressionable, revealing 
the influence of the impressionists, of Alfred Stevens, of Whistler, of 
Vollon, of Carriere-Belleuse, but never appearing to imitate any one, 
his own character shining out conspicuously through all the changes. 
Every artist goes through these preliminary periods of experimenting 
with his powers before they are perfectly under his command. 

While in Munich he planned several pictures containing many fig- 
ures, street scenes, original in conception — like a large group of 
prisoners huddled about the gate of a forlorn edifice waiting for some 
officer to conduct them whither they were to be transferred. Much 
invention was displayed, and a feeling for the misery of prison life. 
Lack of funds compelled their abandonment, which was well, as Chase 
has greater talent for giving swift expression to his thoughts than for 
wearisome delving through many months of elaboration. He is 
impulsive and needs to act promptly; then, the genuine talent works 
its forceful influence. Paintings done at one sitting, or redone 
swiftly, show him at his best. All sensitive men are like that, from 
Velasquez to John Sargent. 

Another reason why the abandonment of the elaborate figure pic- 
tures was fortunate lies in the fact that there is no taint of literary art 
in the man's work or his nature. He is a painter-artist emphatically. 
A keen joy in painting for the sake of reproducing nature, of com- 
posing color schemes, of rendering the atmosphere and the surfaces of 
nature, the joy of command over paint, oils, watercolors or pastels, no 
matter what medium, these are not to be indulged in by the laborious 
worker but by the impulsive one. His command of values, of sur- 
faces, distances over flat plains or flat seas, the rendering of textures 
by the slightest means, these are his glory and his pleasure. Unlike 
the men of the "Hudson River School," he cares nothing about 
scenery. When his home was in Brooklyn, he used to slip out to the 

242 THE WUKLJJ'^ rAlJNliiKb 

parks or to the wayside and bring home most beautiful tonal studies — 
completed pictures they were. The washerwoman hanging out 
clothes, white against white, awakened his enthusiasm and set his 
brushes going. His wife and children are a constant irritant to his 
artistic sensibilities. He keeps them always in artistic garments, as if 
his life depended upon such surroundings. They are willing models 
and appear frequently on canvas in the exhibitions, just as they daily 
present themselves to the world, natural, simple and without affecta- 

In portraiture his work is painter work, done for the sake of 
beauty in pose and tonal combinations. Probably did he flatter his 
subjects, as Cabanel could, he might paint more of them. In the 
Paris Exposition of 1900, were hung in places of honor, r"Ladj^ with 
White Shawl," "A Landscape," and "The Big Copper Kettle." 
Nothing in the entire gathering of the world's art was more dignified 
nor finer in tone than that simple, modestly posed woman and nothing 
was more artistic than all his work. The American exhibit ranked 
high. The "Copper Kettle" was in the manner of VoUon. Itookpains 
to visit the Vollon group for purposes of comparison. Though simi- 
lar, the works Were not alike. Was one better than the other? I 
could not tell. 

The command over people displayed in his youth, in St. Louis, 
has never grown less. As an instructor, he is a power; his pupils are 
enthusiastic slaves. At Shinnecock, Long Island, he has created a 
summer school the like of which exists nowhere else.. It is to Chase 
that the famous Art Students League in New York owes most of its 
existence. In saying this, I do not forget the balance wheel, Shirlaw, 
a man older than Chase, who returned from European study at the 
same time, and these two set in motion one of ; the greatest factors in 
the development of American art as we now see it; and the work still 
goes on, though at this time Chase has a large school of his own in 
the city. 

The return of these two educated and enthusiastic men (and others 
like them) sounded the knell of the Hudson River School. The 

Dagnan-Bouveret — Madonna. 


National Academy, controlled by the old coterie, tried to freeze them 
out, but they organized the Society of American Artists (1878) which 
disputes with the Academy the respectabilities in art matters and 
excels it in true artistic value. However, the Academy found itself 
obliged to put out an anchor to windward and presently was only too 
glad to elect Chase a full National Academician. 

The landscape about Shinnecock, the location of the summer 
school, is a forlorn stretch of weed and-brush-grown undulation. On 
my first visit there, I made the remark to one of the students, "What 
did anyone start an art school in this wilderness for? — there is nothing 
to paint." The student at once waxed enthusiastic over the beauties 
of the wilderness and looked upon me with contempt. There was 
color, distance, undulation and the sky over it all with its ever-chang- 
ing glories — was not that enough for any serious young painter? 
Surely, this tells the story of the change from the scenery-seeking old 
school to the art-loving and educated new; and it reveals Chase's 
influence over his pupils, that they should wax enthusiastic over 
paintings of this barren waste, unfit for other than purely artistic uses. 
This man has been and still is a mighty factor in the development of 
American art. 

Principal Works : Alice (Art Institute, Chicago) ; Portrait of President Eliot 
of Harvard; Lady with the White Shawl, A Landscape, The Big Copper Kettle, 
and many portraits. 

August von Kaulbach (1850-, German) is a descendant of the 
great Wilhelm and paints, for color's sake, many charming female 
heads and some imitations of Titian in religious art. Heinrich 
Zugel (1850-, German) paints sheep in a remarkably realistic way. 
Frederik Hendrik Apol (1850-, Dutch) is a success with winter land- 
scapes. Julius Kronberg (1850-, Swedish) goes in for color like the 
Venetians of old. Ernest A. Waterlow (1850-, English) has been 
influenced in his landscape painting by different celebrated men from 
Mason to Corot. 

Gotthard Kuehl (1851-, German) is a colorist, painting church 
interiors in an excellent manner. Gustave Hellquist (1851-1890, 


Swedish) studied in Munich, but soon became one of the leaders in 
the painting of pictures in the open air, securing a fine tone, better 
than then known by his masters. Historical painting was occupying him 
when lunacy ended his valuable life. Peter S. Kroyer (1851-, Danish) 
has had a wide influence on the art of his country. He studied with 
Bonnat in Paris and paints admirable heads, as well as figures in land- 
scape and by the sea. Foreign academies have bestowed honors upon 
him, each most worthily given, because he is a fine painter. Viggo 
Johansen (1851-, Danish) makes beautiful and poetical landscapes. 
Viggo Pedersen (185 1-, Danish) learned of the French impressionists 
to paint his landscapes in the open air. 

Pascal Adolphe Jean Dagnan-Bouveret (1852-, French) is one 
of the cleverest painters of the present time, but it is doubtful if pos- 
terity will give him a high place in the line of talented men. As a 
genre painter, his pictures are composed on dignified lines and the 
technique is the embodiment of solidity, with drawing not to be sur- 
passed. Later he painted Norman peasants at the "pardon" in a 
vigorous fashion, with simple directness and few colors. Quite 
recently several religious pictures, large in size, very rich in color and 
original in treatment, have appeared. "The Supper at Emmaus" 
shows the Saviour seated, with outspread hands so as to form a pyram- 
idal figure, against a sky of remarkable yellow brilliancy. He 
breaks the bread, a round loaf, into exactly equal halves. The 
apostles and the attendants are startled into expressions carried to the 
point of grotesqueness. At one side is a group of the artist and his 
wife and little son in the attitude of adoration, and these are remark- 
ably well-considered and noble figures, quite redeeming the otherwise 
over-dramatic conception. 

Principal Works: The Horse Pond (Luxembourg) ; A Wedding at the Photog- 
rapher's, The Nuptial Benediction, The Consecrated Bread, Bretonnes au Pardon. 

Jan van Beers (1852-, Belgian), though a Belgian, spends his life 
in Paris, painting extravagant figures, very Parisienne women done 
with a cleverness which startles the beholder. Paolo Michetti (1852-, 

Dagnan-Bouveret — Bretons at the Paedon. 


Italian) is another of the wonderfully clever technicians and colorists 
that recent times have produced in Italy. When very young he 
was already a good painter. His "Springtime and Love" (Art Insti- 
tute, Chicago) is full of sunshine and studded with little nude figures 
of girls and boys enjoying the fine air on a hill by the sea; the 
embodiment of cleverness. Johannes Christian Karel Klinkenberg 
(1852-, Dutch) produces sunlight effects with the houses and canals of 
Holland for material. He is an original, decorative genius. August 
Hagborg' (1852-, Swedish) loves the wide reaches of strand when the 
tide is far out, finding there broad masses of gray ground and silver 
sky against which to pose fisher people. 

Edwin A. Abbey 

(18^2 — . American, b. Philadelphia.) 

I have no patience with the plaintive wailing about American 
artists who see fit to reside for lengthy periods, or all their lives in 
Europe. Why should they not? It is a much better place to carry 
on art work. I know some of these men. Are they lacking in 
patriotism? Not in the least. The statements about their ways, 
which we read in some books, are not true, except in the case of the 
small men who never will nor could make a mark anywhere. The men 
whose names occur in this history are as patriotic and as interested in 
the doings of the House' of Representatives as we who stay at home, 
and sometimes they judge much better of the movement than those 
who are in the dust of the battle on this side. Also, it is true that 
their art is in no sense lost to America, neither is their influence. 
Their works are largely sold to Americans. If I mistake not, the 
patriotism of Sargent and Abbey when they refused much well-paid 
work in order to execute the decorations in Boston for the sake of 
their love of art and pride in the land of their birth, is not equaled by 
any considerable number of us who stay at home. Art is cosmo- 
politan. There is no national art, though there may be racial 
sentiment. Nationality in art (so called) is not for this age of steam- 
ships and other distance killers. Is the art of Holland "national"? 


A mixture of the Barbizon School and the personality of Josef 
Israels is the distinguishing feature of Dutch art, except certain 
effects of the French impressionists and such other matters. The 
art of Holland in the seventeenth century was an outcome of Italian 
art as used by literalists. No two Dutchmen painted alike. Hals, 
Rembrandt, Douw, Steen — which of them was specifically the 
Dutchman? Are they at all alike except in the matter of black 
hats and white ruffs? It is the personality of the man which makes 
art. What man could be more an American than John S. Sar- 
gent, even if he has lived his life in Europe, and which home- 
staying American has had more influence upon the art of stay-at- 
homes than Whistler? What I wish most to insist upon is that their art 
is largely made up of American influences, displayed in American gal- 
leries and hung in American homes. Therefore Abbey is" a good. 

Abbey lives in the suburbs of London (village of Broadway). His 
works have been abundantly published in American magazines. Many 
of his pictures are owned in America. He is not only a Royal but a 
National Academician. At this moment, Edward VII. has commis- 
sioned him to paint the scene of the coronation. 

Abbey has been criticized because he did not decorate the delivery 
room of the Boston public library with subjects from the history of 
Massachusetts. Such subjects would have been appropriate, certainly. 
But the story of the Holy Grail is that of yourself and of myself, and 
of every soul tormented with the universal struggle between good and 
evil, between generosity and selfishness. 

It astonished the world to see this man, who had spent so many 
years in making pen and ink drawings, suddenly produce these 
immense oil paintings and do them so well. They are not absolutely 
first efforts in oil painting, his previous experience with the medium 
being very limited. In color, they are full and rich, grading from the 
clear red of the garments of Sir Galahad to the soft whites of various 
figures. Some maintain that too much color was bestowed upon them 
for mural decorations, but this is a feeling which I do not share. 



They seem to me suitable and very impressive. The series of panels 
is eight feet high, extending around the large room, above a high 

The labor of making these library decorations has been immense, 
and the sum paid for them is ridiculous as compared with that paid 
him for the Shakespeare series of black-and-white drawings. Very 
few can appreciate the amount of research, the seeking for correct 
costumes and their manufacture, the journeys to study bits of correct 
architecture and scenes, which this extensive frieze required. He 
was somewhat prepared for it by the study of the Shakespeare 
illustrations, though that was another subject. Upon matters con- 
nected with the Elizabethan age, few are so learned or possess so 
much material. His great studio is becoming a museum of valuable 

Abbey had a limited art school experience in America, but never 
submitted himself to that long-continued drill in drawing which is an 
essential to the painters of the Gerome and Bouguereau type. As a 
consequence, his drawing is not always severely correct. However, 
it is so varied, so lifelike and so expressive of the subject, that the 
most exacting critics wonder at his productions. Magnificently mas- 
terful in pen-and-ink work, in no way mechanical, it is a question 
whether he has a rival. The celebrated Vierge (Spanish-French) is 
the exemplar of nearly all the black-and-white workers, but does not 
seem to have largely influenced Abbey. Compared to him, the 
American is less well regulated but more expressive. It will be hard 
to discover an artist so fertile in fancy, so endlessly varied in design 
for every subject and period. Everything is so fresh, so graceful, so 
different from anything that came before, that each new issue of a 
magazine with his drawings becomes a treasure to be sought out and 
cherished. Constantly in demand, he would naturally be tempted to 
do careless things, but nothing less than his best has ever come from 
his hands. 

Principal Works: Illustrations of Herrick, Shakespeare, She Stoops to Con- 
quer. Decorations: "The Quest of the Holy Grail," in the Boston Public Library. 


Christian Krohg (1852-, Norwegian) finds his material among the 
fisher folk of his country, and paints it well. Eilif Peterssen (1852-, 
Norwegian) after studying in Germany and imitating several masters, 
settled down to an excellent naturalism with the landscape of his own 
land. Vacslav Brozic (1852-1901, Bohemian) secured an education in 
Paris and was induced by the picture dealers (as was Munkacsy) to 
paint historical pictures, as the "Columbus at Salamanca." He paid no 
attention the art of his own country. Edward Simmons (1852-, 
American) has done some admirable decorative work in our public 
buildings, and this is the present best hope of American art. 

Frank Dicksee (1853-, English) illustrated Shakespeare with many 
paintings and has made sentimental story pictures. J. Francis 
Murphy (1853-, American) commands fine tone in his landscapes but 
has struck no original note. William Dannat (1853-, American) 
studied with Munkacsy and developed remarkable talent and strength. 
He found in Spain some life which has been rendered with an origin- 
ality worthy of all praise, whether popularly appreciated or not. 
Alexander Harrison (1853-, American) has given many evidences of 
real genius, changing his style many times and always producing 
something which commanded the admiration of artists. He can color 
richly or gravely, but never fails to color well, doing both figures and 

Principal Works: Au Bord de la Mer, Shipwrecked, Coast of Brittany, 
Chateaux en Espagne, The Amateurs, Little- Slave, Harbor of Concarneau, Pebbly 
Beach, Breton Garden, Twilight, The Shipwrecked of Glenans, Seashore, The 
Wave, In Arcady. 

Will H. Low (1853-, American), after serious study in Paris, 
returned to America to follow in the footsteps of the neo-classicists 
(Gerome, Cabanel, etc.), making pictures of nymphs and similar 
mythology. His illustrations of Keats are noted, possibly more so 
than they deserve. It is doubtful if the designing of the new paper 
money was placed in good hands when he received the commission. 
Paul Hoecker (1854-, German) works for color's sake in making pic- 





turesque Dutch interiors. Christian Skredsvic (1854-, Norwegian) 
has very tender poetical sentiment and soft color in his landscapes, 
doing also religious pictures with figures from the life of to-day. 
Walter Dendy Sadler (1854-, English) secured his art education in 
Diisseldorf aud returned to England to revivify the life of old stage- 
coaching days in a manner unusually good, though conventional. 
Leonard Ochtman (1854-, American) lives near New York and paints 
the landscape of Connecticut with marked originality and tenderness 
and in good color. 

Karl Nordstrom (1855-, Swedish) paints the night and waning day 
with force and tenderness. M. Larsson (1855-, Swedish) is a brilliant 
landscapist who searches for somewhat extravagant color. Erick 
Werenskiold (1855-, Norwegian) illustrates national fairy tales most 
acceptably and paints figures with realism. Karl Edvard Dircks 
(1855-, Norwegian) finds his motives along the shores of his native 
land. Nils Hansteen (1855-, Norwegian) also makes marines. 
Yeend King (1855-, English) is a genre painter such as the English 
admire and is better than the common. George Be Forest Brush 
(1855-, American) is a rather remarkable character, seeking to use his 
excellent Parisian training in the production of serious art, whether 
popular or not. His wife and children have posed in a manner sug- 
gestive of the holy family and the resultant art is admirable, com- 
manding a leading position in national and international expositions. 

Principal Works : Silence Broken, Mourning Her Brave, The Sculptor and the 
King; Mother and Child (Boston Museum of Fine Arts); Mother and Child (Academy 
of Fine Arts, Philadelphia) ; The Artist's Family. 

Jules L. Stewart (1855-, American) lives in Paris and is the son 
of the American known as "Sugar Stewart," who was the first impor- 
tant patron of Fortuny. The young man was brought up in the studio 
of Madrazo, Fortuny's pupil, and given every advantage, which his 
career honors because, though not a great genius, he is a serious stu- 
dent of nature and has produced some strange and admirable original 
effects in color and realistic treatment. 


Stewart's "Hunt Ball" is a large picture filled with men and women 
in motion, as the title indicates. The men are in red and the women 
in pale tints. It is a brilliant example of stuff-painting, resembling in 
texture the work of Madrazo. More recently, he has studied the 
effects of sunlight as manifest when a nude figure holds up variously- 
colored stuffs through which the brilliant light penetrates, throwing 
very strange tints on the flesh which contrast with the reflections from 
the brilliantly-lighted green grass. The strangeness and originality of 
these studies and their sincere truth command the attention of artists 
who understand the difficulties overcome and the keenness of observa- 
tion required. If it .may not be called "great," it is at least admirable. 

Principal Works: Court in Cairo, Five O'clock Tea, The Hunt Ball, Full 

Claus Meyer (1856-, German) places his figures under the light of 
some large window where the whites in his draperies will have to be 
seen against it, thus conquering difficult light effects and studying 
subtle truths of nature. Max Klinger (1856-, German) is a painter of 
poetic fancies in a dignified way, sometimes a trifle morbid in his con- 

John Singer Sargent 

{i8$6 — . American.) 

If a portrait express character as well as likeness, it may be the 
greatest of all works of art. Portraits of unknown personages, like 
Rembrandt's "Gilder," are more fascinating than most great compo- 
sitions. They quicken the imagination and show forth all the won- 
derful skill of their makers. In the Paris Exposition of 1900 I saw a 
painting of a woman's figure in the robe of a university doctor, black 
against a black background, relieved only by the purple scarf and the 
flesh color of face and hand, a most monotonous composition; yet it 
fixed my attention more than almost anything else. That Sargent had 
painted it was plain, but more than that I knew not, nor cared. The 
pose was simple and quietly dignified; the expression of face car- 



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George de F. Brush — Mother and Child. 


ried that peculiar something which proclaims masterfulness, the hand 
was not especially highly finished, but it had power. The subtlety of 
the entire work overpowered my senses. The Jewish woman (Mrs. 
Meyer) with the two children, on the opposite wall, was wonderful, 
but this outdid it as an example of subtle delineation. Not alone was 
the brush-work more direct and frank than anything else in sight, 
and the color superb; it was the power of expression which will make 
this live as a wonderful work. The subect, as I afterward learned, 
was President Thomas of Bryn Mawr. 

On another dark canvas, looming out of the blackness, only a 
head, hands and a quite lively red tongue down in the corner were 
visible. Closer inspection revealed an owner for the tongue — a black 
French poodle lost in the black atmosphere; but the spark in the 
beast's eye glimmered brightly. The head belonged to a man and 
one hand held a cigar, not too easily seen. Nothing but the face 
showed plainly. Such a face! A mixture of stupidity and shrewd- 
ness — a marvelously suggestive expression. How does it happen that 
people allow a man to paint such pictures of themselves? Contrast 
this with the amiably adjusted portraits by Cabanel. That face was 
painted with fewer master strokes than any that my memory recalls. 

The larger canvas, with group of three (Mrs. Meyer and children) 
occupied the place of honor. The lady sat on a silk-tapestried and 
gold-framed sofa, her children leaning over the back, one of them in 
steel-gray. This made contrast with the extensively spread-out rose 
silk dress of the mother. As passages of swift, determined brush- 
work, even Velasquez could not surpass it. But this is a detail of 
minor importance. Character is what tells in Sargent's work. Who 
can describe character? 

Much is said about the influence of Velasquez upon Sargent, but 
usually nothing more than technique is taken into consideration. 
Goya is one of his favorites also. Sargent had, more than any other 
that I know, the Spaniard's peculiarities of genius. Referring to the 
passages in this writing on Velasquez, it will be seen that his pecu- 
liarity was a Spanish one — the ability to see in a face what no other 


man ever could discover and note down. Sargent is next in that line 
of talent. 

In a century or two, the art lovers will gather about the works of 
"the great American" and purchasers will pay enormous prices for 
them. This is not an exalted fancy, but beyond doubt to be a reality. 
Good technique would not accomplish this, but great characterization 

Sargent's parents were young Americans of means who lived in 
Florence for a year before this boy was born. Who knows what 
subtle influence of that enthusiastic mother's delight over the art she 
studied enabled nature to make this great painter? Add to this the 
fact that he was educated in that city of art glories and the results are 
explained. But education alone never made a genius. 

Some have complained that he is not an American because his 
home has always been in Europe. But in the late Paris Exposition 
his work was the center of attraction in the American section of fine 
arts, and it stood out as the most American thing in it. 

"American art" is not necessarily American in subject. All 
subjects are alike to a good artist; it is altogether a question of the 
character displayed in the painting This man's aggressiveness, 
independence, quickness of perception and general expertness are 
entirely American. Wherever he lives or whatever he paints, he will 
be American. It is a matter of no importance whether his sitter be a 
Jewess in London or Madame Fifth-Avenue. 

At the Pan-American Exposition (Buffalo, 1901) two tall figures, 
in outing costume of linen stuffs, the man holding a tennis racquet, 
made the subject matter of Sargent's most important picture (owned 
by I. N. Phelps Stokes, Esq.). The swift strokes forming the 
white trousers and skirt of the figures were uncompromisingly long 
lines of positive drawing — the entire rendering of textures was 
naturalistic, and yet done with the most direct means. Everything 
else in that well-hung gallery seemed labored and tediously manipu- 
lated by comparison. All the flesh was normal and cool. The woman 
smiles, not sweetly, but with an expression of personality bordering 

J. S. Sargent — Portkait of Homer St. Gaudens. 


on caricature. Still, people seek for these peculiar pictures of them- 
selves. There is no character painting, perhaps, which does not 
strike us as caricature, so accustomed are we to the sweetened and 
fancifully managed portrait. 

His first Salon success was in 1879, with a portrait of his master, 
Carolus Duran, done so much in the manner of his master that 
envious people declared that Carolus himself had painted most of it. 
But the work was marked by peculiarities so unlike those of the mas- 
ter that this accusation fell on stony ground It was the Salon sensa- 
tion. His work known as "The Hall of the Four Children" came 
soon afterward: a spacious arrangement, the hall having openings and 
portieres rendered in grave, rich tones. Three of the children were in 
the background, the little one playing near the center on the floor. 
With these was the portrait of an enormous Chinese vase, against 
which one of the children was leaning. Nothing like it occurs in any 
of the museums, and the impression made was as great as the origin- 
ality of the composition, the superiority of the color and brush-work 
and the personality of the expressions. 

Wonderful as are Sargent's decorations of the Boston Public 
Library, it is doubtful if they surpass his portraits as manifestations of 
genius. In them we see how a man may undertake a task which has 
occupied the best of the world's artists in all ages, and still find a new 
way of expressing himself. Where are we to find a prototype for that 
vault overhead? Some declare that it is Byzantine, but it is not that 
except as it is archaic in sentiment, rather than according to the 
classicism of the school of Raphael. Its management is startlingly 
original, with heads modelled in relief and great seeming confusion in 
arrangement. As decoration for an unbroken surface, few efforts can 
compare with it. The frieze of prophets is noble in its series of 
monumental figures, which are more like other men's work than the 
vault. Much as they are admired, I feel them to be less characterful 
than the portraits. 

Sargent is an English Royal Academician and an American 
National Academician. He illustrates the benefits of hard work in 


the best Parisian schools, a thorough understanding of all technique 
and principles of picture-making as they may be used by an original 
genius, and he proves that training does not stunt anyone's growth or 
dry up his freshness, as it is claimed by some that long training is 
sure to do. 

Principal Works: Carmencita (Luxembourg) ; EI Jaleo, Mrs. Meyer and Chil- 
dren, Beatrix, The Hall of the Four Children, Carnation Lily — Lily Rose; Portraits 
of Carolus Duran, Homer St. Gaudens, William M. Chase, Henry D. Marquand, 
Ellen Terry as Lady Macbeth, Col. Higginson, Mrs. Fiske-Warren, and many others ; 
Decorations in the Boston Public Library, called "The Triumph of Religion." 

Charles H. Davis (1856-, American), the hermit of Mystic, Conn., 
lives with nature, painting beautifully what he sees, or reproducing 
his impressions in the quiet of his country studio. John W. Alex- 
ander (1856-, American) has abandoned Paris for New York. There 
is no more original portrait painter of our nationality, and his rank in 
Europe is not a low one. Magnificent conceptions of the sweep of 
lines and original poses have commanded wide admiration. Alexander 
is another who uses few pigments and with them secures extraordinary 
variety of color. With him it is a question of lines and masses rather 
than of characterization. He seeks beautiful effects through these 
qualities and through a certain diffused color which has a peculiar 
magnetism. His individuality is very marked. His work has distinction. 

Principal Works: Portrait of Walt Whitman (Metropolitan Museum, New 
York) ; Isabella and the Pot of Basil (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston) ; Portrait of a 
Woman, The Blue Bowl, The Ray of Sunhght, A Mother. 

Robert Haug (1857-, German) does military pictures, not quite 
literal because seeking for sentimentality. Frank Bramley (1857-, 
English) is a genre painter of the better sort. Wyllie (1857-, English) 
knows the details of the picturesque craft which ply the Thames in a 
manner to excite admiration and his paintings give much of the senti- 
ment of the great port of London. Bruce Crane (1857-, American) is 
a landscape painter who has made many very attractive pictures. Nils 
Kreuger (1858-, Swedish) is another who painted the mystery of 


night with fine effect. Horatio Walker (1858-, American) is counted 
as remarkable for sincere study and rendering of landscape with 
domestic animals and figures. He secures the rare virtue called 
style. Even when he paints pigs, there is fine style in the picture. 
Giovanni Segantini (1858-1899, Italian). Decorated with crape, a 
considerable collection of this artist's works hung in the Paris Expo- 
sition of 1900. Three of the largest represented the top of the Alps, 
treated in a very strange manner in composition and handling. The 
paint was laid as if embroidered with heavy cords. The effect was 
startling, truthful in a sense, rarely equaled and revealing an observa- 
tion of nature scarcely surpassed by anything in the entire exposition. 
Some called it an affectation, but it carried the conviction of sincerity 
and truth. 

Nils Gustav Wenzel (1859-, Norwegian) is one of those who 
studied with Piloty and then in Paris, returning to his own land to 
create a landscape art entirely national and excellent. Childe 
Hassam (1859-, American) is a follower of Claude Monet in his use of 
color and has secured some effects of light and atmosphere which 
almost no one has excelled, with tender and rich color most admirable 
to see. His figures are bathed in atmosphere and light. Hassam 
painted a young woman playing the piano in front of an open window, 
the daylight falling on masses of greenery and reflecting this light 
over the polished surface of the piano, until the two seemed bathed in 
one liquid atmosphere. Nothing useless, nothing obtrusive, nothing 
but the solitary statement of white-clad woman, shining light and 
vibration of atmosphere intruded on the senses. Upon the piano top 
stood several transparent glass vases holding variously-colored pop- 
pies. The manner in which he hinted at the vases (which an ordinary 
artist would have delighted to elaborate) and the tender way that he 
made the brilliant flowers serve the arrangement of the composition, 
just enough and no more, was amazingl)' good. 

Jan Toorop (i860-, Dutch) is a mystic who creates decorative 
panels with original lines and combinations of colors. He certainly 


has remarkable talent and fills a place in art now becoming more 
and more appreciated. Bruno Liljefors (i860-, Swedish) mani- 
fested so little talent that his masters despaired. So he retired to the 
country and communed with nature, painting animals and figures in a 
new and excellent way. Anders Zorn (i860-, Swedish) is a man of 
extraordinary character and a painter who goes about many countries 
executing portraits as a prince who can command the world. In 
observation of nature and rendering its truths in his own bold and orig- 
inal way, no one is his superior. His omnibus interior (at Columbian 
Exposition), a night scene in which the passengers are exposed to the 
blasts of electric and gas light commingled, is a marvel of true 
observation. Certain pictures of the stout nymphs of his own country, 
bathing from the rocks, were considered somewhat too realistic, but 
that is merely a matter of opinion. There is no reason why we should 
have the dictation of the style of nymph he is to study, so long as he 
paints them so superbly. Zorn's color is gray. He uses a great deal 
of black and red, duly qualified with yellows. This simple palette in 
his hands produces a series of tones of wonderful tenderness and 
variety, the more so when his bold brush-stroke and ability to manage 
light and shade are considered. Of course in landscape there are the 
essential greens and blues to make nature's colors, but with it all the 
color is tonal. Extraordinary ability to see the refinements of 
expression in a face and to catch the evanescent effects of unusual 
appearances, as in the already mentioned "Omnibus," constitute his 
principal claim to genius. In etching he is easily close to the head. 

Principal Works: The Omnibus (Boston) ; The Ripple of the Waves, Portraits 
of Mrs. Potter Palmer, Mrs. Deering, Mr. Caton, and many others. 

Julius Paulsen (i860-, Danish) produces figure pictures with great 
breadth and an original sentiment. Solomon J. Solomon (i860-, 
English) was educated on the continent and returned to take up the 
painting of nymphs after the manner somewhat of Sir F. Leighton. 

Principal Works: Cassandra, Samson, Niobe, Laus Deo. 

John W. Alexander — Portrait of a Woman. 


Frank W; Benson (1862-, American) is one of the serious students 
of unusual effects, such as firelight on flesh and other difficult phenom- 
ena. His decorations, "The Seasons," at the Congressional Library 
are among the best. Otto Reiniger (1863-, German) is a Stuttgart 
artist who has great feeling for tonal landscape. Frans Stuck (1863-, 
German) is an original genius, making ideal renderings of mythologi- 
cal and religious subjects with strong light and shade and mysterious 
effects. Complained of as not a good colorist, he has recently given 
proof of extraordinary power in using newly-found, rich tones. 

Prince Eugene of Sweden (1864-) has done much for the art of his 
country and paints a landscape which gives another evidence of the 
vitality of the royal family of Sweden. He loves those new effects 
which the young men invent, and this is in contrast with the practice 
and sentiment of too many conservative reigning houses. 



This chapter gives the names of some artists who are now forming 
the frontier guard in art matters. It is followed by a final review of 
the situation, and a few pages on "Schools of Art," as they have been 
conventionally classified. 

Several Rising Frenchmen 

There are important contemporary French painters who keep up 
the traditions of the country for excellence in technique, marked 
talent and originality in conception of their art. 

Rene Me'nard took his inspiration from Bastien-Lepage, but as 
early as his second Salon exhibition (1884) had already formed a style 
of his own, which revealed something of the influence of the Barbizon 
School. His observation of nature is strikingly faithful, yet he has 
"style' ' in his rendering. Nude women standing or wading in shallow 
water of the wide spreading sea or the woodland lake, give him oppor- 
tunity to show his training in drawing and his ability to imagine large 
effects. This is not at all the style of nude given us by Cabanel or 
Lefebvre, but a bolder and more dignified rendering of truth. "Le 
Troupeau," at the Luxembourg, represents cattle drawing near water 
to drink, but it is the superb largeness and extent of the landscape 
which catches and holds the attention. It is not a "cattle picture"; 
the group of animals is used, like the masses of trees, as a part of the 
vast landscape. 

Charles Cottet is a power at each salon with his peculiar and 
truthful renderings of figures, largely subjects drawn from people 
living on the French sea coast (Brittany). "L'Enfant Mort" repre- 
sents a Breton family kneeling about the corpse of an infant which has 


Carriehe — Maternity. 


been laid out on a white-spread table with a few pathetically meagre 
candles and such greenery and flowers as the locality furnished. The 
little body is mounted for view, dressed in its quaint costume, while 
the window above it centers the light over the white spot. All Cot- 
tet's figure pieces are realistic in a new way and have an individuality 
peculiar to the artist. His color for these sad subjects is dark and 
approaching blackness, but in other works the color is rich and bril- 
liant. He often paints the sea with boats entering or leaving the 
fisher havens at dawn or twilight. Though something resembling story 
often appears in Cottet's pictures, he religiously avoids the story-tell- 
ing habit of the usual genre painter. He cares nothing about the 
details or the literalness of the furnishings on tables or in rooms, never 
allowing them to absorb the attention, using such details sparingly and 
secondarily. His "story" is only sufficient to act as a vehicle to carry 
the mighty sentiment of the life of this serious Breton people. His 
is a nobly conceived art, the dignity sustained by deep tones of color 
and massive forms. 

Principal Works: Rayons du Soir (Luxembourg) ; Series of pictures called Au 
Pays de la Mer ; Triptych entitled Le Repas d' Adieu, Ceux qui s'en Vont, Celles 
qui restent. 

Henri Jean Guillaume Martin reveals many elements of genius, 
using color with the spotty handling of pure touches of pigment, as 
invented by Monet, but carrying the effects farther than Monet did. 
"Chacun sa Chimere" (property of the government) represents people 
with hobbies in a very poetical manner. "Serenite" (belonging to the 
government) is a large picture with tall pine-tree stems reaching like 
harp strings up and down across the entire canvas, and floating amid 
them are figures, in rose-tinted costumes, bearing musical instruments 
in their hands. Soft rays of the declining sun filter through the trees, 
the seated figures in pale draperies seem serenely contented as they 
watch those musicians gliding through the air. It is a peaceful land- 
scape inhabited by peace. The entire abandonment of details allows 
of no distraction from the lofty expression of the one sentiment — 
serenity. The canvas is beautiful in color, poetic in treatment and 


managed in the Japanese manner. Martin received a grand prixat the 
exposition, Paris, 1900. His mural decorations at the Paris H6tel de 
Ville are counted among the good ones in that wonderfully beautiful 

The number of these talented men is considerable, and there is no 
occasion for imagining that French art is declining. 

Edmond Aman-Jean has not alone talent of the highest order but 
produces dignified art, serious in its purpose. Each generation of the 
Anglo-Saxon race, not understanding the French character, has its 
outcry over French frivolity. In each generation there has been 
frivolity, but it is not on the increase. The men mentioned here are 
not frivolous and the majority of French artists are as serious to-day 
as they ever were. 

Aman-Jean reveals the influence of the Japanese artists, who taught 
Europeans to see nature simply and in nearly flat masses. It is also 
correct to declare that this artist and others have been influenced by 
the American, Whistler, who was one of the first to partake of the 
Japanese delicacies. Whistler invented a flesh tone, not pinkish 
but gray, and this tone is found in Aman-Jean's faces. Whistler 
reduced the modeling of his faces to its simplest parts, only subtly 
revealing the rotundity; Aman-Jean does the same. In the Lux- 
embourg he has a figure of a woman (probably a portrait) seated 
and nearly profile. The dress is reduced to its simplest parts, and in 
color recalls that strange, indescribable purplish hue which the Japan- 
ese painters of the good period in the last century used so variedly 
and so charmingly. So the bit of yellowish scarf is in a Japanese 
tone, and all the hair, the background, the slight suggestion of plant 
forms are entirely Japanese in treatment. All painting in the world, 
however noble, resembles that of some previous generation; why not 
this of Aman-Jean? It is nobly done, indicating the results of serious 
academical training but abandoning the traditions of the classicists of 
Italy as they are taught in the Ecole des Beaux Arts, All the choice 
pictures of Aman-Jean in the Exposition of 1900 were of this sort — 

Edmond Aman-Jean — Pohtkait of a Young Woman. 


Japanese in sentiment and treatment. Several of them were mural 

decorations, to which this style lends itself so kindly. The students 

of to-day admire Aman-Jean and his influence upon them is vigorous. 

Principal Works: La Jeuiie Fille au Paon; Portrait (Luxembourg); Venetia. 

Eugene Carriere is another Frenchman who reveals Whistler's 
influence, though he is less directly like the Japanese than the last 
man mentioned. It is Whistler's more recent style of using nearly 
black tones — always refined and colorful black — and his non-pink 
flesh tones which Carriere has adopted. However, where Whistler is 
firm and masterful in touch, Carriere is inclined to be vague in hand- 
ling though clear in thought. All his pictures suggest that he made 
them out of dark smoke. One day he became jocose at his own expense 
when visiting the Luxembourg and confronting his own work: 
"Voila — some one has been smoking in the nursery." The picture 
was a domestic scene. One of his most important works at the Expo- 
sition of igoo was the interior of a popular theater, the spectator sup- 
posed to be in one of the higher galleries looking across to the other 
tiers of galleries over the vast emptiness of the space, below which is 
the stage, though the latter is invisible. The lights are turned down 
and all is somber, vaguely lighted from the glow of the performance. 
This light reveals the faces of the nearer occupants of the circling gal- 
lery seats and in the obscurity of the distant galleries we see the mul- 
titudinous audience, all enveloped in the vapory smoke. It is not 
generally supposed that he intended to state that every one in the 
house was smoking cigars, though the effect suggests this. Which- 
ever way he intended this smokiness to be understood, it is true that 
all his work is bathed in it, as suggested by his own witticism. He is 
as clever in his treatment of this effect as any one has a right to be. 
Certainly his school training must have been of the best, because every 
line of the drawing is learned. Studying his dignified domestic scenes 
(Luxembourg), and forgetting what some other artist has painted in 
the same manner, they become vigorously impressive. 

Principal Works: Portrait Group, Motherhood (l^uxembourg); Alphonse 
Daudet and his Daughter Esmee, Theatre Populaire, L'Enfant Malade. 


Some Artists in England 

There was a group of painters in Scotland known as "the Glasgow 
School." They battled for recognition by legitimate display of 
talent, without the aid of any literary "promoter." Created by the 
influence of the Barbizon School, the recent Dutch painters and Whis- 
tler, and most of them of Parisian art-school training, they evolved' 
a style of their own, which commanded the admiration of the European 
and American collectors. In manner they differ widely, only having in 
common the sentiment of poetic treatment and largeness of style. 
Their habit was to meet in one of the studios and criticise their col- 
lected works, even retouching the paintings for each other; then voting 
which should be exhibited at their public appearance, for they never 
exhibited except collectively. The group is now scattered. 

Probably the strongest is Sir James Guthrie, recently made Presi- 
dent of the Royal Scottish Academy, who is a fine coloristand a daring 
painter of figures and portraits. His arrangments are unique and 
picturesque while always in good taste. E. A. Hornell is decorative 
in the management of his figure subjects, leaning to the Japanese man- 
ner, making highly-colored spottings much resembling the effects of 
stained glass. M. R. Stevenson paints landscapes of wonderful poetic 
sentiment, often reproducing the twilight tenderly and without any of 
the garishness which so often vulgarizes such effects. W. Y. Mac- 
Gregor (not Robert) and James Paterson are landscape painters to 
be proud of, with tender tones and many resemblances to Corot, though 
more solid in treatment. John Lavery is a painter of portraits, hand- 
ling his matter very loosely, merely suggesting the surfaces but always 
with knowledge and power. His color is grave but luminous in its 
depths. The originality and quaintness of his arrangements, the inno- 
cent air of his children and the abandonment of all academical con- 
ventionalities proclaim him an artist far higher in rank than the "fine 
painters." These were the leaders, though the list could be' extended. 

Principal Works of Guthrie: In the Orchard, Portrait of Rev. Dr. Gardner, 
Portrait of a Lady. 

Cecilia Beaux — Mother and Son. 


A man of Welch extraction, Frank Brangwyn,has made a name 
for himself by the use of remarkable color, very low in tone and the 
pigments laid as pure and rich as possible. Many of his subjects are 
poetic in a dignified way. His work suggests painted windows, and 
he has invented many fine designs for actual windows. 

William Stott, recently deceased, was a warm friend of the 
American artist, Alexander Harrison, and the two influenced one 
another in the matter of reproducing the female nude in peculiar con- 
ditions of the light of out-of-doors. Stott was fond of painting nudes 
in the surf of the sea, and gave to them a peculiar wildness as if they 
were children of the open who had never known the restraints of 
clothing. Byam Shaw follows, to a certaint extent, the influence of 
the Preraphaelites, though never slavishly. He is a colorist in that he 
reproduces the brilliant tints of draperies correctly. But he fails to 
impress the spectator with his serious subjects because of the interest 
excited by this same brilliant coloring and a too faithful rendering of 
textures, thus distracting the attention from more important matters. 
He is sermonizing very often in his pictures, as in the little work: 

"Maggie has written a letter to give me my choice between 
A wee little whimpering Love and the great God Nic-o-tine;' 

representing a young man seated in his smoking den, surrounded by 
luxuries of wine and tobacco. The little God of Love, who has just 
delivered his message, stands tearful and embarrassed in the edge of 
the frame because this son of degeneracy has cast Maggie's letter 
on the floor, the anti-tobacco sentiments and conditions of surrender 
contained therein not pleasing him. All details are beautifully car- 
ried out, including the sense of green light which pervades the room, 
reflections from green curtains and walls. 

The large and crowded picture called "Truth" shows us an Eng- 
lish king of the early fifteenth century who has captured Truth and 
blindfolded the helpless, naked creature, while his supporters, repre- 
sentatives of the Law, the Church and the Army, appeal to books or 
heaven or look on indifferently. The queen and her two daughters 


hold up a drapery to shield the king's acts from the vulgar gaze of the 
populace in the background. A brazen woman (the king's mistress) 
has stolen the white robe of Truth and causes it to be dipped in a pot 
of blood. Near at hand, the court jester has captured the lamp of 
Truth and attempts to satisfy himself as to whether it can be extin- 
guished or not. Innocence, in the person of a child, enters into the 
sport of blowing out the lamp, with great glee, knowing no better, 
A young woman watches this operation earnestly, to satisfy herself as 
to the perpetuity of the light of Truth. This serious and portentous 
situation is presented with an array of gorgeous and positive coloring 
and of elaborate stuffs painting which distracts the attention from the 
intensely vital sermon which the picture is intended to suggest. It is 
fine work, but a mistaken effort. 

Some American Contemporaries 

Cecelia Beaux (b. Philadelphia) is one of the women painters who 
nas won for herself a position that many men envy. Portrait painting 
occupies her principally, and the touch is strong, the color vigorous 
and rich. It is not right to place any artist too high. This one's 
painting resembles John Sargent's so closely as to be almost an imita- 
tion. But she can secure the character of the subject remarkably well, 
which is much. J. Carroll Beckwith does excellent portraits, direct 
and natural, examples of which went to the Exposition, Paris, 1900. 
Robert Blum (deceased 1903) was so capable and inventive in all things, 
illustrations, decorations and pictures, that success attended him. His 
large decoration in the Mendelssohn music hall in New York shows us 
a festival of Music. It is painted in watercolors. John G. Brown (b. 
in England, 1831) has widely commanded the public attention these 
many years with sentimental pictures of bootblacks and street gamins. 
He holds with us the same position as the German and English anec- 
dotic painters hold in their countries, not a great, but a pleasing artist. 
F. S. Church makes attractive, pale-toned and harmonious panels 
with lightly-draped women coquetting with wild animals and birds, sus- 
tained by a slight allegorical pretext. R. Swain GifTord has given us 

Carkoll Beckwith — " 1776 


numberless landscapes with excellent low-tone and arranged composi- 
tions. Charles Dana Gibson does not paint. His illustrations are 
widely known; made with pen and ink. He can produce works with 
touching sentiment, enlivened by wit. Over-patronage is injuring 
him, but his talent is of a high order. Francis D. Millet was born 
near Boston, secured his art education in Antwerp, was sent to the 
Russo-Turkish war as correspondent for the London Graphic and did 
wonderful things by his courage and intelligence in that horrible win- 
ter campaign. He now paints genre pictures, the subject matter found 
in the Elizabethan period of- picturesque characters and clothes, in the 
manner of the late Lord Leighton. 

Gari Melchers (b. Detroit) secured his education in European art 
schools; lives now in Holland and Paris and paints strikingly decora- 
tive compositions from material found in Holland, also powerful por- 
traits. It is interesting to remark the effect of temperament in two 
artists both painting Dutch child life. Melchers and MacEwen have 
selected this line of work in Holland, but neither is in the least like 
any one else. 

Melchers loves strong colors; has not a perfect color sense, but 
manages so well as almost to disarm criticism. His masculinity com- 
mands such respect that every one bows to its force. In one of his 
pictures two young people of Holland go a-skating, clothed in the 
costumes of the peasantry. The woman wears a short cloak of varia- 
gated brocade, brilliant with several violent contrasts. The man has 
on a highly-colored Jersey jacket. Giving to these all the vigor of his 
palette, Melchers creates a decorative scheme which throws down the 
coloring of all other pictures in a gallery. The force of the effect is 
tremendous and it wins by manifestation of vigor and self-confidence 
in the painter. Whatever criticism the spectator is inclined to indulge 
in is dampened by his admiration of the daring of the artist. 

His portrait of President Harper, of the University of Chicago, is 
full length, untrammelled by useless accessories or belongings. This 
vigorous man stands alone on the canvas, exactly like himself, 
determined, alert, rugged and independent. In all the line of portrait 


painting, few efforts are more successful than this in the delineation 
of character. A lack of personality in the sitter disturbs Melchers. 
He is a true artist, dependent upon his inspiration. Given person- 
ality, he will feel its value and render its essence. 

Principal Works: Mother and Child (Luxembourg); The Sermon, The 
Skaters, Portrait of Donald G. Mitchell, Little Constance, Sainte Gudule, Little Red 
Ridinghood, Vespers, The Bride, Married, Portrait of Mr. David Jones, Portrait of 
Dr. Harper, The Young Mother. 

Howard Pyle (b. Delaware) commands the respect of all artists, 
although, like Abbey, he uses his art in making illustrations. Many 
of these are painted in oils, sufficiently reserved in the coloring not to 
interfere with the reproduction on the pages of a book, by means of 
photo-process. His illustrative work reveals force, originality, excel- 
lence in arrangement, good drawing, and an ambition to do his best. 
He has illustrated all sorts of matters, but the stories of the old buc- 
caneer life are sufficient to stamp him as a remarkable man. H. O. 
Tanner (b. Pittsburg) is interesting partly because of his negro blood. 
His character is not less than that of the best of our painters; refined, 
with exalted ideals, and to this he adds remarkable talent and 
extended Parisian art-school training. His subjects are usually derived 
from the Bible and the matter seems to be handled with real convic- 
tion. His treatment is original. Robert W. Vonnoh (b. Hartford) 
is a portrait painter who has been much in demand and deserves his 
success, because of truthful delineation- of character and good color 
and technique. A. H. Wyant (recently deceased, b. Ohio) was one of 
the serious painters, strong and fine in color, also very poetic in treat- 
ment of his landscapes. He is an outcome of the Hudson River 
School, but kept up with the recent movement, never falling behind 
the best of the trained men. 

Walter MacEwen (b. Chicago) may not be passed over lightly- 
His Parisian art education has served to place his technique on a plane 
which is in no sense lower than the best in any land. While painting 
in Holland he once saw a number of round-faced and pale-haived boys 

Carroll Beckwith — Paul du Chaillu. 


staring at him and making childish hootings in derision of the 
stranger. The sun shone through the thin hair, making glowing halos 
around the urchins' heads. It was a unique effect, one never serving 
an artist as motive until then. He saw the opportunity instantly and 
produced a picture which commanded attention at once. Facial 
movements, character, freedom from extravagance while rendering 
peculiar expressions, all this was so well done that it proved the exist- 
ence of one much-sought-for element in the artist— originality. Thus 
it happened that MacEwen found his subject matter. Not continuing 
with the saucy boys too long, he has made a series of character studies 
of Dutch peasant life which few have equaled. 

Thomas Wilmar Dewing (b. in Boston) after securing his 
Parisian training, developed a peculiarly poetic rendering of figure 
pictures. An early work represented several female figures grouped 
on a slight elevation in formal manner. These were conventionally 
draped and, standing back to back so as to face outwards, they blow 
upon golden trumpets. The color was quiet and tenderly varied. 
At that time decorative panels were rarely to be seen in our exhi- 
bitions (as the taste for them is entirely recent) and the public 
found this quite uninteresting, the more so as the artist had spent no 
time in elaborating the draperies or in careful stuffs-painting. Such 
short-hand work is more admired at present, though the execution of 
it must be masterful. 

Dewing has also painted floating figures, as if the evening mists 
were embodied in women's forms and swayed in lengthened nearly 
horizontal wraiths over the velvety grass. He has this field largely to 
himself, though the poetically treated decorative panel is now in 
demand and the supply comes accordingly. His portraits are very 
personal, — they have an exquisitely delicate distinction. 

Trincipal Works: At the Piano, Morning, A Concert, Portrait of Mrs. Dew- 
ing, Prelude, A Garden, Slave. 



It is plainly to be seen from a careful review of the matter here 
presented that it has been in France, during the last one hundred 
years, that the art of painting has had a renewal of healthy growth. The 
classicists (some of them men of a high order of genius) have kept 
alive the traditions of masterful drawing as in no other nation since 
the decline in Italy. Proud of their skill, these artists have claimed 
that no art could be worthy unless hedged about with the refinements 
and the restraints of the rigid classics. They have stood in the way 
of all innovations and made the road of the independent thinkers very 
hard to travel. However, the effect has been on the whole salutary. 
It has enabled the innovators to do their work better and kept them 
from falling into weakness and confusion. A great many of the 
revolutionists went through the hard courses of drawing in the classi- 
cal schools, and though they usually did not make remarkable 
draughtsmen from the point of view of those standing on the classical 
heights, they could not fall to as low a standard in drawing as those 
do who have had no such influences about them. The true vitality of 
French art has many times been made manifest by the radical innova- 
tions of thinking men and the intensity of their endeavor to discover 
the hidden secrets of nature. 

In Germany, with the exception of an occasional genius like 
Menzel (and he stands almost alone), there was no original initiative 
for nearly two centuries. The schools of Diisseldorf and Munich do 
not furnish a single example of true artistic vocation. The former 
was mechanical and bound about with traditions borrowed from the 
earlier centuries and in manner there was no painter inspiration. 
Piloty, in the latter, was a talented man who reduced his art to an 







artificial system and taught this to his many pupils. None of them 
made original artists until in some cases they found themselves in 
other situations and moved by new impulses. Most of the really 
talented artists of Scandinavia and the lands of the north, received 
their inspiration in Paris. 

Quite recently there has arisen a movement (started probably in 
Munich) called the "Secession," gathering together the independent 
fellows who tired of the monotonous mannerism of the schools. The 
name of this movement explains itself. It included not alone paint- 
ing, but decoration, architecture, and the manufacture of articles of 
daily use. The outcome is called "neue kunst" (in France, "art 
nouveau"). These artists sought to emulate the practice of the "new 
Salon" in Paris, by encouraging unexpected manifestations, admitting 
grotesques if talent went with them. Firm believer that I am in this 
liberty, it is not strange that I admire much of the result. It is not 
that it is all beautiful, but it is fresh, hopeful, full of opportunity. 
As long as art schools live, there will be classicism and conservatism. 
In this lies the safety. In the meantime, the "secession" is doing a 
world of good. 

The naturalist, Lieberman, had much influence in this movement. 
Other names are those of Franz Skarbina, Reinhold Lepsius, Frederick 
Stahl, Hans Herrman, Hugo Vogel, Walter Leistakow, and Frans 
Stuck. Gustav Klint, of Vienna, has been a leader within his sphere 
of influence. 

Russia has little to show in the line of original art — little that we 
call national. Repin is Russian in treatment of subject and thoroughly 
national in his literalism, but his technique is not Russian. Verest- 
chagin is Russian in his love of gaudy trappings and the overloading 
of his figures with glitter, as the interior of a Russian church is all 

The Dutch, after a few years of keen life in the seventeenth cen- 
tury, degenerated into mannerism and mechanical excellence without 
real vitality. With Israels and Mauve, whose technique is based on 
that of some Frenchmen, arose a new order of art, serious and reserved 


like the Dutch people and thoroughly racial in this respect as well 
as national in subject matter. 

The English have played the little round of anecdotic art until their 
very selves tired of it. Some of their men had remarkable talent and 
originality in lines not difficult to trace but original still. In recent 
years their young men have been going to the French ateliers to study 
and from this has arisen another art which promises fine things. The 
movement introduced by William Morris is original and peculiarly 
English, and from it is growing up a superb line of decorators. 

America has followed in the line of least resistance and that has led 
largely through the French ateliers and Ecole des Beaux Arts, as well 
as the Academy of Munich. The severe classical drawing there taught 
has resulted, as it always does, in producing among us a company of 
excellently equipped artists. Naturally at first these students imi- 
tated their masters. But this has long since ceased to be a scandal, 
because our young men are the children of a land where youth pre- 
vails — youth in blood, — and an atmosphere of vigorous originality in 
all lines of thought and work. 

The most promising development is the newly aroused love for 
mural decorations in public buildings, hotels and private residences. 
The Columbian Exposition is responsible for the initiative in the mat- 
ter of decorating public buildings, and the ornamentation of the Con- 
gressional Library, while not free from crudeness, fixed in the minds 
of Americans the value of the application of art to these ends. Most 
successful is the Boston Public Library. All over the country are 
courthouses and capitols either already ornamented with good sculp- 
ture and mural painting or in course of development in this direction. 
The example of the Frenchman, Puvis de Chavannes, has the greatest 
influence upon this art, though it has not become slavish imitation 
"The Triumph of Religion," the subject of John S. Sargent's decora- 
tions in the Boston library, is treated with such originality and success 
that we find ourselves startled to find such a genius of American blood. 
The series by Edwin A. Abbey, "The Quest of the Holy Grail," is the 
history of all mankind and executed with dignity and power. 

Walter MacEwen — The Judgment op Paris. 



There is a tendency in almost all art histories to group artists by 
"Schools." The arrangement is purely arbitrary, and often confusing. 
Artists move around, work in many different places, change their 
styles because of such restlessness, and in no way is this forcing of 
them into set formalities conducive of a better understanding of their 
artistic attainments. Yet it may be useful to summarize these divi- 
sions according to the best authorities. 

Beginning farther back than our history extends, are many divi- 
sions by provinces or cities, because the means of communication were 
limited and the artists remained at home, thus maintaining a certain 
manner peculiar to the locality. 

The Early Florentine School may go back as far as one chooses, 
but Paolo Uccello (b. 1396*) worked somewhat scientifically, and 
Antonio del Pollajuolo (1426) studied anatomy carefully if far from 
completely. A really serious advance came with Masaccio, so that 
the school may be dated from 1402 to 1452 (the coming of Leonardo). 
It includes Filippo Lippi, Botticelli, Giorgione, Credi and Verrocchio, 
the sculptor. There was much beautiful painting in this period, but 
the early Gothic influence prevailed, the figures followed many con- 
ventional patterns and the color was by no means as fresh as it became 
with Leonardo's advent. 

The schools of Umbria and Perugia (1420-1530). These painters 
may go back as far as Piero dei Franceschi, who was somewhat like 
Masaccio in talent and product, also Signorelli, Da Forli, Santi and 
especially Perugino. The latter' s composition was symmetrical, only 
varied by certain turnings of head and body, but he made much 
impressive work. 

* These dates are those of the birth of the leading man and the death of the 
last representative. 



The schools of Ferrara, Bologna and Lombardy (1425-1523). 
CosimoTura, Lorenzo Costa, Francia and Borgognone. The character 
of these painters did not materially differ from others of the period, 
and the artists moved about sufficiently to make a more exact 
differentiation as to local influences impossible. 

Padua, Verona and Vicenza had painters who may be said to have 
formed schools (1380-1450). Andrea Mantegna was the chief light 
of Padua, a man who studied his antiques with assiduity, painting 
many fine altar pieces. In Verona, Vittore Pizano and Bonsignori 
are most conspicuous; in Vicenza, Bartolommeo Montagna. The 
study of good classical models had much influence on these men. 

Early Venetian School (1400-1516). The Bellini (Jacopo, Gentile 
and especially Giovanni) were the leading influences, discovering 
ability to color better than any painters before them, which led to the 
wonderful results achieved by Titian and others. Antonello da Mes- 
sina learned the methods of painting with varnishes or oils from cer- 
tain Flemish painters who came that way, and improved on their 
results. With these methods (whatever they may have been) the 
colors became much clearer than with fresco or distemper. 

Florentine-Roman School (1452- 1564). Leonardo da Vinci, 
Michael Angelo, Fra Bartolommeo, Andrea del Sarto, Raphael 
Giulio Romano. This is the moment of Italy's greatness, when the 
study of the best antiques (remains of the Graeco-Roman ancestors) 
brought the art to its perfection, except that the Venetians added the 
refined element of color. 

Ferrara and Bologna (1479- 1 542). Dossi Garofolo and Bagnaca- 
vallo are names associated with these places, but the men are not 
worth discussion in a work like this which attempts to deal only with 
artists who really made a mark. Some historians are so bitten with 
the mania of classification that they place Correggio with this cate- 
gory. But I refuse absolutely to classify Correggio with any others. 
He stands alone. "The Reading Magdalen" has here been ascribed 
to Correggio, according to the more familiar classification, but Morelli 
and the most recent authorities have taken it from him. 


I have great respect for the acumen of experienced experts, but 
also harbor serious doubts as to their invariable reliability. So incor- 
rect have been the conclusions of some of the best experts of Europe, 
even within the past few years, that we may well pause before chang- 
ing our opinions because of their statements. All painters have been 
strangely influenced by peculiar conditions or unusual contacts, 
making pictures in quite divergent styles. To doubt the authenticity 
of a long accepted attribution is to imagine that the artist must of 
necessity have painted invariably in a specific, well-known manner, — 
an unwarranted conclusion. 

The Venetian School (1477-1588). Giorgione, Titian, Tintoretto, 
Paul Veronese, Palma Vecchio, perhaps Luini. This is the comple- 
ment of tne Florentine-Roman School, adding the element of extraor- 
dinary color to the wonderful product of northern Italy. 

Early Flemish (1366- 1 5 30). The two brothers Van Eyck, Roger 
Van Der Weyden, Memling, Quentin Matsys. These were wonder- 
ful painters and with them were many others of lesser note. They 
advanced the period in which'they lived. The Van Eycks are reputed to 
have discovered oil painting It is certain that they did discover some 
new methods other than the commonly employed fresco and distemper, 
though these useful and dignified methods long held their places. 

In Holland, Lucas Van Leyden (1494-1533) is the most important 
man, though there were other not indifferent painters. In France we 
find the father and son, Clouet, and Jean Cousin (1483-1589). These 
artists produced works which excite admiration even to-day. It 
was Gothic art very like that of Van Eyck, but it revealed talent of a 
high order. 

Franconian School (so called, 1434- 1569). Wolgemut, Durer. 
The painters were Gothic, even Diirer, and little influenced by the study 
of antique remains. Following Diirer there is little to note as wonderful. 

Swabian School (1446-1543). Schongauer, Holbein the elder, 
Holbein the younger. Commencing quite Gothic, these painters were 
finally strongly influenced by the renaissance of Italy. 

The following of Raphael: School of the Caracci (1558-1686). 


Agostino Caracci (and his relatives), Guido Reni, Domenichino, 
Carlo Dolci, Poussin. The Caracci family founded a famous school, 
which taught the drawing of Michael Angelo, the grace of Raphael 
and the color of Titian; those who followed this teaching became 
painters of superior decorations and refined religious pictures, but 
without great originality. Poussin, who studied Raphael, had no con- 
nection with the Caracci School, excepting indirectly. 

Revolutionary Painters (1569-1673). Caravaggio, Ribera, Sal- 
vator Rosa. This can hardly be called more than an influence, as 
there was no gathering in one locality. It did not end with the date 
given, because the influence echoed all the way down through the 
lives of the Spanish painters of the seventeenth century. Ribera was 
a direct outcome of untamed fondness for natural effects and striking 
coloring (rather than the forced refinements of the school of the 
Caracci family) which Caravaggio inaugurated. Rosa, the landscape 
painter, felt this influence vigorously. 

Claude Lorraine (1600-1682). Claude is said to be the father of 
landscape painting. He discovered the effects of light and atmos- 
phere as they exist out of doors. His arrangements were formal, that 
is, classical as the word ma)' be applied to arranged landscape. His 
following extends through all the centuries even until to-day. 

The Spanish School (1588- 1682). Ribera, Collantes, Zurbaran, 
Velasquez, Murillo. All these were vigorous naturalists. When the 
influence of Ribera began in Spain, the artists were ready to feel its 
effect. Thus it maybe said that this is a continuation of the influence 
of Caravaggio. 

The School of Rubens (i 577-1641). Rubens and Van Dyck. Who 
can place the date of the close of the influence of Rubens? To the 
native Flemish feeling for form and good use of color, these painters 
added long training in Italy, influenced by the classical school. With 
Rubens the tide of migratory artists turned extensively, not so fre- 
quently visiting Italy, but Flanders more. 

Dutch School (i 584-1694). Hals, Rembrandt, Van Ostade, 
Ruysdael, Hobbema, Steen, Douw and Teniers (the younger). 


With portraits, domestic genre and landscape, this was a famous 
period, — naturalistic, but decidedly influenced in many instances by 
study in Italy. Hals, Rembrandt and their immediate following did 
not reveal an Italian influence. Though Teniers was a Fleming, he 
belongs with this group. 

The School of Watteau (1684-1806). Watteau, Lancret, Pater, 
Boucher, Fragonard, possibly Greuze. The study of Rubens (but 
the already widespread Italian influence in composition) shaped these 
painters of pretty, artificial genre, elegantly dressed women posturing 
as shepherdesses, pleasing the taste of the Bourbon period. 

The School of David (1748 to the present day). David, Prud- 
hon, Ingres, Gerard, Cabanel, Bouguereau and an endless array of 
others. David was a dictator in art matters and insisted upon the 
closest attention to pure classical forms. With Ingres came a milder 
form of classicism founded on the art of Raphael. 

The Revolutionary School (1791-1863, but extending indefinitely). 
Gericault, Delacroix, Delaroche. Quite possibly the last name does 
not belong here, but Delaroche would never have painted as he did 
but for this movement. It was an exact contradiction of the tenets 
of David, admitting of every liberty in violent action, refulgent color 
and original composition. 

The Barbizon School (1763-1878). Michel, Corot, Rousseau, 
Millet, ending with Daubigny, The movement really commences 
during the life of Michel and was caused largely by the influence of 
the Englishman, Constable. This was a breaking away from the fet- 
ters of classicism which bound the landscape painters, a free expres- 
sion of the sentiments created by the study of nature, and still it was 
semi-classical style. 

The Impressionists (1832 until now). Manet, Monet, Renoir, 
Pissarro, Sisley, Childe Hassam. With closer study of the truths of 
nature and the invention of the principle of the analysis of color 
as light is analyzed, this group of painters has arrived very close 
to truth in landscape and interior painting. It abandons high finish 
in order to secure greater accuracy of impression. 


The Orientalists (1803 until today). Decamps, Fromentin, 
Ge'rome, Ziem, Cabanel, Bouguereau, Boulanger, Baudry, Henner, 
Lefebvre, Benjamin-Constant. This is a purely arbitrary classifica- 
tion made on the basis of subject matter. The painters supposed to 
fall in this category do not paint in any specific manner nor follow 
any individual influence. Such a grouping is an abomination to an 
artist, though it may be convenient to writers. I do not think that it 
has any reason for existence. 

Realists, influenced by that sincere man Courbet. From 1819- 
1877 are the years of his life. His influence will last a long time. It 
is too extensive to trace. 

The Military Painters. 1836 is the date of birth of De Neuville; 
Detaille is the other one whose name belongs here, and several lesser 
men who imitate them. Some historians include Regnault and Meis- 
sonier, who painted some pictures of soldiers, but also studied more 
extensively other subjects. They belong in no such category. 

The German Romanticists (1789-1874.) Overbeck, Cornelius, 
Veit, Schadow, Fiihrich, Carolsfeld, Schwind, Kaulbach. There is 
not a decided character to this grouping. Not nature study, but a cer- 
tain artificial style based largely on the study of the old masters of 
various periods, formed an art hard to classify exactly. It was not a 
group of painters of special originality, though they were strong char- 
acters in certain ways. Some of them were very religious and worked 
their exalted ideas into pictures, though not very much to the edifica- 
tion of mankind. 

The Diisseldorf School and the Munich School. It is impossible 
to separate these two localities, as far as their art interests go, as the 
painters moved back and forth and there is but an almost imper- 
ceptible contrast between them. Cornelius and Schadow are inti- 
mately connected with the history of Diisseldorf, Carolsfeld and 
Kaulbach with Munich. 

The German Landscape Painters (1768). Koch, Rottman, Les- 
sing, Preller, the brothers Achenbach, Morgernstern, etc. The old 
landscape school of Diisseldorf and Munich was heroic in its use of 


formalisms. Every scene had to be reduced to "firstly, secondly and 
thirdly," like an old-time sermon. Many of the arrangements were 
extremely ingenious and occasionally impressive. But there was little 
in it of genuine feeling or true artistic treatment. With Lessing, mat- 
ters were much better. He was a serious student of nature, as were 
the Achenbachs. The school of Diisseldorf has lost its prestige and 
become merely a good provincial academy. At Munich and Vienna 
there is abundant life, as manifested by the movement called "the 
Secession," which is a school of protest against the tendency toward 
formalism, so long the bane of German landscape and figure painting. 

German Genre School (1811 until now, though the movement is at 
present not conspicuous). Fluggen, Hubner, Knaus, Vautier, 
Defregger. The pictures were at first, like the landscapes mentioned, 
afflicted with too much formality and arranged like a stage setting with 
principal, secondary, subservient, and a hero, a villain and the 
woman who has sympathy with the victim. This has disappeared in 
favor of simple statements of life as the painter found it. Piloty, 
while called an historical painter, because of his subjects, came very 
near to being a genre painter of this nature. However, he painted 
clothes largely. 

The Recent Dutch School. Israels (1824-), and Neuhuys, Blom- 
mers, Kever. The revival of Dutch art, in the sentimental treatment 
given by Israels, is so before the public at this moment that extended 
comment is not called for. The Barbizon School is responsible for its 
character, but so much national feeling is manifest that it may safely 
be called a remarkably individual movement. Mauve, the brothers 
Maris, and many others have painted landscapes which keep excellent 
company with these figure pictures. 

In Scandinavia the artists have obtained their educations largely 
at Paris or Munich, and with this preparation have manifested much 
national spirit. 

In the same manner the English, Danish, Russian and American 
artists have secured their educations in Paris and Munich and returned 
to their native countries to make an art more or less national. 


The Preraphaelite Brotherhood of England originated about 1848, 
Rossetti, Millais and Hunt being the enthusiastic prime movers, F. 
Madox Brown an important convert and Burne- Jones a follower. 
The influence of the style then established still exists, though its 
theories have long since been abandoned. They sought to prove that 
theirs was the only "true" delineation of nature, whereas no school of 
any period has been wore artificial. By the studious rendering of 
minute detail, much mysticism and imitation of the archaic manner of 
the painters who worked before Raphael came, they made it appear 
that they were more sincere than any others. 


Abbey, Edwin A., 240, 245-247, 266, 270. 
Achenbach, Andreas, 141-142, 182, 276, 

Alexander, John W., 240, 254 
.\Iisal, Casada del, 192 
AUegri, Lorenzo, 28. 
Allen, Joseph W., 133. 
Allston, Washington, 92, 114-115. 
Alma-Tadema, Laurens, 141, 176, 199, 

209-210, 224. 
Aman-Jean, Edmond, 260-261. 
Amerighi, Michael Angelo (Caravaggio) , 

44, 45-46, 47, 54, 62, 74, 75, 99, 129, 

Ancher, Michael, 237. 
Angelico, Fra, 121, 194. 
Apol, Frederik Hendrik, 243. 
Artz, Adolph, 212. 

Badile, Antonio, 38. 

Bagnacavallo, 272. 

Barbarelli, Giorgio (Giorgione), 14, 16, 

17, 271, 273. 
Barrv, James, 97. 
Bartolommeo, Fra, 24, 272. 
Bashkirtseff, Marie, 233. 
Bastien-Lepage, Jules, 162, 219, 228, 

232-235, 258. 
Baudry, Paul, 176, 187, 276. 
Bayeu, 103. 
Beaux, Cecilia, 264. 
Beckwith, J. Carroll, 264. 
Bellini, Gentile, 272. 
Bellini, Giovanni, 8, 12-13, 14, 16, 272. 
Bellini, Jacopo, 272. 

Benczur, Julius, 226. 
Benjamin-Constant, Jean Joseph, 162, 

219, 227-228, 276. 
Benson, Frank W., 257. 
Bergh, Richard, 188. 
Berghem, Nicholas, 72, 80. 
Besnard, Paul Albert, 219, 236. 
Bianchi, Francesco, 28. 
Bierstadt, Albert, 176, 177, 180-182, 189. 
Bisschop, Christoffel, 188. 
Blake, William, 105. 
Blashfield, Edwin Rowland, 219, 236. 
Bloch, Carl, 207. 
Blommer, Nils Johan, 149. 
Blommers, 228, 276. 
Blum, Robert, 264. 
Bocklund, 152. 

Boecklin, Arnold, 176, 178-179 
Boldini, Giovanni, 225. 
Bonheur, Auguste, 170. 
Bonheur, Marie Rosa, 159, 170, 225, 235. 
Bonnat, I^eon Joseph Florentine, 192, 

Bennington, Richard, 113. 
Bonsignori, 272. 
Borgonone, 272. 
Bosboom, Johannes, 151. 
BotticeUi, Sandro, II. 3, 7, 184, 186, 194, 

Boucher, Frangois, 86, 89, 94, 275. 
Bouguereau, Wilham Adolphe, 116, 128, 

172-174, 223, 247, 275, 276. 
Boulanger, Gustave Rodolphe Clarence, 

168, 276. 
Boulanger, Hippolyte, 214. 

* Figures in black type indicate pages on which the painters' biographies are given. 




Bramley, Frank, 254. 

Brandt, Jozef, 224. 

Brangwyn, Frank, 263. 

Breton, Emile Adelard, 192. 

Breton, Jules, 179-180, 192. 

Bridgman, F. A., 230. 

Brown, Ford Madox, 1 58, 278. 

Brown, John Appleton, 226. 

Brown, John G., 264. 

Brozic, Vacslav, 248. 

Brulov, Karl, 108, 

Brush, George De Forest, 240, 249. 

Brutt, Ferdinand, 237. 

Buonarotti, Michael Angelo, I, 4, 6, 10- 

12, 16, 17, 18, 23, 24, 25, 26, 35, 36, 

39, 42, 44, 96, 114, 134, 149, 164, 171, 

253, 272, 274. 
Burkel, 132. 
Burne-Jones, Sir Edward, 176, 194-195, 

237, 278. 

Cabanel, Alexander, 76, 116, 128, 161- 
164, 172, 174, 223, 232, 233, 242, 248, 
251, 258, 275, 276. 

Cagliari, Paolo (see Veronese). 

Cameron, Hugh, 208. 

Caraooi, Agostino, 44-45, 273. 

Caracci, Anabale, 44. 

Caracci, Antonio, 44-45. 

Caracci, Francisco, 44. 

Caracci, Ludovico, 43-45. 

Caracci, The, 27, 43-45, 46, 47, 49, 54, 55, 
58, 62, 74, 75, 76, 99, 129, 273, 274. 

Caravaggio (see Amerighi). 

Carle (see Van Loo). 

Carolsfeld, Julius S. von, 127, 276. 

Carolus (see Duran). 

Carrier-Belleuse, 241. 

Carriere, Eugene, 261. 

Carstens, A, J,, 103. 

Cassatt, Mary, 205. 

Cazin, Jean Charles, 140-141. 

Cellini, Benvenuto, 39. 

Chalmers, Paul, 210. 

Chaplin, Charles, 172. 

Chardin, Jean Baptiste, 88-89. 

Chase, William Merritt, 240-243. 

Chavannes, Pierre Puvis de, 168-170, 171, 

Chialiva, Luigi, 219, 225. 
Chintreuil, Antoine, 139. 
Christensen, Gottfred, 228. 
Church, Frederick Edwin, 176-177, 181, 

Church, F. S., 264. 
Cimabue, I. 
Claude (see Lorraine). 
Clays, Jean Paul, 154. 
Clouet, Frangois, 34, 273. 
Clouet, Jean, 34, 273. 
Cole, Thomas, 122, 124, 130-132, 152, 

Collaert, Marie, 225, 
CoUantes, Francisco, 65, 274. 
Conant, A. J., 125. 
Constable, John, 109, 110, 112-114, 131, 

138, 139, 154, 183, 275. 

Copley, John Singleton, 92, 95, 115, 118. 
Cornelius, Peter von, 118-119, 276. 
Corot, Jean Baptiste Camille, II, 127-128, 

139, 214, 243, 262, 275. 
Correggio, Antonio Allegri da, 28-30, 43, 

44, 272. 
Costa, Lorenzo, 272. 
Cottet, Charles, 258-259. 
Courbet, Gustave, 154-155, 191, 276. 
Cousin, Jean, 34, 273. 
Couture, Thomas, 15, 141, 170, 189. 
Crane, Bruce, 254. 
Crane, Walter, 206, 219, 235. 
Credi, 271. 
Cuyp, Albert, 69, 81. 



Cuyp, Beiijamic, 69. 
Cuyp, Jacob, 69. 

Da Forli, 271. 

Dagnan-Bouveret, Pascal Adolphe Jean, 

240, 244. 
Dahl, Hans, 121, 237 
Dahl, Johan C. C, 120-121. 
Dalbono, Edoardo, 227. 
Dalsgaard, Christen, 159. 
da Messina, Antonello, 13, 272. 
Dannat, William, 226, 248. 
Daubigny , Charles Francois, 1 5 1 - 1 52, 275, 
David. Jacques Louis, 43, 44, 46, 49, 84, 

94, 97, 98-99, 103, 105, 106, 107, 108, 

115, 116, 117, 119, 124, 129, 130, 162, 

166, 173, 208, 275. 
Da Vinci, Leonardo, T, 2-4, 19, 20, 21, 24, 

34, 42, 183, 271, 272. 
Davis, Charles H., 254. 
De Bar, 85. 
De Beifve, 129, 
De Caisne, 129. 

Decamps, Alexandre Gabriel, 128, 276. 
Defregger, Franz von, 199, 207, 277. 
Degas, Hilaire Germain Edgar, 146, 199- 

De Haas, Johannes Leonardus Hubertus, 

De Keyser, !37. 
Delacroix, Eugdne, 44, 46, 99, 102, 117, 

120, 124, 128, 129-130, 133, 1.35, 275. 
Delaroche, Paul, 115, 128-129, 140, 141, 

166, 170. 275. 
del Sarto (Andrea), 26-27, 272. 
De Neuville, Alphonse Marie, 209, 276. 
Detaille, Edouard, 209, 219, 231, 276. 
Dewing, Thomas Wilmar, 267. 
Diaz (see Pena). 
Dicksee, Frank, 248. 
Diez, Wilhelm, 217. 

Dircks, Karl Edvard, 249. 

Dolci, Carlo, 43, 57, 72, 76-77, 78, 79, 84, 

86, 116, 117, 273. 
Domenichino (see Zampieri). 
Domingo, Francisco, 225. 
Dor^, Gustave Paul, 176, 192-194. 
Doughty, Thomas, 126, 
Douw, Gerard, 68, 72-73, 77, 85, 246, 274. 
Dubois, Louis, 191. 
Dubois, Paul, 190. 
Ducq, J. F., 97. 
Duez, Ernest, 227 
Dupr6, Jules, 138, 139. 
Duran, Charles Augustus Emile (Caro- 

lus-Duran), 199, 211-212, 2.53. 
Durand, Asher Brown, 124, 130, 152, 
Diirer, Albrecht, 4, 5, 6-9, 10, 16, 17, 31, 

32, 33, 34, 39, 186, 273. 
Duvivier, J. B., 97. 

East, Alfred, 237. 

Eastlake, Sir Charles Lock, 126. 

Eaton, Wyatt, 240. 

Eckersberg, 1 19. 

Ekenaes, Jan, 230. 

Etty, William, 120. 

Eugene, Prince, 257. 

Exner, 159. 

Faed, John, 156. 

Faed, Thomas, 156. 

Faes, Van der (Sir Peter Lely), 77. 

Favretto, Giacomo, 236. 

Fedotof, 142. 

Feurbach, Anselm, 189, 

Fielding, 113. 

Flugen, 137, 277. 

Fontana, 44. 

Forbes, A. Stanhope, 199, 213. 

Fortuny y Corbo, Mariano, 199, 215-216, 

217, 224, 225, 232, 249. 
Fragonard, Jean Honor^, 77, 94, 101, 275. 



Frangais, Frangois Louis, 139. 
Francia, II, 272. 
Franceschi, Piero dei, 271. 
Fromentin, Eugene, 156, 276. 
Fuller, George, 174. 
Furich, Joseph, 107, 276. 

Gabriel, Paul E., 188. 
Gagerfeldt, Wilhelm von, 226. 
Gainsborough, Thomas, 92-93, 101, 104, 

Gallait, Louis, 129. 
Garofole, Dossi, 174, 272. 
Gay, Walter, 229. 

Gebhardt, Edouard von, 199, 214, 237. 
Genelli, Bonaventura, 133. 
Gerard, Francois, 107, 275. 
G^ricault, Louis Andr6 Theodore, 99, 

117, 124-125, 129, 275. 
G6r6me, Jean L^on, 128, 129, 149, 164- 

167, 168, 171, 178, 203, 221, 223, 230, 

247, 248, 276. 
Gervex, Henri, 162. 
Ghirlandajo, Domenico, 11. 
Gibb, Robert, 229. 
Gibson, Charles Dana, 265. 
Gifford, R. Swain, 264-265. 
Gifford, Sanford R., 160-161. 
Gigout, Jean Francois, 134. 
Giorgione (see Barbarelli). 
Gleyre, Marc Charles Gabriel, 166, 203. 
Goya, Francisco Jose Lucientes y, 86, 94, 

99-103, 203, 215, 216, 251. 
Graham, Peter, 210. 
Greuze, Jean Baptiste, 92, 105, 275. 
Gros, Antoine Jean (Baron Gros), 108. 
Groux, Charles de, 172. 
Guerin, 129. 
Guido (see Reni). 
Guido, Tomaso (Masaccio), I, II, 3, 10, 

27, 42, 47, 271. 

Gurlitt, 137. 
Gussow, Carl, 227. 
Guthrie, Sir James, 262. 

Hagborg, August, 245. 

Hals, Frans, 52-53, 55, 57, 61, 65, 70, 80, 

144, 246, 274, 275. 
Hansenclever, 136. 
Hansteen, Nils, 249. 
Harding, Chester, 125-126. 
Harlow, 107. 
Harpignies, Henri, 155. 
Harrison, Alexander, 240, 248, 263. 
Hart, James M., 156-158. 
Hart, WiUiam, 156-158. 
Hassam, Childe, 220, 240, 255, 275. 
Haug, Robert, 254. 
Haydon, Benjamin Robert, 120. 
Hellquist, Gustave, 243-244. 
Henner, Jean Jacques, 190, 276. 
Henry, Charles N., 224. 
Herkomer, Hubert, 237. 
Hermans, Charles, 199, 217. 
Herreyns, Willen Jacob, 97. 
Herrman, Hans, 269. 
Hilaire, 85. 

Hildebrandt, Ferdinand Theodore, 133. 
Hill, Thomas, 189. 

Hobbema, Meindert, 71-72, 138, 142, 274. 
Hoecker, Paul, 248-249. 
Hoeckert, 178. 

Hogarth, William, 84, 85, 87-88. 
Hokusai, 203. 
Holbein, Hans, 6, 7, 8, 15, 29, 30-34, 39, 

46, 107, 226, 228, 273. 
Holl, Frank, 228-229. 
Homer, Winslow, 199, 210-211. 
Hoppner, 107. 
Hornell, E. A., 262. 
Hovenden, Thomas, 224. 
Hiibner, Rudolf Julius, 137, 277. 



Hudson, 90. 

Hunt, Holman, 139, 194, 199, 212-213, 

Hunt, William M., 170, 182. 

Ingres, Jean Dominique Augustin, 44, 49, 
99, 102, 106, 108, 115, 116-118, 120, 
127, 128, 129, 130, 134, 162, 166, 201, 
208, 275. 

Inness, George, 174-175. 

Israels, Josef, 129, 170, 171, 214, 226, 
228, 246, 269, 276. 

Jacque, Charles Emile, 139. 
Jerndorff, 229. 
Jiminez, Luis, 228. 
Johansen, Viggo, 244. 
Jongkind, 155. 
Jordan, 136. 
Joseph (see Vernet). 

Kauffman, Marie Angelica, 97, 104. 
Kaufmann, Hermann, 136. 
Kaulbach, August von, 243. 
Kaulbach, AVilhelm von, 117, 133-134, 

149, 176, 178, 243, 276. 
Keller, Albert, 228. 
Kensett, John Frederick, 152-154. 
Kever, 277. 

Kindermans, Jean Baptlste, 134. 
King, Yeend, 249. 
Kiprensky, Orest, 108, 142. 
Klinger, Max, 250. 
Klinkenberg, Johannes Christian Karel, 

Klint, Gustav, 269. 
Knaus, Ludwig, 176, 188-189, 277. 
Kneller, Sir Godfrey, 83-84. 
Koch, Joseph, 107, 276. 
Koekkoek, Barent, 132. 
Kowalski, Alfred, 224. 

Kramskoi, Ivan, 212. 
Krenger, Nils, 254-255. 
Krohg, Christian, 248. 
Kronberg, Julius, 243. 
Kroyer, Peter, 244. 
Kuehl, Gotthard, 243. 

LaFarge, John, 199, 208. 

Lanoret, 85, 275. 

Landseer, Sir Edwin, 120, 132-133. 

Larson, 159. 

Larsson, M., 249. 

Lauder, 133, 142. 

Laurens, Jean Paul, 199, 213, 229, 230. 

Lavery, John, 262. 

Lawrence, Sir Thomas, 107, 120, 154. 

Le Brun, Charles, 56, 72, 79-80, 82. 

Le Brun, Marie Louise Elizabeth Vigee, 

Lefebvre, Jules, 199, 208-209, 258, 276. 
Leibl, Wilhelm, 226. 
Leighton, Sir Frederick, 191, 195, 224, 

256, 265. 
Leistakow, Walter, 269. 
Lely, Sir Peter (see Faes). 
Le Moyne, Frangois, 85-86. 
Lenan, Les, 55. 

Lenbach, Franz von, 149, 199, 208. 
Lepsius, Reinhold, 269. 
Leslie, Charles Robert, 126-127. 
Lessing, Carl Friedrich, 136, 182, 276, 

Leutze, Emanuel, 149-151. 
Leys, Hendrik (Baron Leys), 141. 
Lhermitte, L^on, 219, 225. 
Liebermann, Max, 237, 269. 
Leizen-Mayer, 217. 
Liljefors, Bruno, 256. 
Lindenschmidt, William, 189. 
Lippi, Filippo, II, 3, 184, 271. 
Loefftz, Ludwig, 228. 



Lorraine, Claude, II, 14, 47, 49, 57, 58-60, 
61, 65, 72, 74, 75, 123, 128, 131, 177, 

Lotto, Lorenzo, 21-22. 

Low, Will H., 248-249. 

Luini, Bernardino, 19-20, 273. 

McEntee, Jervis, 176, 182-183. 

MacCulloch, Horatio, 135. 

MacEwen, Walter, 265, 266-267. 

MacGregor, Robert, 262. 

MacGregor, W. Y., 262. 

Maas (see Maes). 

Madrazo, Frederigo, 216, 249, 250. 

Madrazo, Raimundo da, 219, 224-225. 

Maes, Nicholas (Maas), 91. 

Makart, Hans, 218. 

Makovsky, Constantin, 217. 

Makovsky, Vladimir, 217. 

Manet, Edouard, 145, 176, 198-198, 201, 

220, 221, 232, 233, 275. 
Mantegna, Andrea, 272. 
Maris, Jacob, 212, 276. 
Maris, Mathew, 212, 276. 
Maris, Willem, 199, 212, 276. 
Marks, H. S., 191. 
Marneffe, Frangois de, 108, 134. 
Marstrand, Wilhelm, 136. 
Martin, Henri Jean Guillaume, 220,259- 

Martin, Homer D., 199, 210. 
Masaccio (see Guido). 
Mason, George, 152, 223, 243. 
Matejko, Jan, 214. 

Matsys. Quentin, II, 6, 32, 141, 228, 273. 
Matsu (see Metzu). 

Mauve, Anton, 199, 214, 224, 269, 276. 
Max, Gabriel, 218. 
Meisonnier, Jean Louis Ernest, 128, 139, 

143-145, 148, 149, 215, 225, 231, 276. 
Melchers, Gari, 265-266. 

Memling, 6, 273. 

Mendrd, R6n6, 258. 

Mengs, Raphael, 17, 93-94, 99, 100, 101. 

Menzel, Adolph, 146-149, 183, 223, 268. 

Merson Luc Olivier, 219, 229. 

Mesdag, Hendrik Willem, 191. 

Metzu, Gabriel, (Matzu), 73. 

Meyer, Claus, 250. 

Meyerheim, 136. 

Michael Angelo (see Buonarotti). 

Michel, Georges, 106, 275. 

Michetti, Paolo, 240, 244-245. 

Mignard, Pierre, 56, 72. 

Millais, Sir John Everett, 176, 190-191, 

Millet, Francis D., 265. 
Millet, Jean Frangois, 57, 116, 128, 129. 

135, 139-140, 149, 166, 170, 182, 184, 

Monet, Claude Jean, 183, 198, 219-221, 

255, 259, 275. 
Montagna, Bartolommeo, 272. 
Monticelli, Adolphe, 1 74. 
Moore, Albert, 224. 
Moore, Henry, 191. 
Moran, Thomas, 213. 
Moreau, 232. 

Morelli, Domenico. 176, 178, 227, 272. 
Morgenstern, 134, 276. 
Morland, George, 106. 
Morris, William, 185, 199, 206-207, 270. 
Moya, Pedro de, 71, 78. 
Muelen, Antoon Franz van der, 81-82. 
Muller, Victor, 189. 
Munkacsy, Mihali, 219, 226, 24S. 
Munthe, Ludwig, 227. 
Murillo, Bartolom^ Estaban, 49, 71, 77- 

79, 85, 274. 
Murphy, J. Francis, 248. 

Nasmyth, Alexander, 106. 



Nasrayth, Patrick, 106. 
Nattier, Jean Marc, 86. 
Netscher, Kaspar (Gaspar), 83. 
Neuhuijs, Albert, 226, 276. 
Nilson, Amandus, 192. 
Nordstrom, Karl, 249. 
Normann, A., 235. 

Oohtman, Leonard, 249. 

Odevaere, J. D., 97. 

Opie, John, 107. 

Orchardson, William Quiller, 199, 207- 

Orlovsky, Alexander, 108, 142. 
Ouless, Walter, 235. 
Overbeck, Frederick, 121, 276. 

Paelinck, J., 97. 

Page, William, 137. 

Palma, Jacopo (II Vecchio), 20-21, 273. 

Pater, 85, 275. 

Paterson, James, 262. 

Paulsen, Julius, 256. 

Peale, Charles Wilson, 92, 96. 

Peale, Rembrandt, 96. 

Pedersen, Viggo, 244. 

Pena, Narcisse Virgilio Diaz de la (Diaz), 

Perov, Vassili, 192. 
Perugino, 4, 24, 271. 
Peterssen, Eilif, 248. 
Pettie, John, 217. 
Phidias, 43, 156. 
Phillip, John, 142. 
Picot, 172, 173. 
Piglhein, Bruno, 235. 
Piloty, Carl von, 149, 152, 178, 179, 180, 

207, 217, 218, 226, 227, 241, 255, 

268, 277. 
Pils, Isidore, 229. 
Pissarro, CamUle, 22, 275. 
Pizano, Vittore, 272. 

PoUajuolo, Antonio del, 271. 

Potter, Paul, 81. 

Poussin, Nicholas, 47, 49, 56, 57, 60-61, 

66, 131, 273, 274. 
Poynter, Sir Edward, 199, 209. 
Pradilla, Francisco, 219, 229-230. 
Praxiteles, 43. 
Preller, 133, 276. 
Prout, 113. 

Prudhon, Peter Paul, 105, 275. 
Puvis (see Chavannes). 
Pyle, Howard, 266. 

Raeburn, Henry, 107. 

Raffaelli, Jean Fran?ois, 221-222. 

Ramsey, Allan, 90, 91. 

Raphael (see Sanzio). 

Razzi, Giovanni Antonio (II Sodoma), 20. 

Regnault, Henri, 219, 226-227, 276. 

Reid, Sir George, 224. 

Reiniger, Otto, 257. 

Reinhart, C. S., 226. 

Rembrandt, (see Rijn). 

Reni, Guido, 43, 44, 47-48, 49, 77, 78, 116, 

Renoir, Auguste, 221, 275. 
Repin, Elias, 219, 226, 269. 
Reynolds, Sir Joshua, 43, 84, 85, 90-92, 

93, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 101, 106, 107, 

109, 154. 
Ribera, Jose (Spagnoletto), 46, 54-55, 

57, 62, 63, 64, 75, 78, 103, 274. 
Richter, Gustave, 159. 
Richter, Ludwig, 132. 
Rigaud, Hyacinthe, 84, 86. 
Rijn, Paul Rembrandt van (Rembrandt), 

39, 43, 49, 57, 67, 69, 70, 72, 79, 81, 

82, 83, 101, 246, 250, 274, 275. 
Riviere, Briton, 218. 
Robusti, Jacopo (Tintoretto), 35-38, 39, 

44, 273 



Roll, Alfred, 229. 

Romano, Giulio, 27-28, 272. 

Romney, George, 94-95, 104. 

Rosa, Salvator, 46, 57, 74-75, 79, 123, 

131, 274. 
Rosen, George von, 224, 227. 
Rosenstand, Vilen, 214. 
Rossetti, Dante' Gabriel, 149, 158, 176, 

183-187, 194, 197. 221, 278. 
Rossi, Rosso di, 16. 
Rothmann, Karl, 107, 276. 
Rousseau, Theodore, 128, 135, 138-139, 

182, 275. 
Rubens, Peter Paul, 46, 49, 50-52, 57, 58, 

62, 63, 65, 66, 67, 71, 74, 79, 105, 

130, 141, 274, 275. 
Ruysdael, Jacob von, 71, 83, 274. 

Sadler, Walter Dandy, 249. 

Salmson, Hugo, 228. 

Santi, Giovanni (Sanzio), 24, 271. 

Sanzio, Raphael, I, 6, 8, 15, 16, 20, 23, 
24-26, 27, 29, 32, 38, 39, 40, 42, 43^ 
44, 45, 48, 49, 51, 60, 62, 63, 65, 76, 
78, 114, 115, 116, 117, 121. 134, 162, 
164, 172, 186, 194, 195, 272, 273, 274, 
275, 278, 

Sargent, John Singer, 203, 205, 212, 240, 
241, 245, 246, 250-254, 264, 270. 

Sehadow, Wilhelm, 121, 214, 276. 

Scheffer, Ary, 127. 

Sohongauer, 273. 

Schreyer, Adolf, 180. 

Schwind, Moritz von, 133, 276. 

Segantini, Giovanni, 240, 255. 

Saurat, Georges, 221. 

Shaw, Byam, 283. 

Shirlaw, Walter, 242. 

Signorelli, Luca, 271. 

Simmons, Edward, 248 

Binding, Otto, 225. 

Sisley, Alfred, 221, 275. 

Skarbina, Franz, 237, 269. 

Skredsvic, Christian, 249. 

Slingeneyer, 129. 

Smith, Francis Hopkinson, 214-215. 

Snyders, Franz, 48. 

Sodoma, II (see Rossi). 

Sohn, Carl, 134. 

Solomon, Solomon J , 256. 

Spagnoletto (see Ribera). 

Spitzweg, Carl, 135-136. 

Stahl, Frederick, 269. 

Steen, Jan, 82, 246, 274. 

Stevens, Alfred, 148, 187-188, 241. 

Stevenson, R. A. M., 262. 

Stewart, Jules L., 240, 249-250. 

Stone, Marcus, 224. 

Stott, William, 263. 

Strudwick, J. M., 237. 

Stuart, Gilbert, 92, 99, 104, 115. 

Stiick, Frans, 257, 269. 

Sully, Thomas, 118. 

Swan, John Macallan, 230-231. 

Tadema (see Alma-Tadema) . 

Tanner, H. O., 266. 

Teniers, David the Elder, 71. 

Teniers, David the Younger, 71, 85, 274, 

Terburg, Gerard, 69-70, 73, 83. 
Thaulow, Fritz, 219, 230. 
Thayer, Abbott Henderson, 219, 238. 
Tidemand, Adolf, 1 37. 
Tiffany, Louis, 219, 235-236. 
Tintoretto (see Robusti). 
Titian (see Vecello). 
Toorop, Jan, 255-256. 
Troyon, Constant, 136-137 179. 
Trumbull, Benjamin, 92, 105. 
Tryon, D wight W., 238-239. 
Tura, Cosimo, 272. 



Turner, William Joseph Mallord, 59, 99, 
109-1 12, 113, 131, 154, 182, 183, 185, 
213, 223. 

Uccello, Paolo, 271. 

Uhde, Fritz von, 232, 237. 

Urrabita, Daniel (Vierge), 231, 247. 

Van Beers, Jan, 244. 

Van Dyck, Antony, 39, 43, 49, 50, 53, 57, 
62, 65-66, 67, 69, 71, 78, 84, 88, 203, 
228, 274. 

Van der Weyden, Roger, 273. 

Van Eyck, Hubert, 4-5, 13, 34, 53, 273. 

Van Eyck, Jan, I, II, 4-5, 6, 13, 34, 53, 

■ 273. 

Van Leyden, Lucas, 273. 

Van Loo, Charles Andre (Carle), 89. 

Van Marcke, Emile, 176, 179. 

Van Noort, 50. 

Van Ostade, Adrian, 70, 85, 274. 

Van Veen, 50. 

Varwee, Alfred, 214. 

Vautier, Benjamin, 189-190, 277. 

Vecello, Tiziano (Titian), 1, 6,7,8, 14-I9_ 
27, 33, 35, 36, 38, 39, 42, 43, 44, 54,' 
62, 66, 78, 91, 114, 167, 171, 243, 272, 
273, 274. 

Vecchio (see Palma). 

Vedder, Elihu, 211. 

Veit, Philip, 121, 276. 

Velasquez, Diego Rodriguez de Silva y, 
15, 35, 39, 43, 46, 49, 50, 51, 53, 54, 
55, 57, 61-64, 65, 66, 69, 78, 79, 101, 
102, 103, 142, 203, 215, 241, 251, 

Velde, William Van de, 70. 

Venezianov, Alexei, 108. 

Verboeckhoven, Eugene, 55, 129, 214. 

Verestchagin, Vassili, 225. 226, 269. 

Verhas, Frans, 179. 

Verhas, Jan, 179. 

Vermehren, 159. 

Vernet, Claude Joseph, 89-90, 121. 

Vernet, Emil Jean Horace, 90, 99, 118, 

Veronese, Paolo (Paolo Cagliari), 32, 35, 

38-41, 42, 119, 273. 
Verrocchio, 271. 
Verstappen, Martinus, 108, 134. 
Vibert, Jean Georges, 219, 222-223 
Vierge (see Urrabita). 
VignalU, Jacopo, 76. 
Villegas, Jose, 232. 
Vogel, Hugo, 269. 
Vollon, Antoine, 241, 242. 
Vonnoh, Robert W., 266. 
Vouet, Simon, 55-56, 60. 

Wagner, 217. 

Walberg, Alfred, 207. 

Walker, Frederick, 219, 223. 

Walker, Horatio, 255. 

Wappers, Gustav, 133. 

Warenskiold, Erick, 249. 

Waterhouse, John W., 237. 

Waterlow, Ernest A., 243. 

Watteau, Antoine, 84-85, 88, 89, 94, 101, 

Watts, George Frederick, 143, 156. 
Wauters, Emile, 236. 
Weeks, Edwin Lord, 238. 
Weissenbruoh, Johannes Hendrick, 159. 
Wenzel, Nils Gustav, 255. 
Werner, Anton von, 227. 
West, Benjamin, 92, 95-96, 98, 104, 105, 

114, 115, 118, 120. 
Whistler, James Abbott McNeill, 102, 

103, 188, 199, 202-206, 241, 246, 260, 

261, 262. 
Wiertz, Anton, 134. 
Wilkie, Sir David, 119-120. 
Wilson, Richard, 90. 



Wolgemuth, 7, 273. 
Wouvermans, Philip, 80. 
Wyant, A. H., 266. 
Wyllie, W. L., 254. 

Zacho, Christian, 227. 
Zahrtmann, Christian, 227. 
Zamacois, Edoardo, 217-218. 

Zampieri, Domenico (Domenichino), 43, 

47, 48-49, 77, 273. 
Ziem, Felix, 158, 276. 
Zorn, Anders, 240, 256. 
Zucatti, 16. 
Zuechi, 97. 
Zugel, Heinrich, 243. 
Zurbaran, Francisco, 64, 274.